Flashcards in C30 - Spain Deck (237):
How many broad climatic zones does Spain have?
Describe Spain's northernmost climatic zone
The north and north-west coast of Spain has a moderate maritime climate, dominated by Atlantic weather systems
Rainfall and associated risks is high
Describe Spain's middle climatic zone
The east coast from Catalunya in the north to Levante further south, has a warm Mediterranean climate
Many of the vineyards are moderated by sea or altitude
Climate becomes increasingly hot the further south it goes
Describe the climate of central Spain
The Meseta Central is cut off by mountains from the cooling effects of the sea and has a hot continental climate
Winter temperatures below freezing and summers are very hot and dry
Summer temperatures can be moderated by altitude in certain sites
What are the biggest challenges to grape growing in Spain? What's the exception?
Heat and lack of water
What is the benefit of the lack of water for grape-growing in Spain?
The incidence of fungal disease is low
What is the main disadvantage of lack of water for grape growing in Spain?
It places a heavy stress on the vine
What is the best way of managing the heat and lack of water availability in Spain? Explain
Low density, bush-trained vineyards
By maximising the amount of water available to each vine and shading the fruit from excessive heat
What is slowly being introduced to Spanish vineyards? For what purpose?
To facilitate machine harvesting
Summarise the inexpensive red wines of Spain
Often made without Oak
Semi-carbonic maceration is used to enhance the fruity nature of these wines
What is the role of oak in Spain's best red wines?
They almost always see oak maturation, usually with at least a proportion of new oak
What is the most used type of oak for Spanish reds?
Traditionally American oak, but now French oak is also common
What is Spain's premier red grape variety?
Where in Spain is Tempranillo grown most widely?
Throughout northern and central Spain
What are Tempranillo's key grape characteristics?
It's thick-skinned with a medium acidity
What is the key viticultural challenge relating to Tempranillo?
Due to its medium acidity, hot growing areas without a high diurnal range can cause the wine to lack the necessary acidity for an ideal balance
Where is Tempranillo at its best in Spain?
In areas where summer temperatures are moderated by sea and/or altitude
What is often the case with Tempranillo when fermented on its own in Spain?
It's fermented using semi-carbonic maceration
What kind of wine can Tempranillo produce when fermented on its own?
An early drinking style
A fresh, strawberry scented Joven wine
What other broad style does Tempranillo play an important role in in Spain?
More concentrated, age worthy, oaked blends
With which grapes is Tempranillo most commonly blended in Spain?
International varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon
Garnacha Tinta is the Spanish name for...
Describe the general profile of Garnacha Tinta
Early ripening (with some exceptions)
For which Spanish wines is Garnacha Tinta most important?
Rosados and Priorat
What are the wines of Priorat? How do they achieve this style?
Intense, complex, full-bodied reds from Garnacha Tinta
From low-yielding, old vines
What is the better known name for Monastrell?
What makes Monastrell suitable for Spain's climate?
It's drought tolerant and needs hot sunny conditions to ripen
Where is Monastrell most commonly grown in Spain?
In south-eastern DOs such as Yecla and Jumilla
Describe Monastrell wines from south-eastern Spain
Low to medium acidity
Flavours of ripe blackberry fruit
Where in Spain is Graciano mostly cultivated?
How is Graciano used in Rioja?
As part of the blend in many of the best wines
What does Graciano add to a blend?
Tannins, acidity and concentrated black fruit aromas
What is the Spanish name for Carignan?
What else is Carignan called in Spain other than Cariñena? Where is it called this?
What kinds of wine does Cariñena make?
Wines that are high in tannin, colour and acidity
How is Cariñena/Mazuelo used in Spain?
As a blending partner for Tempranillo
Where other than Rioja is Cariñena grown?
What is the role of Cariñena in Priorat?
To add tannic structure
Which local black variety is coming to prominence in Spain?
To what climate is Mencia best suited?
Describe wines made from Mencia
Medium to high acidity
Fresh fruit flavours
Sometimes a hint of herbaceousness
How can most of Spain's white varieties be described?
Fresh and fruity
How are the intended fresh fruit aromas for Spanish whites retained?
