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Flashcards in C30 - Spain Deck (237):
1

How many broad climatic zones does Spain have?

Three

2

Describe Spain's northernmost climatic zone

The north and north-west coast of Spain has a moderate maritime climate, dominated by Atlantic weather systems
Rainfall and associated risks is high

3

Describe Spain's middle climatic zone

The east coast from Catalunya in the north to Levante further south, has a warm Mediterranean climate
Many of the vineyards are moderated by sea or altitude
Climate becomes increasingly hot the further south it goes

4

Describe the climate of central Spain

The Meseta Central is cut off by mountains from the cooling effects of the sea and has a hot continental climate
Winter temperatures below freezing and summers are very hot and dry
Summer temperatures can be moderated by altitude in certain sites

5

What are the biggest challenges to grape growing in Spain? What's the exception?

Heat and lack of water
North-west Spain

6

What is the benefit of the lack of water for grape-growing in Spain?

The incidence of fungal disease is low

7

What is the main disadvantage of lack of water for grape growing in Spain?

It places a heavy stress on the vine

8

What is the best way of managing the heat and lack of water availability in Spain? Explain

Low density, bush-trained vineyards
By maximising the amount of water available to each vine and shading the fruit from excessive heat

9

What is slowly being introduced to Spanish vineyards? For what purpose?

Wire training
To facilitate machine harvesting

10

Summarise the inexpensive red wines of Spain

Often made without Oak
Semi-carbonic maceration is used to enhance the fruity nature of these wines

11

What is the role of oak in Spain's best red wines?

They almost always see oak maturation, usually with at least a proportion of new oak

12

What is the most used type of oak for Spanish reds?

Traditionally American oak, but now French oak is also common

13

What is Spain's premier red grape variety?

Tempranillo

14

Where in Spain is Tempranillo grown most widely?

Throughout northern and central Spain

15

What are Tempranillo's key grape characteristics?

It's thick-skinned with a medium acidity

16

What is the key viticultural challenge relating to Tempranillo?

Due to its medium acidity, hot growing areas without a high diurnal range can cause the wine to lack the necessary acidity for an ideal balance

17

Where is Tempranillo at its best in Spain?

In areas where summer temperatures are moderated by sea and/or altitude

18

What is often the case with Tempranillo when fermented on its own in Spain?

It's fermented using semi-carbonic maceration

19

What kind of wine can Tempranillo produce when fermented on its own?

An early drinking style
A fresh, strawberry scented Joven wine

20

What other broad style does Tempranillo play an important role in in Spain?

More concentrated, age worthy, oaked blends

21

With which grapes is Tempranillo most commonly blended in Spain?

Garnacha
Graciano
Cariñena/Mazuelo
International varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon

22

Garnacha Tinta is the Spanish name for...

Grenache

23

Describe the general profile of Garnacha Tinta

High alcohol
Early ripening (with some exceptions)

24

For which Spanish wines is Garnacha Tinta most important?

Rosados and Priorat

25

What are the wines of Priorat? How do they achieve this style?

Intense, complex, full-bodied reds from Garnacha Tinta
From low-yielding, old vines

26

What is the better known name for Monastrell?

Mourvedre

27

What makes Monastrell suitable for Spain's climate?

It's drought tolerant and needs hot sunny conditions to ripen

28

Where is Monastrell most commonly grown in Spain?

In south-eastern DOs such as Yecla and Jumilla

29

Describe Monastrell wines from south-eastern Spain

Full-bodied
Deeply coloured
High tannins
High alcohol
Low to medium acidity
Flavours of ripe blackberry fruit

30

Where in Spain is Graciano mostly cultivated?

Rioja

31

How is Graciano used in Rioja?

As part of the blend in many of the best wines

32

What does Graciano add to a blend?

Tannins, acidity and concentrated black fruit aromas

33

What is the Spanish name for Carignan?

Cariñena

34

What else is Carignan called in Spain other than Cariñena? Where is it called this?

Mazuelo
Rioja

35

What kinds of wine does Cariñena make?

