C42 - Sparkling Wines of the World Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in C42 - Sparkling Wines of the World Deck (141):
1

How many appellations are there in the Champagne region?

One

2

What is the one appellation in the Champagne region?

Champagne AC

3

How many villages within Champagne have premier cru status?

44

4

How many villages within Champagne have grand cru status?

17

5

What are the crus in Champagne?

The entire village rather than a specific vineyard

6

What are the production restrictions in the crus of Champagne?

There are no additional requirements

7

Why is a Champagne wine coming from a cru not necessarily a sign of consistent quality?

As a cru is an entire village, not every plot will have the same potential

8

How many sub-appellations are there within Champagne?

Five

9

What are the three most famous sub-regions of Champagne?

Montagne de Reims
Vallée de la Marne
Côte des Blancs

10

Where in Champagne is the Côte de Sézanne?

Approximately 30 kilometres south-west of Épernay

11

Where is the Côte des Bar?

Over 100km to the south-east of Épernay

12

What's currently being reviewed in Champagne re. appellations?

The delineation of the appellation

13

What exactly is being looked into re. delineation of Champagne AC? Why?

The assessment of the entire surface area of all qualifying villages in Champagne
Some parts of Champagne were not included due to various reasons such as being overlooked, or the original landowners having no interest in producing Champagne

14

What is the climate of Champagne?

Cool continental

15

What are the biggest climatic threats a Champagne producer has to face?

Winter freeze, spring frost and rainy, cloudy weather

16

What makes the Champagne region ideal for sparkling grape growing?

Even in the warmest years, grape sugar levels remain very low and acid levels are very high

17

How is the threat of frost minimised in Champagne?

Most vineyards are planted on slopes

18

What is the dominant part of soils of Champagne?

Chalk

19

What is the main quality of chalk as a soil constituent?

They provide good drainage after rain storms but retain a sufficient quantity of water in dry periods

20

What is a new focus for Champagne producers?

They are now fully committed to sustainable agriculture and have ambitious targets to reduce their use of man-made fertilisers and pesticides

21

What are the three grape varieties used in Champagne?

Chardonnay
Pinot Noir
Pinot Meunier

22

Where in Champagne is Chardonnay most widely planted?

Côte des Blancs and Côte de Sézanne

23

Describe Chardonnay from Champagne

Lighter-bodied than in Burgundy
High acidity
Floral and citrus fruit character

24

Where in Champagne does Pinot Noir dominate?

Montagne de Reims and Côte des Bar

25

Describe wines from Pinot Noir in Champagne

Greater body
Structural backbone to most blends
Gives blends a red fruit character

26

Where in Champagne does Meunier predominate? Why?

Vallée de la Marne
Because it buds late, protecting it from the spring frosts that occur more frequently in this region

27

What does Meunier contribute to a blend in Champagne?

Fruity flavours

28

For which wines in Champagne is Meunier particularly important?

Those made to be enjoyed young

29

Describe harvesting in Champagne

Grapes are hand-picked to allow selection in the vineyard and retain whole, healthy bunches

30

Describe pressing in Champagne

Highly controlled

31

What in Champagne making is the cuvée?

The first liquid to come off the press

32

What in Champagne making is the name for the remained of pressed juice (after the cuvée)?

Taille

33

What is the role of pressing in the best Champagnes?

The best will be made solely from the cuvée

34

What vessels are used to ferment Champagnes?

Stailess steel, oak barrels or a mixture of the two

35

Which processes are used in Champagne making after the initial fermentation?

MLF/oak ageing may or may not be used, depending on house style

36

Why is blending so important in Champagne?

Because weather can vary so significantly from year to year

37

How may a greater number of blending options be made available to a Champagne producer?

By a producer fermenting in small parcels

38

How will large Champagne producers achieve their house style year after year?

They will use dozens of wines in their blends

39

What is length of ageing (including time on lees) dependent on in Champagne?

The style of wine being made

40

What are the ageing requirements for non-vintage wines in Champagne?

They must be aged for a minimum of 15 months with at least 12 months on the lees

41

What are the ageing requirements for vintage wines in Champagne?

36 months
12 months on lees

42

What is the reality of wine ageing in Champagne?

Winemakers frequently age their wines for longer than the minimum requirements

43

What are the consistent flavour features between all styles of Champagne?

High acidity and autolytic flavours

44

What are the general characteristics of non-vintage Champagne wines relative to their vintage counterparts?

Generally lighter in body with more fresh fruit flavours

45

Describe the finest examples of non-vintage Champagne

Some complexity from the use of reserve wines

46

When are vintage Champagnes made?

Only in the best years

47

What are the characteristics of vintage Champagne relative to their non-vintage counterparts?

Often more concentrated
More toasty and biscuity notes from longer time on lees

48

Is Rosé Champagne usually vintage or non-vintage?

Can be either

49

Describe the best rosé Champagnes

They delicately balance aromas from autolysis with subtle fruity red berry notes

50

Describe Blanc de Blancs wines

Light-to-medium bodied with citrus primary fruit

51

Describe Blanc de Noirs wines

Fuller in body with more red fruit flavours

52

What does Prestige Cuvée usually represent in Champagne?

