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Flashcards in C4 - The Vine Deck (61):
1

What are the most important species in modern viticulture?

Vitis Vinifera
American vines

2

Which vine species produces nearly all the grapes used in winemaking?

Vitis Vinifera

3

Why are American vines rarely used to produce grapes for winemaking?

Their grapes are widely considered to have unattractive flavours

4

Why are American grapevine species important?

They are resistant to Phylloxera and consequently widely used to produce rootstocks onto which Vinifera vines are grafted

5

What are the principal differences between grape varieties?

Colour and flavour

6

What other factors may a grape grower be concerned with when selecting a grape variety?

Budding and ripening times
Resistance to certain diseases

7

Which two methods may a grower use to preserve the unique qualities of a grape variety?

Cutting
Layering

8

What is a cutting?

A section of a vine shoot that is planted and then grows as a new plant

9

Which method of growing new plants is most commonly used in commercial nurseries?

Cutting

10

Where does layering take place?

In the vineyard

11

Describe layering

A cane is bent down and a section of it is buried in the ground, the cane tip points upwards out of the ground.
The buried section takes root and when this happens, the linking cane is cut.

12

Which propagation method is more common? Why?

Cutting
Due to the risk of phylloxera

13

How can several plants be identified as one variety?

They can all trace their lineage back through a series of cuttings and/or layering to a single plant

14

What other term can be used for vine variety?

Grape variety

15

Which word can be used instead of variety?

Cultivar

16

Why may there still be variations between vines despite their being technically the same variety?

Mutations sometimes occur when the vines grow

17

Which vines are more likely to be selected for further propagation?

Those which have developed positive/beneficial mutations

18

What is clonal selection?

Choosing individual vines with beneficial mutations

19

Each individual vine or group of vines that shows a particular set of unique characteristics is known as a ...

Clone

20

What will a grape grower often specify when ordering new plants from a nursery?

The clone as well as the variety

21

List two varieties which are the result of more extreme mutations from Pinot Noir?

Pinot Gris and Pinot Blanc

22

What is cross-fertilisation?

A method of creating a new variety under controlled conditions

23

Describe cross-fertilisation

Pollen from the male part of the flower of one Vine is transferred to the female part of the flower of another vine and fertilisation occurs. The pollinated flowers develops into a grape with seeds. If the seed is planted and grows, it will be a new variety.

24

Can a grape's characteristics be predicted when cross pollination occurs?

No, there is no way of knowing

25

Why is it costly and time-consuming to create a new variety?

Hundreds of seeds are required
Many seedlings fail in the first year
Producers must wait 2-3 years before the survivors flower and produce fruit
It takes longer to prove the value of the new variety

26

How is a crossing defined?

A new variety which is produced from two parents of the same species

27

Give an example of a crossing

Cabernet Sauvignon (Cab Franc x Sauvignon Blanc)

28

What is a hybrid?

A vine whose parents come from two different vine species

29

What are hybrids and American vine crossings most commonly used for?

Rootstocks

30

What is Phylloxera?

An insect that is native to North America which Vinifera is unable to defend itself against

31

What caused wholesale destruction of European vineyards in the nineteenth century?

Phylloxera when it was accidentally introduced

32

...has a very complex lifecycle

Phylloxera

33

What is the most harmful phase of Phylloxera's lifecycle to a vine? What happens?

When it lives underground and feeds on the roots of the vine. Infection enters through the feeding wound, weakening and eventually killing the vine.

34

How do American varieties protect themselves against Phylloxera?

They clog the aphid's mouth with a sticky sap and form a protective layer behind the feeding wounds to prevent secondary infection

35

Strict quarantine procedures have successfully protected which areas against Phylloxera?

Chile, parts of Argentina and South Australia

36

What was the only protection against Phylloxera when it first hit Europe?

American species or hybrids

37

What was the better, but more expensive solution to Phylloxera which was found at the end of the 19th century?

Using American vines/hybrids as rootstocks

38

Give two other advantages to some rootstocks other than resistance to Phylloxera

Protection against Nematodes
Drought resistance

39

What is grafting?

It is the technique used to join a rootstock to a Vinifera variety

40

What is the most popular modern grafting technique?

Bench grafting

41

What does bench grafting involve?

Short sections of cane from both varieties are joined together by machine and stored in a warm environment to encourage fusion

42

What is the less common type of grafting?

Head grafting

43

When is head grafting used?

When a grape grower with an established vineyard decides to switch to different variety between seasons

44

How is head grafting performed?

The existing vine is cut back to its trunk
A bud or cutting of the new variety is grafted onto the trunk

45

What are the biggest advantages of head grafting?

The new variety will grow in the forthcoming season (much quicker)
It's much cheaper than replanting a whole vineyard

46

What can be used to protect a graft join?

Wax

47

What are leaves principally responsible for?

Photosynthesis

48

Summarise photosynthesis

The process by which plants use sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen

49

Describe buds

Form in the join between the leaf and the shoot
They mature inside their casing, so that eventually they contain miniature all the structures that will become the shoot, leaves, flowers and tendrils

50

Describe tendrils

Tendrils allow the vine to support itself by wrapping around a structure

51

What are flowers?

The reproductive organs of the vine
It has male and female parts
It's grouped in bunches called inflorescences

52

Describe berries

Each flower that is successfully pollinated, becomes a berry, so the inflorescences become bunches of grapes, which have evolved to be attractive to animals (encouraging dispersion)

53

When do shoots turn woody?

During the winter after they have grown

54

When do buds burst?

The spring after they have formed

55

Why is it important to manage one year old wood?

Because vines will normally only produce fruit on shoots that grow from buds that developed the year before

56

When is the vine usually pruned?

Every winter

57

What is a cane?

One year old wood which is left with 8-20 buds

58

What is a spur?

One year old wood which is left with 2-3 buds after pruning

59

What is permanent wood?

Wood that is more than one year old

60

Where is the permanent wood on the vine usually?

The trunk and the arms

61

What are the functions of the roots?

To absorb water and nutrients from the soil
To anchor the vine
To store carbohydrates for the winter