Wines that are high in tannin, colour and acidity

36

How is Cariñena/Mazuelo used in Spain?

As a blending partner for Tempranillo

37

Where other than Rioja is Cariñena grown?

Priorat

38

What is the role of Cariñena in Priorat?

To add tannic structure

39

Which local black variety is coming to prominence in Spain?

Mencia

40

To what climate is Mencia best suited?

Moderate climates

41

Describe wines made from Mencia

Medium to high acidity
Fresh fruit flavours
Sometimes a hint of herbaceousness

42

How can most of Spain's white varieties be described?

Fresh and fruity

43

How are the intended fresh fruit aromas for Spanish whites retained?

Harvesting at night or early morning
Fermenting in temperature-controlled stainless steel

44

T or F: Spanish whites are only fermented in steel

False; Oak fermentation and maturation are used as well as lees stirring for the addition of texture and flavours

45

What is the challenge with grape variety Verdejo?

It is particularly susceptible to oxidation

46

What was Verdejo used to make?

Sherry-like wines

47

Describe Verdejo when made protectively

Light-bodied
High acid
Melon and peach flavour

48

Which Spanish grape is seen as similar to Sauvignon Blanc?

Verdejo

49

With which grape is Verdejo often blended?

Sauvignon Blanc

50

Other than the 'Sauvignon style', what other style can Verdejo be made into? How?

Richer, fuller-bodied style
It undergoes skin contact and barrel fermentation

51

Where in Spain is Albariño grown?

North-west of Spain

52

What is Albariño's best viticultural trait?

It's thick-skinned and thus able to resist fungal disease

53

Why is fungal resistance so important for Albariño?

North-western Spain is a damp climate

54

Describe wines from Albariño

Naturally high in acidity
Citrus and stone fruit flavours
Can be made into a richer, fuller-bodied style

55

What is the most widely planted variety in Spain?

Airén

56

Where is the vast majority of Airén planted?

La Mancha in central Spain

57

Name one of the few varieties able to cope with the extreme heat and drought conditions of the Meseta Central

Airén

58

What is Airén mostly used for?

Production of Brandy de Jerez

59

Which local varieties are planted widely in Catalunya? These are the main varieties used in...

Parellada, Xarel-lo and Macabeo

60

How else is Macabeo known? Where?

Viura
Rioja

61

Which of Cava's main varieties is also often used for still wine production?

Macabeo/Viura

62

Describe the aromas of unoaked Viura

Subtle herb and spice aromas

63

What is Viura's traditional role?

As the mainstay of heavily oaked white Riojas

64

Which international varieties are successful in Spain?

Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay

65

Where are international varieties most successful in Spain?

North-east

66

How many geographical regions may the principal DO regions be grouped into?

Six

67

What are the six geographical DO regions of Spain?

The Upper Ebro
Catalunya
The Duero Valley
The North-West
The Levante
Castilla-La Mancha

68

What is the most extensive Spanish region designated for the production of Vino de la Tierra

Castilla y León

69

Where is Castilla y León?

Towards the north of the Meseta Central

70

What is Rioja's principal city?

Logroño

71

How many sub-regions comprise Rioja?

Three

72

What are the three sub-regions of Rioja?

Rioja Alavesa
Rioja Alta
Rioja Baja

73

Where is Rioja Alavesa?

To the west of Logroño on the north bank of the Ebro in the foothills of the Cantabrian Mountains

74

Describe the wines of Rioja Alavesa

The lightest of Rioja; they often have the most finesse

75

How is Rioja Alta located?

To the west of Logroño and south of the Ebro river

76

List the sub-regions of Rioja in descending order

Rioja Baja
Rioja Alta
Rioja Alavesa

77

What is the topography of Rioja Alavesa and Rioja Alta?

Both sub-regions are planted at a range of altitudes from 500 to 800 metres

78

How are the climates of Rioja moderated?

By altitude and the Atlantic Ocean

79

What shields Rioja from the worst of the Atlantic weather?

The Cantabrian Mountains

80

Where is Rioja Baja?

