Flashcards in C42 - Sparkling Wines of the World Deck (141):
How many appellations are there in the Champagne region?
What is the one appellation in the Champagne region?
How many villages within Champagne have premier cru status?
How many villages within Champagne have grand cru status?
What are the crus in Champagne?
The entire village rather than a specific vineyard
What are the production restrictions in the crus of Champagne?
There are no additional requirements
Why is a Champagne wine coming from a cru not necessarily a sign of consistent quality?
As a cru is an entire village, not every plot will have the same potential
How many sub-appellations are there within Champagne?
What are the three most famous sub-regions of Champagne?
Montagne de Reims
Vallée de la Marne
Côte des Blancs
Where in Champagne is the Côte de Sézanne?
Approximately 30 kilometres south-west of Épernay
Where is the Côte des Bar?
Over 100km to the south-east of Épernay
What's currently being reviewed in Champagne re. appellations?
The delineation of the appellation
What exactly is being looked into re. delineation of Champagne AC? Why?
The assessment of the entire surface area of all qualifying villages in Champagne
Some parts of Champagne were not included due to various reasons such as being overlooked, or the original landowners having no interest in producing Champagne
What is the climate of Champagne?
What are the biggest climatic threats a Champagne producer has to face?
Winter freeze, spring frost and rainy, cloudy weather
What makes the Champagne region ideal for sparkling grape growing?
Even in the warmest years, grape sugar levels remain very low and acid levels are very high
How is the threat of frost minimised in Champagne?
Most vineyards are planted on slopes
What is the dominant part of soils of Champagne?
What is the main quality of chalk as a soil constituent?
They provide good drainage after rain storms but retain a sufficient quantity of water in dry periods
What is a new focus for Champagne producers?
They are now fully committed to sustainable agriculture and have ambitious targets to reduce their use of man-made fertilisers and pesticides
What are the three grape varieties used in Champagne?
Where in Champagne is Chardonnay most widely planted?
Côte des Blancs and Côte de Sézanne
Describe Chardonnay from Champagne
Lighter-bodied than in Burgundy
Floral and citrus fruit character
Where in Champagne does Pinot Noir dominate?
Montagne de Reims and Côte des Bar
Describe wines from Pinot Noir in Champagne
Structural backbone to most blends
Gives blends a red fruit character
Where in Champagne does Meunier predominate? Why?
Vallée de la Marne
Because it buds late, protecting it from the spring frosts that occur more frequently in this region
What does Meunier contribute to a blend in Champagne?
For which wines in Champagne is Meunier particularly important?
Those made to be enjoyed young
Describe harvesting in Champagne
Grapes are hand-picked to allow selection in the vineyard and retain whole, healthy bunches
Describe pressing in Champagne
What in Champagne making is the cuvée?
The first liquid to come off the press
What in Champagne making is the name for the remained of pressed juice (after the cuvée)?
What is the role of pressing in the best Champagnes?
The best will be made solely from the cuvée
What vessels are used to ferment Champagnes?
Stailess steel, oak barrels or a mixture of the two
Which processes are used in Champagne making after the initial fermentation?
MLF/oak ageing may or may not be used, depending on house style
Why is blending so important in Champagne?
Because weather can vary so significantly from year to year
How may a greater number of blending options be made available to a Champagne producer?
By a producer fermenting in small parcels
How will large Champagne producers achieve their house style year after year?
They will use dozens of wines in their blends
What is length of ageing (including time on lees) dependent on in Champagne?
The style of wine being made
What are the ageing requirements for non-vintage wines in Champagne?
They must be aged for a minimum of 15 months with at least 12 months on the lees
What are the ageing requirements for vintage wines in Champagne?
12 months on lees
What is the reality of wine ageing in Champagne?
Winemakers frequently age their wines for longer than the minimum requirements
What are the consistent flavour features between all styles of Champagne?
High acidity and autolytic flavours
What are the general characteristics of non-vintage Champagne wines relative to their vintage counterparts?
Generally lighter in body with more fresh fruit flavours
Describe the finest examples of non-vintage Champagne
Some complexity from the use of reserve wines
When are vintage Champagnes made?
Only in the best years
What are the characteristics of vintage Champagne relative to their non-vintage counterparts?
Often more concentrated
More toasty and biscuity notes from longer time on lees
Is Rosé Champagne usually vintage or non-vintage?
Can be either
Describe the best rosé Champagnes
They delicately balance aromas from autolysis with subtle fruity red berry notes
Describe Blanc de Blancs wines
Light-to-medium bodied with citrus primary fruit
Describe Blanc de Noirs wines
Fuller in body with more red fruit flavours
What does Prestige Cuvée usually represent in Champagne?