The finest wines in a producer's range

53

Describe Prestige Cuvée wines in Champagne

Often but not always vintage
Made from the best parcels of grapes
Often closed and austere in youth, so requiring several years cellaring before consumption
Premium prices

54

What is by far the most popular sweetness level of Champagne?

Brut

55

What is the rising trend in sweetness styles of Champagnes?

Brut nature

56

What proportion of the market do Brut nature wines represent?

Very small

57

What does the term crémant apply to?

A number of french sparkling wine ACs

58

What are the the most important crémant wines?

Crémant d'Alsace
Crémant de Bourgogne
Crémant de Loire

59

How are crémant wines made and what are their ageing requirements?

Traditional method
Nine months on lees

60

Which grapes generally speaking, are used to make crémant wines?

Those used to make local still white wines

61

What are the laws regarding permissible grapes in Alsace for crémant wines?

Aromatic grapes such as Muscat and Gewurztraminer cannot be used, where Chardonnay can

62

What is the next biggest centre of sparkling wine production in France after Champagne?

The Loire Valley

63

What are the three major appellations for making sparkling wine in Loire Valley?

Crémant de Loire
Saumur
Vouvray

64

From which varieties can sparkling Saumur be made?

A range of local varieties as well as Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc and Cabernet Franc

65

What are important ingredients in the best sparkling wines of Saumur?

Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc and Cabernet Franc

66

What second style of sparkling is made in the Loire Valley? Where and with what?

Sparkling red in Saumur, with Cabernet Franc

67

What style of wine is made in highest volumes in Vouvray?

Sparkling wines

68

What is the vast majority of sparkling wine made from in Vouvray?

Solely from Chenin Blanc

69

What is the character of Chenin Blanc in sparkling wine?

Naturally high acidity
Doesn't take on as much of a bread, biscuity character as Chardonnay or Pinot Noir
Autolytic character is more smoky and toasty

70

What method is used to make sparkling Saumur and Vouvray?

Traditional method

71

What is the ageing requirement for Saumur and Vouvray?

A minimum of nine months on lees

72

What makes Cava an unusual DO?

It covers a number of different, non-contiguous, geographic areas across Spain

73

Where does the vast majority of Cava come from?

The Catalan vineyards centred on the town of Sant Sadurní d'Anoia

74

Besides the vineyard of Catalunya, which other areas are notable centres of Cava production?

Navarra, Rioja and Valencia

75

How is Cava made? What are the ageing requirements?

Traditional method
Nine months on the lees

76

Name traditional grape varieties used in Cava

Macabeo/Viura, Xarel-lo and Parellada for whites
Garnacha and Monastrell for rosés

77

Describe most Cavas

Dry
Medium acidity
Some character from yeast autolysis (though the character of the autolytic flavours can differ from the bread and toast of Champagne)

78

What has recently been added as permitted grape varieties for Cava? What do they add?

Chardonnay and Pinot Noir
An extra level of fruit and acidity

79

What is the controversy surrounding Chardonnay and Pinot Noir as permitted grape varieties in Cava?

Some producers believe it detracts from Cava's point of difference

80

How is most Cava released?

As non-vintage, ready to drink on release from the winery

81

What is a key point of flavour difference between Cava and Champagne? What is the result?

Cava often has a lower acidity than that of Champagne
It makes Cava more approachable and easy-drinking

82

What is the role of lees-ageing with Cava?

There are a few producers who make premium Cavas that have undergone extensive lees-ageing

83

Where is the Asti DOCG?

In Piemonte, north-west Italy

84

What is Asti DOCG made from?

Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains

85

What method is used to make Asti DOCG?

The Asti Method

86

What is the main flavour of Asti DOCG?

A pronounced grapey character

87

Describe the flavours/profile of Asti DOCG

Pronounced fruity aromas of peach and grape, overlaid with floral notes
Sweet
Low in alcohol
Made without autolytic characters (which would detract from the fruitiness of Muscat)

88

What is the role of ageing for Muscat?

It does not benefit from ageing and should be drunk as young as possible

89

Where is Prosecco made?

In one of two delimited regions of north-east Italy
Prosecco DOC (a wide area of Veneto and Friuli)
Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG

90

Where must grapes be grown for Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG?

Between the two towns of Conegliano and Valdobbiadene on the steep limestone hills north-west of Venice

91

Which terms found on Prosecco wines are indications of wine from an exceptional vineyard site?

Cartizze and Rive

92

What is the name of the grape variety used for Prosecco? What is its formative name?

Glera
Prosecco

93

Why was Prosecco's name changed to Glera?

To protect the integrity of the appellation

94

How is Prosecco typically produced?

Using the tank method

95

What are the typical flavours and acidity level of Prosecco?

Fresh aromas of green apple and melon
Medium acidity

96

What sweetness levels are Prosecco made into?

Brut, Extra-Dry and Dry

97

How do sugar levels of Prosecco's sweetness levels compare with those of Champagne and Cava?