To the east of Logroño, mainly on the south bank of the Ebro

81

What is the climate in Rioja Baja?

Less maritime
Hotter summers and more severe winters
Low annual rainfall

82

What is an issue for growers in Rioja?

Drought

83

What is the most widely planted variety in Rioja?

Tempranillo

84

Where does Tempranillo do best in Rioja?

In the cooler western sub-regions

85

Describe the general features of Tempranillo in Rioja

Medium tannins
Red fruit flavours

86

How does the addition of Garnacha benefit a Tempranillo-based blend?

Garnacha adds body and alcohol

87

Where in Rioja does Garnacha grow best?

Rioja Baja

88

What are the less planted/supporting varieties of Rioja?

Mazuelo and Graciano

89

Describe how an early-drinking style of red Rioja may be made. What kind of result will this have on the wines?

Using semi-carbonic maceration
Wines with vibrant red-fruit flavours
Low levels of smooth tannins

90

Outline the processes used in making a red Rioja designed for ageing

Usually destemmed and crushed
Undergo traditional fermentation

91

How may some Rioja producers produce heavily extracted wines? What will the result be?

Vigorous cap-management techniques
Extended periods of maceration
Deep colour and full of fruit flavours

92

What style of Rioja are many makers now producing?

More subtle, elegant styles

93

What is the traditional role of oak in Rioja?

Wines were aged in American oak, giving pronounced aromas of vanilla

94

What is the emerging role of oak in Rioja? What is the result on wine?

Many producers now use oak from France or other European countries for at least some of their wine
More subtle, spicy aromas

95

How many varieties are permitted for use in white Rioja?

Eight

96

What is the most widely planted white variety in Rioja?

Viura

97

Describe traditional white Rioja-making and wines

Aged for extended periods in American oak
Developed a deep golden colour and nutty flavours
Deliberately oxidised

98

Describe how modern white Riojas are made and the reasoning

Made with minimal oxygen contact to preserve the maximum amount of fruit

99

What is the 'in between' style of white Rioja now being produced by some Bodegas?

Some are being barrel-fermented but in a less oxidative style than traditional white Riojas

100

Where in Spain is Navarra DO?

From the northern and eastern borders of Rioja into the foothills of the Pyrenees

101

What is the climate of Navarra?

Similar to that of Rioja, but cooler and wetter nearer the mountains

102

What is the most widely planted variety of Navarra?

Tempranillo

103

What kind of wine does Navarra production focus on?

Red wine

104

How is Tempranillo typically blended in Navarra?

With other Rioja grapes, or increasingly with Cabernet or Merlot

105

What is the range of red wine styles in Navarra?

From good value Joven wines to top quality, premium Gran Reservas

106

Describe winemaking for Garnacha-based rosés in Navarra

Garnacha is picked earlier when acid levels are higher and sugar levels are lower
They are handled protectively to create refreshing, fruity wines with medium levels of alcohol

107

What is the role of white wine in Navarra?

It only accounts for a very small proportion of the total output of the region

108

What do Navarra's whites tend to be made from?

Viura, Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc

109

What are the neighbouring DOs to the south of the Ebro?

Cariñena and Catalyud

110

What are the climates of Cariñena and Catalyud?

Warm continental
Low rainfall

111

What are the main varieties in Cariñena and Catalyud?

Garnacha in both

112

Describe the inexpensive wines of Cariñena and Catalyud

Fruity and early-drinking

113

Describe the higher quality wines of Cariñena and Catalyud

Made from old-vine Garnacha and Cariñena
Great flavour intensity and structure

114

T or F: Cariñena is the most planted variety in Cariñena

False

115

Where is Catalunya?

In the north-east corner of Spain

116

Where are the vast majority of vineyards in Catalunya?

In an area to the south-west of Barcelona, on the coastal plain and hills

117

What is different about Catalunya as an administrative region when relating to wine?

It is the only administrative region of Spain that has a generic DO for still wines that covers the entire region

118

Why did Catalunya's generic DO come into existence?