The finest wines in a producer's range
Describe Prestige Cuvée wines in Champagne
Often but not always vintage
Made from the best parcels of grapes
Often closed and austere in youth, so requiring several years cellaring before consumption
What is by far the most popular sweetness level of Champagne?
What is the rising trend in sweetness styles of Champagnes?
What proportion of the market do Brut nature wines represent?
What does the term crémant apply to?
A number of french sparkling wine ACs
What are the the most important crémant wines?
Crémant de Bourgogne
Crémant de Loire
How are crémant wines made and what are their ageing requirements?
Nine months on lees
Which grapes generally speaking, are used to make crémant wines?
Those used to make local still white wines
What are the laws regarding permissible grapes in Alsace for crémant wines?
Aromatic grapes such as Muscat and Gewurztraminer cannot be used, where Chardonnay can
What is the next biggest centre of sparkling wine production in France after Champagne?
The Loire Valley
What are the three major appellations for making sparkling wine in Loire Valley?
Crémant de Loire
From which varieties can sparkling Saumur be made?
A range of local varieties as well as Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc and Cabernet Franc
What are important ingredients in the best sparkling wines of Saumur?
Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc and Cabernet Franc
What second style of sparkling is made in the Loire Valley? Where and with what?
Sparkling red in Saumur, with Cabernet Franc
What style of wine is made in highest volumes in Vouvray?
What is the vast majority of sparkling wine made from in Vouvray?
Solely from Chenin Blanc
What is the character of Chenin Blanc in sparkling wine?
Naturally high acidity
Doesn't take on as much of a bread, biscuity character as Chardonnay or Pinot Noir
Autolytic character is more smoky and toasty
What method is used to make sparkling Saumur and Vouvray?
What is the ageing requirement for Saumur and Vouvray?
A minimum of nine months on lees
What makes Cava an unusual DO?
It covers a number of different, non-contiguous, geographic areas across Spain
Where does the vast majority of Cava come from?
The Catalan vineyards centred on the town of Sant Sadurní d'Anoia
Besides the vineyard of Catalunya, which other areas are notable centres of Cava production?
Navarra, Rioja and Valencia
How is Cava made? What are the ageing requirements?
Nine months on the lees
Name traditional grape varieties used in Cava
Macabeo/Viura, Xarel-lo and Parellada for whites
Garnacha and Monastrell for rosés
Describe most Cavas
Some character from yeast autolysis (though the character of the autolytic flavours can differ from the bread and toast of Champagne)
What has recently been added as permitted grape varieties for Cava? What do they add?
Chardonnay and Pinot Noir
An extra level of fruit and acidity
What is the controversy surrounding Chardonnay and Pinot Noir as permitted grape varieties in Cava?
Some producers believe it detracts from Cava's point of difference
How is most Cava released?
As non-vintage, ready to drink on release from the winery
What is a key point of flavour difference between Cava and Champagne? What is the result?
Cava often has a lower acidity than that of Champagne
It makes Cava more approachable and easy-drinking
What is the role of lees-ageing with Cava?
There are a few producers who make premium Cavas that have undergone extensive lees-ageing
Where is the Asti DOCG?
In Piemonte, north-west Italy
What is Asti DOCG made from?
Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains
What method is used to make Asti DOCG?
The Asti Method
What is the main flavour of Asti DOCG?
A pronounced grapey character
Describe the flavours/profile of Asti DOCG
Pronounced fruity aromas of peach and grape, overlaid with floral notes
Low in alcohol
Made without autolytic characters (which would detract from the fruitiness of Muscat)
What is the role of ageing for Muscat?
It does not benefit from ageing and should be drunk as young as possible
Where is Prosecco made?
In one of two delimited regions of north-east Italy
Prosecco DOC (a wide area of Veneto and Friuli)
Where must grapes be grown for Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG?
Between the two towns of Conegliano and Valdobbiadene on the steep limestone hills north-west of Venice
Which terms found on Prosecco wines are indications of wine from an exceptional vineyard site?
Cartizze and Rive
What is the name of the grape variety used for Prosecco? What is its formative name?
Why was Prosecco's name changed to Glera?
To protect the integrity of the appellation
How is Prosecco typically produced?
Using the tank method
What are the typical flavours and acidity level of Prosecco?
Fresh aromas of green apple and melon
What sweetness levels are Prosecco made into?