Harvesting at night or early morning
Fermenting in temperature-controlled stainless steel
T or F: Spanish whites are only fermented in steel
False; Oak fermentation and maturation are used as well as lees stirring for the addition of texture and flavours
What is the challenge with grape variety Verdejo?
It is particularly susceptible to oxidation
What was Verdejo used to make?
Describe Verdejo when made protectively
Melon and peach flavour
Which Spanish grape is seen as similar to Sauvignon Blanc?
With which grape is Verdejo often blended?
Other than the 'Sauvignon style', what other style can Verdejo be made into? How?
Richer, fuller-bodied style
It undergoes skin contact and barrel fermentation
Where in Spain is Albariño grown?
North-west of Spain
What is Albariño's best viticultural trait?
It's thick-skinned and thus able to resist fungal disease
Why is fungal resistance so important for Albariño?
North-western Spain is a damp climate
Describe wines from Albariño
Naturally high in acidity
Citrus and stone fruit flavours
Can be made into a richer, fuller-bodied style
What is the most widely planted variety in Spain?
Where is the vast majority of Airén planted?
La Mancha in central Spain
Name one of the few varieties able to cope with the extreme heat and drought conditions of the Meseta Central
What is Airén mostly used for?
Production of Brandy de Jerez
Which local varieties are planted widely in Catalunya? These are the main varieties used in...
Parellada, Xarel-lo and Macabeo
How else is Macabeo known? Where?
Which of Cava's main varieties is also often used for still wine production?
Describe the aromas of unoaked Viura
Subtle herb and spice aromas
What is Viura's traditional role?
As the mainstay of heavily oaked white Riojas
Which international varieties are successful in Spain?
Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay
Where are international varieties most successful in Spain?
How many geographical regions may the principal DO regions be grouped into?
What are the six geographical DO regions of Spain?
The Upper Ebro
The Duero Valley
What is the most extensive Spanish region designated for the production of Vino de la Tierra
Castilla y León
Where is Castilla y León?
Towards the north of the Meseta Central
What is Rioja's principal city?
How many sub-regions comprise Rioja?
What are the three sub-regions of Rioja?
Where is Rioja Alavesa?
To the west of Logroño on the north bank of the Ebro in the foothills of the Cantabrian Mountains
Describe the wines of Rioja Alavesa
The lightest of Rioja; they often have the most finesse
How is Rioja Alta located?
To the west of Logroño and south of the Ebro river
List the sub-regions of Rioja in descending order
What is the topography of Rioja Alavesa and Rioja Alta?
Both sub-regions are planted at a range of altitudes from 500 to 800 metres
How are the climates of Rioja moderated?
By altitude and the Atlantic Ocean
What shields Rioja from the worst of the Atlantic weather?
The Cantabrian Mountains
Where is Rioja Baja?
To the east of Logroño, mainly on the south bank of the Ebro
What is the climate in Rioja Baja?
Hotter summers and more severe winters
Low annual rainfall
What is an issue for growers in Rioja?
What is the most widely planted variety in Rioja?
Where does Tempranillo do best in Rioja?
In the cooler western sub-regions
Describe the general features of Tempranillo in Rioja
Red fruit flavours
How does the addition of Garnacha benefit a Tempranillo-based blend?
Garnacha adds body and alcohol
Where in Rioja does Garnacha grow best?
What are the less planted/supporting varieties of Rioja?
Mazuelo and Graciano
Describe how an early-drinking style of red Rioja may be made. What kind of result will this have on the wines?
Using semi-carbonic maceration
Wines with vibrant red-fruit flavours
Low levels of smooth tannins
Outline the processes used in making a red Rioja designed for ageing
Usually destemmed and crushed
Undergo traditional fermentation
How may some Rioja producers produce heavily extracted wines? What will the result be?
Vigorous cap-management techniques
Extended periods of maceration
Deep colour and full of fruit flavours
What style of Rioja are many makers now producing?
More subtle, elegant styles
What is the traditional role of oak in Rioja?
Wines were aged in American oak, giving pronounced aromas of vanilla
What is the emerging role of oak in Rioja? What is the result on wine?
Many producers now use oak from France or other European countries for at least some of their wine
More subtle, spicy aromas
How many varieties are permitted for use in white Rioja?
What is the most widely planted white variety in Rioja?