Largely to enable the blending of wines from the various areas to provide the opportunity to create significant volumes of branded wine

119

Where in Spain is nearly all Cava made?

In Catalunya

120

Where is Penedès?

Immediately to the south-west of Barcelona
From the Mediterranean coast up into the hills

121

How many distinct climatic zones are there in Penedès?

Three

122

What are the three climatic zones of Penedès?

The hot coastal plain - the climate here is Mediterranean
The valleys inland - the climate is still warm, but slightly cooler
Further into the hills where vines are grown up to 800m asl - the climate is moderate

123

Why is there such a wide variety of styles and grapes in Penedès?

As a result of the three different climatic zones

124

What are the most widely planted varieties of Penedès?

Those used for Cava

125

Besides Cava varieties, what are other significant plantings in Penedès?

International varieties, such as Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer and Sauvignon Blanc
Also Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Tempranillo and Pinot Noir

126

What is Tempranillo called in Penedès?

Ull de Llebre

127

Where are the vineyards of Priorat?

In Catalunya, within the hills inland from the city of Tarragona

128

Describe the climate of Priorat

Summers are long, hot and dry
Annual rainfall is very low

129

For which grapes is the climate of Priorat ideal?

Garnacha and Cariñena

130

Describe the Cariñena and Garnacha vines of Priorat

They are mostly old vines

131

What are the best soils of Priorat called? Describe them

Llicorella
Layers of red slate with small particles of mica that sparkle in the sun

132

Why are Llicorella soils considered as 'good soils'?

They help ripening by reflecting and conserving heat
Because of their depth, they are able to retain sufficient water throughout the growing season
They are cool at night

133

Describe the role of mechanisation in Priorat

Bush vines and steep slopes mean that mechanisation is nearly impossible in Priorat

134

What are the impracticalities of winemaking in Priorat?

The virtual impossibility of mechanisation makes vineyards here expensive and time-consuming to manage

135

What is grape yield like in Priorat? Explain...

Low
Contributed to by low nutrient soils and old vines

136

What is the result on Priorat's wines of its low-yielding vines?

High complexity and intensity

137

What is the average price of Priorat's wines? List reasons why

High
Mechanisation is impossible; vineyards are expensive and time-consuming to manage
Yields are low

138

Describe wines of Priorat

High tannins
Deeply coloured
Medium to high alcohol
Concentrated black fruit with toasty aromas from new French oak

139

What varieties can be added to wines of Priorat (besides Garnacha and Cariñena)

Some international varieties, especially Cabernet Sauvignon

140

Can white and rosé wines be made in Priorat?

Yes, though they are rarely seen

141

Where is the Duero Valley?

It starts in the mountains south of Rioja and flows through Spain into Portugal

142

What is the Portuguese name for the River Duero?

The Douro

143

What is the climate of Ribera del Duero?

Short, hot and dry summers and very cold winters
Cut off from any maritime influence by a ring of mountains

144

Describe the vineyards of Ribera del Duero

They are situated on the highest part of the Meseta Central
Some vineyards are at over 850 metres
Due to altitude, night-time temperatures are cool

145

What is the effect of cool night-time temperatures in Ribera?

Acidity and fresh fruit flavours are retained in the grapes

146

What colours of wine are made in Ribera?

Red and rosé only

147

What style is the vast majority of wine in Ribera?

Red

148

What is the dominant grape variety of Ribera?

Tempranillo

149

What is the varietal make-up of Ribera del Duero's best wines?

Usually just Tempranillo

150

Describe a typical red wine from Ribera del Duero

Dark with high levels of tannins

151

Which international grapes are permitted in Ribera?

Cabernet, Merlot and Malbec

152

Which grape of Ribera is permitted and often used for dry rosé production?

Garnacha

153

What aspects of grapes are modern winemakers in Ribera trying to accentuate? How are they doing this?

Concentrated fruit flavours and tannins
Long macerations and short ageing periods in new oak

154

Describe oak barrels in Ribera

Typically new French oak rather than American

155

Describe the climate of Toro DO

Similar to that of its neighbour, Ribera del Duero

156

What are the wines of Toro DO predominantly made from?

