Flashcards in C6 - Vineyard Management Deck (185):
What are the three main considerations a producer may need to make when choosing a site?
Which environmental conditions does a producer have to consider?
What business considerations must be made by a producer when selecting a vineyard site?
Proximity to utility infrastructure (power, water etc.)
Availability of a vineyard workforce
Accessibility for machinery
Cost of land
What must a producer consider regarding grape variety when selecting a site?
It must suit climatic conditions
How is a new vineyard prepared?
Existing vegetation is cleared
Fertility tested (and corrected with fertiliser if necessary)
Young vines are planted by hand or machine
Vines protected from animals with plastic sleeves
Irrigation allowed to help young vines establish themselves
Why is irrigation allowed in some places after new vines have been planted?
To allow the vines to establish themselves
When does a vine's first yield usually come?
In the third year after planting
At what age on average are vines usually replaced?
30 - 50 years
What is the main factor that makes old vines desirable?
They give a greater concentration of flavours
What are the potential disadvantages to growing an old vine?
Susceptibility to disease
For how long is a vineyard typically left fallow after the vines are dug up?
Three or more years
What are the four main techniques used to manage a vine?
The grower will adapt the four main vineyard management techniques to suit the availability of these resources:
Name a practical consideration a grower may have to make when establishing a vineyard
Use of machinery
What is the ultimate goal of a grape-grower?
To maximise the production of fruit at the desired quality level as economically as possible
What is vine training?
The shape of the permanent wood of the vine
What are the two principal branches of vine training?
Both head training and cordon training can be...to benefit from heat retained by the soil or...to avoid frosts
Describe a head-trained vine
They have very little permanent wood
Some have only a trunk
Some have a few arms protruding from the trunk
They can be spur-pruned or replacement cane pruned
Describe a vine which is cordon trained
A trunk with one or two arms of permanent wood
Usually spur pruned
Describe a positive and negative of cordon training a vine
The sturdy permanent cordon with shoots positioned along its length, makes mechanisation easier
It can take longer to establish because of the greater amount of permanent wood
Cordon training can also be used to create...
Big vine structures
What is pruning?
The removal of unwanted leaves, canes and permanent wood
What is the purpose of pruning?
It shapes the vine and limits its size
When does pruning typically take place?
Every summer and every winter
What is the main purpose of winter pruning?
To determine the number and location of buds that will form shoots in the coming season
Why is it important to ensure that buds are not too close together?
To help with canopy management
What are the two styles of winter pruning?
Replacement cane pruning
Describe spur pruning
Spurs are either distributed along a cordon or around the top of the trunk
Describe replacement cane pruning
Typically one or two canes are retained
Each cane is tied horizontally to the trellis for support
Most common on head-trained vines
What are the two main disadvantages to replacement cane pruning?
It requires a large, skilled workforce to choose suitable canes and train them
It is more complex than spur pruning
What is the alternative name for replacement cane pruning?
What does summer pruning involve?
Trimming the canopy to restrict vegetative growth and direct sugar production to the grape
It can involve leaf stripping so that bunches have optimal exposure to the sun
What is a vine's 'canopy'?
All green parts of the vine
What is a grower's most important concern when considering canopy management?
Whether to trellis
What is a trellis?
A permanent structure of stakes and wires, used to support any replacement canes and the vine's annual growth
What is a bush vine?
The vines do not have a trellis system and the shoots can hang down as far as the ground
They are head-trained and spur pruned
What kind of climate is a bush-trained vine most suited to? Give two examples...
Warm/hot, dry, sunny
Why is bush-training best suited to a hot, sunny environment?
The extra shade helps to protect the grapes
Why is bush-training unsuitable for cool or wet regions?
The shade can impede grape ripening
Lack of airflow can promote disease
Describe vines in Beaujolais
They are head-trained and spur-pruned
The buds are tied together at the tips, helping to expose bunches to air and sunlight
What kind of vines are not suitable for mechanical harvesting?
Give another name for bush-training
Describe the two main aspects of trellised vineyards
What is their collective term?
Each row of vines requires a line of posts joined by horizontal wires
Canes and shoots are tied to the trellis
What are the three important reasons for canopy management?
To control the amount of sunlight that gets to the canopy
To improve air circulation
To aid mechanisation
How does trellising aid mechanisation?
It separates leaves from grapes
What is the secondary benefit of separating leaves and fruit?