Describe traditional white Rioja-making and wines
Aged for extended periods in American oak
Developed a deep golden colour and nutty flavours
Describe how modern white Riojas are made and the reasoning
Made with minimal oxygen contact to preserve the maximum amount of fruit
What is the 'in between' style of white Rioja now being produced by some Bodegas?
Some are being barrel-fermented but in a less oxidative style than traditional white Riojas
Where in Spain is Navarra DO?
From the northern and eastern borders of Rioja into the foothills of the Pyrenees
What is the climate of Navarra?
Similar to that of Rioja, but cooler and wetter nearer the mountains
What is the most widely planted variety of Navarra?
What kind of wine does Navarra production focus on?
How is Tempranillo typically blended in Navarra?
With other Rioja grapes, or increasingly with Cabernet or Merlot
What is the range of red wine styles in Navarra?
From good value Joven wines to top quality, premium Gran Reservas
Describe winemaking for Garnacha-based rosés in Navarra
Garnacha is picked earlier when acid levels are higher and sugar levels are lower
They are handled protectively to create refreshing, fruity wines with medium levels of alcohol
What is the role of white wine in Navarra?
It only accounts for a very small proportion of the total output of the region
What do Navarra's whites tend to be made from?
Viura, Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc
What are the neighbouring DOs to the south of the Ebro?
Cariñena and Catalyud
What are the climates of Cariñena and Catalyud?
What are the main varieties in Cariñena and Catalyud?
Garnacha in both
Describe the inexpensive wines of Cariñena and Catalyud
Fruity and early-drinking
Describe the higher quality wines of Cariñena and Catalyud
Made from old-vine Garnacha and Cariñena
Great flavour intensity and structure
T or F: Cariñena is the most planted variety in Cariñena
Where is Catalunya?
In the north-east corner of Spain
Where are the vast majority of vineyards in Catalunya?
In an area to the south-west of Barcelona, on the coastal plain and hills
What is different about Catalunya as an administrative region when relating to wine?
It is the only administrative region of Spain that has a generic DO for still wines that covers the entire region
Why did Catalunya's generic DO come into existence?
Largely to enable the blending of wines from the various areas to provide the opportunity to create significant volumes of branded wine
Where in Spain is nearly all Cava made?
Where is Penedès?
Immediately to the south-west of Barcelona
From the Mediterranean coast up into the hills
How many distinct climatic zones are there in Penedès?
What are the three climatic zones of Penedès?
The hot coastal plain - the climate here is Mediterranean
The valleys inland - the climate is still warm, but slightly cooler
Further into the hills where vines are grown up to 800m asl - the climate is moderate
Why is there such a wide variety of styles and grapes in Penedès?
As a result of the three different climatic zones
What are the most widely planted varieties of Penedès?
Those used for Cava
Besides Cava varieties, what are other significant plantings in Penedès?
International varieties, such as Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer and Sauvignon Blanc
Also Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Tempranillo and Pinot Noir
What is Tempranillo called in Penedès?
Ull de Llebre
Where are the vineyards of Priorat?
In Catalunya, within the hills inland from the city of Tarragona
Describe the climate of Priorat
Summers are long, hot and dry
Annual rainfall is very low
For which grapes is the climate of Priorat ideal?
Garnacha and Cariñena
Describe the Cariñena and Garnacha vines of Priorat
They are mostly old vines
What are the best soils of Priorat called? Describe them
Layers of red slate with small particles of mica that sparkle in the sun
Why are Llicorella soils considered as 'good soils'?
They help ripening by reflecting and conserving heat
Because of their depth, they are able to retain sufficient water throughout the growing season
They are cool at night
Describe the role of mechanisation in Priorat
Bush vines and steep slopes mean that mechanisation is nearly impossible in Priorat
What are the impracticalities of winemaking in Priorat?
The virtual impossibility of mechanisation makes vineyards here expensive and time-consuming to manage
What is grape yield like in Priorat? Explain...
Contributed to by low nutrient soils and old vines
What is the result on Priorat's wines of its low-yielding vines?
High complexity and intensity
What is the average price of Priorat's wines? List reasons why
Mechanisation is impossible; vineyards are expensive and time-consuming to manage
Yields are low
Describe wines of Priorat
Medium to high alcohol
Concentrated black fruit with toasty aromas from new French oak
What varieties can be added to wines of Priorat (besides Garnacha and Cariñena)
Some international varieties, especially Cabernet Sauvignon
Can white and rosé wines be made in Priorat?