Tempranillo

157

Describe the typical red wines of Toro DO

Full-bodied
Intense fruit flavours
High alcohol

158

What causes the full body and high alcohol in Toro DO?

High daytime temperatures, sunny conditions and often low-yielding bush vines

159

What is different about the Joven wines of Toro DO compared with its other wines?

There is often a proportion of Garnacha

160

Describe Reservas and Gran Reservas of Toro

Exceptionally deeply coloured and tannic when young
Ability to age well

161

What wines other than reds can be made in Toro?

Rosé and white wines in small quantities

162

Where in Spain is Rueda?

In-between Toro and Ribera del Duero

163

How does Rueda differ from its neighbours?

It focuses on white wine production

164

Outline the climate of Rueda

Continental
Cool summer nights

165

What is Rueda's traditional grape variety?

Verdejo

166

What is the second important grape variety in Rueda?

Sauvignon Blanc

167

How may wines be labelled in Rueda?

For SB and Verdejo, they may be made and labelled as single varietal wines

168

What is the law for blended wines in Rueda?

At least 50% of the blend must be Verdejo

169

Describe the range of styles made in Rueda

From simple and fruity to richer, barrel-fermented versions

170

Which area of Spain is cooler and wetter than the rest? Why?

The north-west
Due to the influence of the Atlantic ocean

171

What is north-west Spain best known for?

Many of Spain's best white wines

172

What is the most celebrated of Spain's white wines?

Albariño from Rías Baixas

173

Where in Spain is Rías Baixas?

On Spain's Atlantic coast

174

What is the climate of Rías Baixas?

Moderate and damp

175

What is the problem for Rías Baixas associated with the damp conditions?

Vine diseases such as mildew and rot are a common problem

176

How is the problem of vine diseases and mildew combated in Rías Baixas?

By training vines onto pergolas to encourage air circulation
Some producers use other training and trellising systems which are easier to maintain

177

Describe the winemaking choice/style for most Rías Baixas Albariño

Made into a refreshing unoaked style to take advantage of the grape's naturally high acidity and ripe stone fruit flavours

178

What other style may Albariño be made into in Rías Baixas?

A richer style, occasionally with a touch of oak or lees-stirring

179

Can red wine be made in Rías Baixas?

Yes, but it is a minority concern

180

What is the predominant colour of wine from Bierzo?

Red

181

Where in Spain is Bierzo?

North-west Spain, in the mountains that mark the boundary between Galicia and the Meseta Central

182

What is the climate of Bierzo?

Moderate with a cooling maritime influence

183

What is the key grape variety of Bierzo?

Mencía

184

Describe the dominant wine style of Bierzo

Elegant red wines
Naturally high acidity
Red fruit aromas

185

Where do many of Bierzo's best wines come from?

Old vines, grown on the region's steep stony slopes

186

What is the other, less popular winemaking choice in Bierzo? What is the thinking?

Unoaked wines to retain the perfumed red fruit of Mencía

187

What is the intention of Bierzo winemakers using oak?

To add toasty aromas

188

Where in Spain is the Levante?

On the Mediterranean coast south of Catalunya

189

Why is the Levante significant within the Spanish wine industry?

The port of Valencia is the distribution hub for wines from the Levante and La Mancha

190

Describe Valencia DO

It is a large spread-out DO that is a source for value-for-money wines

191

Which grapes are planted in Valencia

A large number of local and international varieties

192

What is the most planted red grape of Valencia?

Monastrell

193

Which grape variety dominates white plantings in Valencia?

Merseguera

194

What is the second most planted wide variety of Valencia?

Muscat of Alexandria

195

What is the role of Muscat of Alexandria in Valencia?

It is used to produce the local Moscatel de Valencia, a sweet fortified wine

196

Where in Spain are Jumilla and Yecla?

In the Levante, further inland

197

What are the climates of Jumilla and Yecla?

Hot and arid

198

What is the dominant local variety of Jumilla and Yecla?

