fungal + protozoa + helminths Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in fungal + protozoa + helminths Deck (46):
1

endocarditis in IVDU

candida albicans
s. aureus

2

treatment of superficial c. albicans infection

topical:
nystatin
-azole: clotrimazole
oral:
-azole: fluconazole

3

treatment of disseminated c. albicans infection

if immunocompetent: fluconazole
if immuncompromised: amphotericin B or echinocandin

4

AIDS patient with meningitis

cryptococcus neoformans meningitis

5

soap bubble image in brain

crytptococcal meningitis

6

treatment of cryptococcal meningitis

initially: IV amphotericin B + flucytosine
followed by: fluconazole

7

causes of diffuse interstitial pneumonia

mycoplasma (bacteria)
pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP)

8

treatment of PCP

TMP-SMX: begin IV, then oral
if sulfa allergy:
pentamidine or
clindamycin + primaquine
TMP-SMX prophylaxis: CD4

9

treatment for aspergillus

voriconazole or
lipid formulation of amphotericin B

10

treatment of rhinocerebral mucormycosis

amphotericin B

11

treatment of dermatophyte infection

1) simple skin infection:
topical terbinafine or -azole
2) extensive skin infection or scalp/hair:
oral terbinafine or -azole
3) onychomycosis (tinea unguium, nail infection):
oral terbinafine or itraconazole or fluconazole
4) tinea versicolor:
topical azole or topical selenium sulfide or
oral azole

12

spaghetti and meatball on KOH

Malassezi furfur causing tinea versicolor

13

opportunistic fungal infections (infect those who are immunocompromised)

c. albicans
aspergillus
cryptococcus neoformans
pneumocysitis jirovecii
mucor + rhizopus species

14

treatment of giardia lamblia

metronidazole or
tinidazole

15

treatment of entamoeba histolytica

kill trophozoites: metronidazole or tinidazole
kill cysts in intestine: iodoquinol or paromomycin

16

common causes of dystentery (blood diarrhea)

bacteria:
shigella
protozoa:
entamoeba histolytica

17

metronidazole uses

GET GAP on the Metro
Giardia
Eentamoeba
Trichomonas
Gardnerella vaginalis
Anaerobic bacteria
Pylori (H. pylori)

18

treatment for trichomonas vaginalis

metronidazole (flagyl)

19

most common protozoal infection in US

trichomonas vaginalis

20

treatment of toxoplasma gondii

sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine + folinic acid

21

treatment of naegleria fowleri

amphotericin B

22

treatment for chagas disease

benznidazole or
nifurtimox

23

treatment of visceral leishmaniasis

liposomal amphotericin B

24

treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis

sodium stibogluconate

25

treatment of p. vivax or p. ovale dormant malarial infection in liver

chloroquine + primaquine

26

treatment of malaria

if p. vivax or p. ovale: chloroquine + primaquine (eradicate latent liver stage)
if chloroquine-resistant:
quinine + doxycycline
atovaquone-proguanil
artemether-lumefantrine
mefloquine

27

treatment of babesiosis

quinine + clindamycin

28

most common helminth in US

enterobius vermicularis

29

intestinal nematodes (roundworm)

ingest organism: EAT
Enterobius vermicularis (eggs: fecal-oral)
Ascaris lumbricoides (eggs: fecal-oral: swallow → intestine)
Trichinella spiralis (larvae: undercooked meat)
enter through skin (feet → swallow → intestines): SAND
Strongyloides stercoralis
Ancylostoma and Necator (hookworms)
D

30

treatment of hookworm, pinworm, roundworm

1) benzimidazoles:
albendazole (worms are bendy = BEND)
mebendazole
2) OR pyrantel pamoate

31

treatment of strongyloides stercoralis

ivermectin or
albendazole

32

cestodes (tapeworms)

taenia solium
diphyllobothrium latum
echinococcus granulosus

33

treatment of taenia solium

albendazole or
praziquantel
ADD: dexamethasone (prevent worsening CNS symptoms from dying larvae in brain)

34

trematodes (flukes)

schistosoma
paragonimus westermani
clonorchis sinesis

35

chronic infection with schistosoma haematobium associated with

squamous cell carcinoma of bladder!!

36

egyptian immigrant with hematuria

squamous cell carcinoma of bladder from schistosoma haematobium

37

treatment of schistosomiasis, paragonimus westermani, clonorchis

praziquantel

38

ectoparasites: live on surface of hosts body

lice
scabies
bedbugs

39

attach ova on hair shaft close to scalp (can see ova, not adult lice)

head lice

40

scalp pruritis (ears, nape of neck)

head lice

41

treatment of head lice (pediculosis capitus) or pubic lice (pediculosis pubis)

topical:
permethrin
pyrethrin
not lindane (neurotoxic + resistance)

42

spread by sexual contact
(STD)
screen for OTHER STDS!
pruritic

pubic lice

43

scabies mite
burrows under human skin - reproduces here
transmitted by sexual contact with infected person
WEBBING b/t fingers, WRISTS, ANKLES, PERIUMBILICAL, PENIS
severe pruritis
papules + linear burrows
dx: mites, egss, feces on skin scraping

scabies

44

treatment of scabies

topical:
permethrin 5% cream
ivermectin

45

on mattresses: can go months without eating
travel 100 feet in night
pruritis → superinfection

bedbugs

46

treatment for giardia, entamoeba, trichomonas

metronidazole or tinidazole

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