Yes, though they are rarely seen
Where is the Duero Valley?
It starts in the mountains south of Rioja and flows through Spain into Portugal
What is the Portuguese name for the River Duero?
What is the climate of Ribera del Duero?
Short, hot and dry summers and very cold winters
Cut off from any maritime influence by a ring of mountains
Describe the vineyards of Ribera del Duero
They are situated on the highest part of the Meseta Central
Some vineyards are at over 850 metres
Due to altitude, night-time temperatures are cool
What is the effect of cool night-time temperatures in Ribera?
Acidity and fresh fruit flavours are retained in the grapes
What colours of wine are made in Ribera?
Red and rosé only
What style is the vast majority of wine in Ribera?
What is the dominant grape variety of Ribera?
What is the varietal make-up of Ribera del Duero's best wines?
Usually just Tempranillo
Describe a typical red wine from Ribera del Duero
Dark with high levels of tannins
Which international grapes are permitted in Ribera?
Cabernet, Merlot and Malbec
Which grape of Ribera is permitted and often used for dry rosé production?
What aspects of grapes are modern winemakers in Ribera trying to accentuate? How are they doing this?
Concentrated fruit flavours and tannins
Long macerations and short ageing periods in new oak
Describe oak barrels in Ribera
Typically new French oak rather than American
Describe the climate of Toro DO
Similar to that of its neighbour, Ribera del Duero
What are the wines of Toro DO predominantly made from?
Describe the typical red wines of Toro DO
Intense fruit flavours
What causes the full body and high alcohol in Toro DO?
High daytime temperatures, sunny conditions and often low-yielding bush vines
What is different about the Joven wines of Toro DO compared with its other wines?
There is often a proportion of Garnacha
Describe Reservas and Gran Reservas of Toro
Exceptionally deeply coloured and tannic when young
Ability to age well
What wines other than reds can be made in Toro?
Rosé and white wines in small quantities
Where in Spain is Rueda?
In-between Toro and Ribera del Duero
How does Rueda differ from its neighbours?
It focuses on white wine production
Outline the climate of Rueda
Cool summer nights
What is Rueda's traditional grape variety?
What is the second important grape variety in Rueda?
How may wines be labelled in Rueda?
For SB and Verdejo, they may be made and labelled as single varietal wines
What is the law for blended wines in Rueda?
At least 50% of the blend must be Verdejo
Describe the range of styles made in Rueda
From simple and fruity to richer, barrel-fermented versions
Which area of Spain is cooler and wetter than the rest? Why?
Due to the influence of the Atlantic ocean
What is north-west Spain best known for?
Many of Spain's best white wines
What is the most celebrated of Spain's white wines?
Albariño from Rías Baixas
Where in Spain is Rías Baixas?
On Spain's Atlantic coast
What is the climate of Rías Baixas?
Moderate and damp
What is the problem for Rías Baixas associated with the damp conditions?
Vine diseases such as mildew and rot are a common problem
How is the problem of vine diseases and mildew combated in Rías Baixas?
By training vines onto pergolas to encourage air circulation
Some producers use other training and trellising systems which are easier to maintain
Describe the winemaking choice/style for most Rías Baixas Albariño
Made into a refreshing unoaked style to take advantage of the grape's naturally high acidity and ripe stone fruit flavours
What other style may Albariño be made into in Rías Baixas?
A richer style, occasionally with a touch of oak or lees-stirring
Can red wine be made in Rías Baixas?
Yes, but it is a minority concern
What is the predominant colour of wine from Bierzo?
Where in Spain is Bierzo?
North-west Spain, in the mountains that mark the boundary between Galicia and the Meseta Central
What is the climate of Bierzo?
Moderate with a cooling maritime influence
What is the key grape variety of Bierzo?
Describe the dominant wine style of Bierzo
Elegant red wines
Naturally high acidity
Red fruit aromas
Where do many of Bierzo's best wines come from?
Old vines, grown on the region's steep stony slopes
What is the other, less popular winemaking choice in Bierzo? What is the thinking?
