cancer risk factors Flashcards Preview

DIT topics > cancer risk factors > Flashcards

Flashcards in cancer risk factors Deck (35):
1

cigarette smoke

bladder: transitional cell
esophagus: squamous + adenocarcinoma
kidney: renal cell
larynx: squamous cell
lung: small cell + squamous cell
oral cancer
pancreas

2

alcohol

oral cancer
larynx
esophagus: squamous cell
if have cirrhosis: ↑ risk HCC

3

aflatoxin: produced by aspergillus mold in corn, soybean, peanuts

HCC

4

pathogenesis of aflatoxin

mutation in p53
food contaminated
problem in developing countries

5

nitrosamines: smoked foods

gastric cancer
squamous cell esophageal cancer
colon cancer

6

arsenic:
pesiticides
living in arsenic rich area
ingest ground water than contains arsenic over several years

lung:
liver: angiosarcoma
skin: squamous cell carcinoma

7

vinyl chloride: refrigeration, adhesives

,liver: angiosarcoma

8

alkylating agent: class of cancer drugs (cyclophosphamides, nitrogen mustards)

leukemia/lymphoma

9

benzene: solvent, makes napthalene

leukemia
hodgkin lymphoma

10

2-naphthalene (moth balls, Tobacco smoke)

Transitional cell carcinoma of bladder (Tobacco)

11

asbestos

bronchogenic carcinoma of lung >>>
malignant mesothelioma (pleura)

12

radon: gas in mines + basements

lung cancer (2nd most common cause after cig. smoke)

13

ionizing radiation (xrays, nuclear)

#1 myeloid leukemia (AML, CML)
#1 thyroid cancer (papillary most common type of cancer)

14

UV radiation exposure

skin cancer: squamous cell, basal cell, melanoma

15

UV radiation types

UVC: shortest wavelength, filtered by ozone layer (don't get to earth)
UVB = BAD: SKIN CANCER, causes pyrimidine dimers in DNA (2 thymines on same strand dimerize - can't replicate strand)
UVA: generation of free radicals, slight skin cancer risk

16

hepatitis B
hepatitis C

cirrhosis → ↑ risk HCC
hep B doesn't need cirrhosis for HCC risk
hep C: papillary thyroid carcinoma too

17

HTLV (human T-cell lymphotrophic virus)

T-cell lymphoma

18

HHV-8 (herpes)

kaposi sarcoma

19

EBV (herpes)

burkitt lymphoma: starry sky appearance, t(8;14)
hodgkin lymphoma: reed sternberg cells
nasopharyngeal carcinoma

20

HPV 16 + 18

cervical cancer
vaginal cancer
vulvar cancer
anal cancer
penile cancer
throat cancer

21

h. pylori

h.pylori organism + chronic inflammation can cause:
gastric adenocarcinoma

22

streptococcus bovis

colon cancer (cause infective endocarditis in colon cancer patients)

23

schistosoma haematobium

bladder cancer: Squamous cell (Shistosoma)
(hematuria + egypt/middle east)

24

clonorchis sinensis (liver fluke)

biliary cancer: cholangiocarcinoma

25

acanthosis nigricans: velvety, hyperpigmented, epidermal thickening on neck + flexurals

visceral malignancy (stomach, lung, breast, uterus)
and insulin resistance in type II DM

26

actinic keratosis: sandpaper, rough as age (due to sun exposure: hands, forearm, face)

precursor to squamous cell carcinoma of skin

tx of actinic keratosis: 5-FU

27

autoimmune + immunodeficiency diseases (HIV)

lymphoma: non-hodgkin

28

AIDS

kaposi sarcoma
lymphoma: non-hodgkin

29

tuberous sclerosis: variable expression (phenotype)
facial angiofibromas
seizures
ID
ash leaf spots: skin depigmentation

giant cell astrocytoma: 10%
renal angiomyolipoma: can become malignant
cardiac rhabdomyoma: 66%

30

ulcerative colitis (more than chron's disease)

colon cancer

31

most common type of cancer in men (incidence = new cases/year)

prostate: 32%
lung: 16%
colon/rectum: 12%
*real most common: basal cell

32

most common type of cancer in women (incidence = new cases/year)

breast: 32%
lung: 13%
uterine:
colon/rectum
*real most common: basal cell

33

cancer mortality in men

switch #1 and #2 for incidence:
lung
PROSTATE
colon
pancreatic

34

cancer mortality in women

switch #1 and #2 for incidence:
lung
BREAST
colon
pancreatic

35

obesity

men + women:
esophageal adenocarcinoma
renal cell carcinoma
women:
endometrial cancer
gallbladder cancer
men:
thyroid cancer
colon cancer

Decks in DIT topics Class (115):