Brut, Extra-Dry and Dry
How do sugar levels of Prosecco's sweetness levels compare with those of Champagne and Cava?
Slightly higher levels of residual sugar
How does residual sugar usually come about in Prosecco?
As a result of interrupting fermentation by chilling and filtering
What is the role of ageing in Prosecco?
They are meant to be drunk young and do not benefit from any bottle ageing
Which country has the highest per-capita consumption of wine in the world?
What is the majority of consumed sparkling wine in Germany?
Virtually all of Sekt is made using the...method
Where do the base wines for Sekt generally come from?
France or Italy
Where is Sekt turned into sparkling wine?
How may one identify a Sekt where grapes are grown in Germany as well as it being made sparkling in Germany?
It will be labelled Deutscher Sekt
What is the best Deutscher Sekt made from?
What does Deutscher Sekt bA indicate?
Sekt wherein all the grapes come from one of Germany's quality regions
Describe rare premium Sekt from Germany
Grapes are grown in individual vineyards and it is vinified using the traditional method
Describe sparkling wines from Australia's cool to moderate regions
List some such regions
Capable of producing complex, elegant traditional method wines, usually from Chardonnay and Pinot Noir
Non-vintage, vintage, rosé, Blanc de Blancs and Blanc de Noirs
Yarra Valley, Adelaide Hill and Tasmania
What kind of sparkling wines are typically produced in warm regions of Australia?
Give an example of such a region
Inexpensive wines produced by tank method or carbonation
Fruity in style and in a range of sweetness levels
From many different varieties
In which country have sparkling red wines had the most success?
What has happened to the sales of sparkling red wines over the last few years?
They have gradually declined
From which variety are the best sparkling reds of Australia typically made?
From which varieties have some Australian wineries produced excellent sparkling reds (other than Shiraz)?
Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon
Using which method are inexpensive sparkling reds made in Australia?
Carbonation or tank method
Using which method are better examples of sparkling red produced in Australia?
By transfer or the traditional method
Describe flavours of sparkling red wines in Australia
Red berry fruit
Some residual sugar
What is the reputation for sparkling wine in New Zealand?
For high quality traditional method sparkling wines made from Champagne grapes
Why is New Zealand suitable for Chardonnay and Pinot Noir growth?
As a result of its relatively southern position in the southern hemisphere and maritime climate with cool sea breezes
These influences mean that it can ripen the grapes slowly enough to produce elegant sparkling wines
What styles of sparkling wine are produced in New Zealand?
A range, including vintage, non-vintage, rosé, Blanc de Blancs and Blanc de Noirs
Where in New Zealand are grapes for their sparkling wine grown?
In all of its wine regions with the exception of Auckland
Which region of New Zealand produces the highest volumes of sparkling wine?
Describe sparkling wines from the warmer regions of New Zealand?
Richer style than those produced in the South Island
How do producers often take advantage of the difference in sparkling styles produced in New Zealand's North and South Island?
They will often make cross regional blends
Besides Champagne styles, what other style of sparkling wine is relatively common in New Zealand? Using which method and why?
Sparkling Sauvignon Blanc
Usually by the tank method or carbonation to retain the intense aromas and flavours of the grape variety
What does Méthode Cap Classique mean on sparkling wines in South Africa?
They have been made using the traditional method
Where is fruit sourced from for traditional South African sparkling wine?
Throughout the Western Cape
From which varieties are South Africa's best sparkling wines made?
Chardonnay and Pinot Noir
Why is site selection so important in South Africa?
Due to its warm climate
Where are the best sites found for South Africa's sparkling wines?
On the country's hillside slopes with a south-eastern aspect or near the coast
Many premium South African sparkling producers belong to the...
Cap Classique Producers Association
What are the CCPA's ageing recommendations?
That members age their wines on lees for a minimum of 12 months
What are the ageing requirements in South Africa for using the term Cap Classique?
What is the domestic market for sparkling wines in South Africa?
For off-dry to sweet carbonated sparkling wines
Which region is responsible for the vast majority of sparkling wine production in the USA?
Where in California do the best sparkling wines come from?
Cooler locations such as Los Carneros AVA and Anderson Valley AVA
How and with what are California's best sparkling wines made?
Using the traditional method
With Pinot Noir and Chardonnay
What is typical ageing for premium Californian sparkling?
Extended ageing on lees (five years is not uncommon)
Describe the flavours of California's best sparkling wines
Concentrated complex flavours balanced by high acidity
What is the role of inexpensive, high-volume wine in California?
Large volumes are made using tank method or carbonation