Slightly higher levels of residual sugar

98

How does residual sugar usually come about in Prosecco?

As a result of interrupting fermentation by chilling and filtering

99

What is the role of ageing in Prosecco?

They are meant to be drunk young and do not benefit from any bottle ageing

100

Which country has the highest per-capita consumption of wine in the world?

Germany

101

What is the majority of consumed sparkling wine in Germany?

Sekt

102

Virtually all of Sekt is made using the...method

Tank

103

Where do the base wines for Sekt generally come from?

France or Italy

104

Where is Sekt turned into sparkling wine?

Germany

105

How may one identify a Sekt where grapes are grown in Germany as well as it being made sparkling in Germany?

It will be labelled Deutscher Sekt

106

What is the best Deutscher Sekt made from?

Riesling

107

What does Deutscher Sekt bA indicate?

Sekt wherein all the grapes come from one of Germany's quality regions

108

Describe rare premium Sekt from Germany

Grapes are grown in individual vineyards and it is vinified using the traditional method

109

Describe sparkling wines from Australia's cool to moderate regions
List some such regions

Capable of producing complex, elegant traditional method wines, usually from Chardonnay and Pinot Noir
Non-vintage, vintage, rosé, Blanc de Blancs and Blanc de Noirs
Yarra Valley, Adelaide Hill and Tasmania

110

What kind of sparkling wines are typically produced in warm regions of Australia?
Give an example of such a region

Inexpensive wines produced by tank method or carbonation
Fruity in style and in a range of sweetness levels
From many different varieties
Riverina

111

In which country have sparkling red wines had the most success?

Australia

112

What has happened to the sales of sparkling red wines over the last few years?

They have gradually declined

113

From which variety are the best sparkling reds of Australia typically made?

Shiraz

114

From which varieties have some Australian wineries produced excellent sparkling reds (other than Shiraz)?

Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon

115

Using which method are inexpensive sparkling reds made in Australia?

Carbonation or tank method

116

Using which method are better examples of sparkling red produced in Australia?

By transfer or the traditional method

117

Describe flavours of sparkling red wines in Australia

Full-bodied
Smooth tannins
Red berry fruit
Some residual sugar

118

What is the reputation for sparkling wine in New Zealand?

For high quality traditional method sparkling wines made from Champagne grapes

119

Why is New Zealand suitable for Chardonnay and Pinot Noir growth?

As a result of its relatively southern position in the southern hemisphere and maritime climate with cool sea breezes
These influences mean that it can ripen the grapes slowly enough to produce elegant sparkling wines

120

What styles of sparkling wine are produced in New Zealand?

A range, including vintage, non-vintage, rosé, Blanc de Blancs and Blanc de Noirs

121

Where in New Zealand are grapes for their sparkling wine grown?

In all of its wine regions with the exception of Auckland

122

Which region of New Zealand produces the highest volumes of sparkling wine?

Marlborough

123

Describe sparkling wines from the warmer regions of New Zealand?

Richer style than those produced in the South Island

124

How do producers often take advantage of the difference in sparkling styles produced in New Zealand's North and South Island?

They will often make cross regional blends

125

Besides Champagne styles, what other style of sparkling wine is relatively common in New Zealand? Using which method and why?

Sparkling Sauvignon Blanc
Usually by the tank method or carbonation to retain the intense aromas and flavours of the grape variety

126

What does Méthode Cap Classique mean on sparkling wines in South Africa?

They have been made using the traditional method

127

Where is fruit sourced from for traditional South African sparkling wine?

Throughout the Western Cape

128

From which varieties are South Africa's best sparkling wines made?

Chardonnay and Pinot Noir

129

Why is site selection so important in South Africa?

Due to its warm climate

130

Where are the best sites found for South Africa's sparkling wines?

On the country's hillside slopes with a south-eastern aspect or near the coast

131

Many premium South African sparkling producers belong to the...

Cap Classique Producers Association

132

What are the CCPA's ageing recommendations?

That members age their wines on lees for a minimum of 12 months

133

What are the ageing requirements in South Africa for using the term Cap Classique?

9 months

134

What is the domestic market for sparkling wines in South Africa?

For off-dry to sweet carbonated sparkling wines

135

Which region is responsible for the vast majority of sparkling wine production in the USA?

California

136

Where in California do the best sparkling wines come from?

Cooler locations such as Los Carneros AVA and Anderson Valley AVA

137

How and with what are California's best sparkling wines made?

Using the traditional method
With Pinot Noir and Chardonnay

138

What is typical ageing for premium Californian sparkling?

Extended ageing on lees (five years is not uncommon)

139

Describe the flavours of California's best sparkling wines

Concentrated complex flavours balanced by high acidity

140

What is the role of inexpensive, high-volume wine in California?

Large volumes are made using tank method or carbonation

141

Describe the flavours of California's inexpensive sparkling wines

Medium sweet to sweet in style
Typically fruity
From a range of grape varieties grown in high-yielding regions such a Central Valley