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Flashcards in dermatology Deck (80)
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1

four primary causes of acne

hyperkeratosis
sebum overproduction
propionibacterium acnes proliferation
inflammation

2

epithelial cell junction that connects epithelial cells to the BM

hemidesmosomes

3

what is this skin disorder?
pruritus associated with asthma or allergic rhinitis

atopic dermatitis (eczema)

4

what is this skin disorder?
allergy to nickel

allergic dermatitis

5

what is this skin disorder?
parakerototic scaling

psoriasis
parakerototic scaling: nuclei still in stratum corneum + thickening of stratum corneum

6

caused by HPV type 2 and 4

common warts (verrucae)

7

layers of the epidermis

Come'on Lets Get Sun Burnt
C - stratum Corneum (keratinocytes)
L - stratum Lucidum
G - stratum Granulosum
S - stratum Spinosum (keratinocytes in SS connected by spines = desmosomes)
B - stratum Basale (stem cells + melanocytes here)

8

skin cell that:
produces melanin
responsible for skin/eye/hair color
originate from neural crest cells
located in stratum basale

melanocytes

9

what is located in the dermis?

blood vessels

10

pinpoint bleeding spots from exposure of dermal papillae (vessels here) when scales scraped off is a clinical feature of

psoriasis (called Auspitz sign)

11

cell that has the following roles:
makes collagen (part of ECM), glycosaminoglycans, reticular + elastic fibers, glycoproteins
provides STRUCTURAL integrity
important role in wound healing: secretes backbone of CT
stimulated by tissue damage

fibroblasts

12

protein found in hemidesmosomes

integrins
bind to collagen + laminin in BM to maintain INTEGRITY of the basolateral membrane

13

autoantibodies to integrin in hemidesmosomes results in

bullous pemphigoid
BULLOous = BELOW

14

protein found in desmosomes

desmoglein

15

autoantibodies to desmoglein in desmosomes results in

pehmphigus vulgaris

16

epithelial cell junction that joins adjacent cell membranes and prevents diffusion of fluid (impermeable) across the paracellular space

tight junctions

17

protein found in tight junctions

claudins + occludins

18

epithelial cell junction that connects the actin cytoskeleton's of adjacent cells using cadherins
located below tight junctions

adherens junctions
CADherins = Calcium dependent ADhesion proteins

19

epithelial cell junction that resists shearing using keratin
found in simple + stratified squamous + muscle tissue

desmosome

20

epithelial cell junction which makes a connexon: a channel protein that allows electrical + chemical communication between adjacent cells
found in cardiac cells: myocytes communicate electrical signal from SA node → AVnode →bundle of His →purkinje system

gap junction

21

soft, tan-colored cauliflower like papules
hyperkeratosis: ↑ thickness of stratum corneum
epidermal hyperplasia
koilocytosis

verrucae = common warts
hands = vulgaris (HPV 2 and 4)
genitals = condyloma acuminatum (HPV 6 and 11)

22

benign
arises from nevocytes (type of melanocyte)
↑ risk melanoma if congenital or atypical

melanocytic nevus

23

↑ melanin pigment with normal number of melanocytes

ephelis (freckles)

24

pruitic rash on skin flexures
rash worsens with scratching, in dry mo (winter), washing every day (Infant)
starts on face in infants → behind knees, antecubital fossa in adults
associated with atopic diseases: asthma + allergic rhinitis

atopic dermatitis (eczema)

25

type IV hypersensitivity reaction following exposure to allergen
pruritic, linear rash at site of contact

allergic contact dermatitis
nickel, poision ivy, neomycin

26

papules and plaques with SILVERY scaling on knees + elbows
parakaratosis (nuclei still in stratum corneum)
↓stratum granulosum
↑stratum spinosum
+ Auspitz sign
possible nail pitting, arthritis (1/3 patients)

psoriasis: overproduction of new skin cells

27

treatment for verrucae

salicylic acid - OTC
imiquimod: ↑IFN to fight virus
liquid N2 in office

28

treatment of psoriasis

moisturizers - emollient (oil based)
topical: normalize skin cell production →↓ inflammation
steroids
tar cream
vitamin D analogs
retinoids
phototherapy
oral: MTX, cyclosporine (rebound flaure after finish - not given often), retinoids

29

treatment for atopic dermatitis (eczema)

mild: moisturizing soap + emollient (oily)
mild-mod: calcineurin inhibitors (tracolimus or pimecrolimus)
flares: topical steroids
open lesion: antibiotics (cover s. aureus + strep)
prevent itch: antihistamines
if also have asthma/allergic rhinitis: LK inhibitor
UV light therapy
severe case/major flare: systemic steroids (short term)
very severe case (drugs of last resort): MTX, cyclosporine, azathioprine

30

treatment for acne due to hyperkaratosis

vitamin A analogs, such as:
topical: retinoic acid, tretinoin
oral: isotretinoin

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