Unoaked wines to retain the perfumed red fruit of Mencía
What is the intention of Bierzo winemakers using oak?
To add toasty aromas
Where in Spain is the Levante?
On the Mediterranean coast south of Catalunya
Why is the Levante significant within the Spanish wine industry?
The port of Valencia is the distribution hub for wines from the Levante and La Mancha
Describe Valencia DO
It is a large spread-out DO that is a source for value-for-money wines
Which grapes are planted in Valencia
A large number of local and international varieties
What is the most planted red grape of Valencia?
Which grape variety dominates white plantings in Valencia?
What is the second most planted wide variety of Valencia?
Muscat of Alexandria
What is the role of Muscat of Alexandria in Valencia?
It is used to produce the local Moscatel de Valencia, a sweet fortified wine
Where in Spain are Jumilla and Yecla?
In the Levante, further inland
What are the climates of Jumilla and Yecla?
Hot and arid
What is the dominant local variety of Jumilla and Yecla?
Describes the majority of wines in Jumilla and Yecla
Youthful and fruity in style
From which region does almost half of Spain's total wine production originate?
Where is Castilla-La Mancha?
A vast central area of the Meseta Central to the south of Madrid
What is the largest DO in Spain?
What is the most widely planted grape variety of La Mancha?
What wines are produced from the grape Airén?
Neutral, fresh white wines
Which grape variety is in decline in La Mancha? Why?
Authorities have encouraged producers to plant Tempranillo
What is Tempranillo locally known as in La Mancha?
Name other grape varieties in La Mancha
What role does La Mancha now have in Spain? Why/how?
It's an excellent source of inexpensive, well-made reds and whites for the export market
Significant investment in technology and expertise
...was where the trend for top-quality pagos wines began
La Mancha is still the home of the majority of the estates that have been awarded the appellation...
Vinos de Pago
Which DO lies immediately to the south of La Mancha?
How does the reputation of Valdepeñas compare with that of its neighbour La Mancha?
It has a better reputation for quality
What is the climate of Valdepeñas?
Identical to that of La Mancha
What is the most widely planted grape in Valdepeñas?
What is the main variety for red wines of Valdepeñas?
How may red wines be made in Valdepeñas?
Either as varietal wines or blended with international varieties
What is the style range for wines from Valdepeñas?
They range from fruity to more concentrated and oak matured
Besides offering a hierarchy of PGI and PDO wines, what else can Spanish wine law define?
Specific ageing criteria for red and white wines
How are wines labelled if they fall outside of Spanish PGI/PDO law?
What is the Spanish for PDO?
Denominación de Origen Protegida (DOP)
What are the three Spanish PDO qualities in ascending order?
Denominación de Origen (DO)
Denominación de Origen Calificada (DOCa)
Vinos de Pago (VP)
Loosely, how must a wine achieve DO status in Spain?
They should be of a certain minimum quality
They must satisfy specifications covering grape varieties, viticulture and location
What must a Spanish DO do/achieve to be awarded DOCa status?
Must've been a DO for at least ten years
How many DOCa are there in Spain? What are they?
What is DOCa called in Priorat?
Denominació d'Origen Qualificada (DOQ)
What is Vinos de Pago?
A category applying to only a small number of single estates in Spain with high reputations
Estates may only use their own grapes, which must be grown, vinified and matured on their estate
What is the traditional Spanish term for PGI wines?
Vino de la Tierra (VdlT)
What are the four age categories for wines in Spain?
What wines may become Gran Reserva (besides the actual ageing requirements)?
Only wines from exceptional vintages
White and rosé wines are rarely made in this style
What are the ageing requirements for Joven wines (white and red) in Spain?
No ageing required at all
What are the ageing requirements for red Crianza wines in Spain?
24 months in total
6 months in barrel
What are the ageing requirements for red Reserva wines in Spain?
36 months in total
12 months in barrel
What are the ageing requirements for red Gran Reserva wines in Spain?
60 months in total
18 months in barrel
What are the ageing requirements for white Gran Reserva wines in Spain?
48 months in total
6 months in barrel
What are the ageing requirements for white Reserva wines in Spain?
24 months in total
6 months in barrel
What are the ageing requirements for white Crianza wines in Spain?
18 months in total
6 months in barrel