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Flashcards in C35 - Canada Deck (34):
1

What is the general climate in Canada?

Continental throughout

2

What are the average annual temperatures in Canada?

Low

3

What are average daytime temperatures in July and August in Canada?

Very high

4

How are temperature extremes moderated in Canada?

By large lakes

5

Describe winters in Canada

Temperatures can drop far below zero for long periods

6

What are the long, freezing winters ideal for?

Icewine

7

How many DVAs are in Ontario?

Three

8

What is the most important of Ontario's DVAs?

Niagara Peninsula

9

Where in Ontario is Niagara Peninsula?

On the south-western corner of Lake Ontario

10

What effect does Lake Ontario have on Niagara Peninsula?

It cools down and heats up more slowly than the surrounding land, extending the growing season in Autumn and delaying budburst in spring

11

What are the effects of the extended growing season and delayed budburst in Niagara Peninsula?

The extended growing season allows grapes to ripen fully
Delayed budburst helps to minimise frost damage

12

Other than temperature moderation, what is the other benefit which comes as a result of Lake Ontario in Niagara Peninsula?

Increased air flow helps to reduce fungal disease

13

What is the most successful grape variety in Niagara Peninsula?

Riesling

14

What styles does Riesling make in Niagara Peninsula?

Fresh, fruity, dry and off-dry whites
The finest Icewines

15

Other than Riesling, which other grape variety is common for Icewine?

Vidal

16

Describe the feature of Vidal

A hardy hybrid with little character as a dry wine but makes good Icewines (though without the acid structure or aromatic complexity of Riesling)

17

Other than Riesling and Vidal, which other variety is popular in Niagara Peninsula?

Chardonnay

18

Describe the style of Chardonnays made in Niagara Peninsula

Good quality
Dry
Pure fruit and restrained oak

19

What are the black varieties most commonly grown in Niagara Peninsula?

Pinot Noir
Cabernet Sauvignon
Merlot
Cabernet Franc

20

Where in Canada is British Columbia?

The west coast

21

How many DVAs are in British Columbia?

Five

22

What is the most important of British Columbia's DVAs?

Okanagan Valley

23

Describe the climate of Okanagan Valley

It lies in the rain shadow of two mountain ranges which are on either side of the valley
Very low annual average rainfall
Semi-desert environment

24

Describe the main effect that latitude has on Okanagan's growing season

Day length is very long during the growing season

25

What is the effect of longer days in Okanagan Valley?

This prolongs the time in which photosynthesis can take place, aiding grape ripening

26

What is the effect of large glacial lakes in Okanagan Valley?

They help to moderate temperature, extending the growing season

27

What does the extended growing season caused by proximity of lakes in Okanagan result in?

It enables successful ripening of grapes in the north, and black grapes in the south

28

What are the most widely planted grapes in Okanagan Valley?

Merlot
Pinot Gris
Pinot Noir
Chardonnay

29

Other than still, dry wines, what else is produced in Okanagan Valley?

Icewine from Riesling or Vidal

30

What is the appellation system of Canada?

Vintners Quality Alliance (VQA)

31

Which two provinces use the VQA scheme?

Ontario and British Columbia

32

How are Canada's participating VQA provinces further broken down?

Into smaller Designated Viticultural Areas (DVAs)

33

How are DVAs further divided?

Into regional appellations, then sub-appellations

34

What are the main restrictions for VQAs?

Every VQA wine must be made 100% grapes that are grown in that province
They must be made 100% from V. vinifera varieties or selected hybrids