Monastrell

199

Describes the majority of wines in Jumilla and Yecla

Youthful and fruity in style

200

From which region does almost half of Spain's total wine production originate?

Castilla-La Mancha

201

Where is Castilla-La Mancha?

A vast central area of the Meseta Central to the south of Madrid

202

What is the largest DO in Spain?

La Mancha

203

What is the most widely planted grape variety of La Mancha?

Airén

204

What wines are produced from the grape Airén?

Neutral, fresh white wines

205

Which grape variety is in decline in La Mancha? Why?

Airén
Authorities have encouraged producers to plant Tempranillo

206

What is Tempranillo locally known as in La Mancha?

Cencibel

207

Name other grape varieties in La Mancha

Cabernet Sauvignon
Merlot
Syrah
Chardonnay
Sauvignon Blanc

208

What role does La Mancha now have in Spain? Why/how?

It's an excellent source of inexpensive, well-made reds and whites for the export market
Significant investment in technology and expertise

209

...was where the trend for top-quality pagos wines began

La Mancha

210

La Mancha is still the home of the majority of the estates that have been awarded the appellation...

Vinos de Pago

211

Which DO lies immediately to the south of La Mancha?

Valdepeñas

212

How does the reputation of Valdepeñas compare with that of its neighbour La Mancha?

It has a better reputation for quality

213

What is the climate of Valdepeñas?

Identical to that of La Mancha

214

What is the most widely planted grape in Valdepeñas?

Airén

215

What is the main variety for red wines of Valdepeñas?

Cencibel (Tempranillo)

216

How may red wines be made in Valdepeñas?

Either as varietal wines or blended with international varieties

217

What is the style range for wines from Valdepeñas?

They range from fruity to more concentrated and oak matured

218

Besides offering a hierarchy of PGI and PDO wines, what else can Spanish wine law define?

Specific ageing criteria for red and white wines

219

How are wines labelled if they fall outside of Spanish PGI/PDO law?

Vino

220

What is the Spanish for PDO?

Denominación de Origen Protegida (DOP)

221

What are the three Spanish PDO qualities in ascending order?

Denominación de Origen (DO)
Denominación de Origen Calificada (DOCa)
Vinos de Pago (VP)

222

Loosely, how must a wine achieve DO status in Spain?

They should be of a certain minimum quality
They must satisfy specifications covering grape varieties, viticulture and location

223

What must a Spanish DO do/achieve to be awarded DOCa status?

Must've been a DO for at least ten years

224

How many DOCa are there in Spain? What are they?

Two
Priorat
Rioja

225

What is DOCa called in Priorat?

Denominació d'Origen Qualificada (DOQ)

226

What is Vinos de Pago?

A category applying to only a small number of single estates in Spain with high reputations
Estates may only use their own grapes, which must be grown, vinified and matured on their estate

227

What is the traditional Spanish term for PGI wines?

Vino de la Tierra (VdlT)

228

What are the four age categories for wines in Spain?

Joven
Crianza
Reserva
Gran Reserva

229

What wines may become Gran Reserva (besides the actual ageing requirements)?

Only wines from exceptional vintages
White and rosé wines are rarely made in this style

230

What are the ageing requirements for Joven wines (white and red) in Spain?

No ageing required at all

231

What are the ageing requirements for red Crianza wines in Spain?

24 months in total
6 months in barrel

232

What are the ageing requirements for red Reserva wines in Spain?

36 months in total
12 months in barrel

233

What are the ageing requirements for red Gran Reserva wines in Spain?

60 months in total
18 months in barrel

234

What are the ageing requirements for white Gran Reserva wines in Spain?

48 months in total
6 months in barrel

235

What are the ageing requirements for white Reserva wines in Spain?

24 months in total
6 months in barrel

236

What are the ageing requirements for white Crianza wines in Spain?

18 months in total
6 months in barrel

237

When in Spain are there exceptions to the general ageing requirements?

In some regions such as Rioja, there are even longer requirements for total ageing and barrel ageing