Spraying of insecticides and fungicides is more effective
What is the most widely used trellising system?
Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP)
Which pruning system can VSP be used with?
Shoots are trained vertically and tied in place onto the trellis
How can VSP be adapted in hot, sunny regions?
Rather than tying the top of the shoots, allowing them to flop over, providing some shade for the fruit
Why might a grape grower choose adapted VSP over bush vine training?
It allows for mechanisation
How is planting density measured?
It is the number of vines planted in a given area
What is a hectare?
An area enclosed by a square with 100m sides
What is the rough range of planting densities?
1,000 - 10,000 vines per hectare
How does an acre relate to a hectare?
One acre is approximately 0.4 hectares
Name a very important set of criteria when deciding on planting density
Availability of nutrients and water
Explain the most advantageous planting density considerations for areas with limited water availability
Low planting density allows each vine's roots to take up water from a larger volume of soil without any competition
Explain the effect on a vine of having low levels of nutrients but sufficient water?
It can still grow vigorously and produce lots of vegetative growth in preference to fruit
In a situation where a vine has plenty of rainfall/water, what may a grower do to reduce vigour?
Plant at high density to provide competition for resources
How may pruning be used to affect vine vigour in a well watered area? Describe why accuracy is important
Careful winter pruning can affect vine vigour
Too few buds left means the buds will have too much energy in the form of carbohydrates and will grow too vigorously and vice versa
What are the two human-controlled factors in the vineyard which can affect vine vigour?
What is the problem for a winemaker when there is ample rainfall and very fertile soils?
Vines can be overly vigorous
Pruning and planting density are often not enough
What is an additional practice which can be used when planting density and pruning aren't enough to reduce vigour sufficiently?
Vines may be planted at low density with multiple cordons or canes
What is yield?
A measure of the amount of grapes produced
In what units may yield be measured?
What are the three principal reasons why a winemaker may need to know yield?
Predicting tank space
How may yield be approximately predicted?
By observing the number of buds left on a vine after winter pruning
Which factors may make predicting yield difficult/inaccurate?
Poor fruit set
Pests and diseases
How may yields be reduced by the winemaker?
By removing immature grapes shortly after véraison
What is the process of removing immature grapes after véraison called?
Why must green harvesting be carefully timed?
If done at the wrong time, the vine will compensate for the loss by increasing the size of the grapes that have been retained, causing flavour dilution and a re-increase of yield
What effect does yield have on grape quality?
No discernible effect
What are the broad potential effects of pests and diseases?
Reduced fruit quality
What effect does leaf-damage have on a vine?
It reduces photosynthesis and consequently limits the vine's ripening ability
What are nematodes?
Microscopic worms that attack the roots of the vine, interfering with water and nutrient uptake
What is the other effect a nematode can have other than interfering with nutrient/water uptake?
Transmitting vine diseases
What is the best treatment for nematodes?
How may nematodes be effectively prevented?
Sanitising the soil before replanting
Using resistant rootstocks
What are the two biggest problems when it comes to birds and mammals?
They can eat large numbers of grapes
Half eaten/crushed grapes are more susceptible to fungal disease
How are birds and mammals deterred?
Nets and fences
What do insects do to a vine?
Feed on grapes and leaves
How is the problem of insects treated?
With insecticide sprays or integrated pest management
What kind of environment do downy and powdery mildew thrive in?
Warm, humid environments
Which parts of the vine can downy and powdery mildew attack?
All green parts
What effect does it have on a wine if attacked by mildew?
Grapes lose their fruity flavour
The wine develops a mouldy, bitter taint
What is grey rot caused by?
The fungus Botrytis Cinerea
In what conditions does grey rot thrive?
Which part of the vine does grey rot attack?
What effect can grey rot have on black grapes?
They can lose their colour
What is noble rot?
The name for grey rot when it has been used for winemaking
How was powdery mildew traditionally treated?
With a sulphur-based spray
How was downy mildew traditionally treated?
With Bordeaux Mixture - a copper based spray
How is spraying most commonly done?
Why must spraying stop close to harvest?
So that there are no harmful chemical residues in the wine
Other than spraying, how may the risk of fungal diseases developing be reduced?
Using appropriate canopy management
Explain how canopy management may reduce the chance of fungal disease
An open vine canopy allows greater flow of air, promoting evaporation and keeping it dry
What's the big advantage of preventing fungal disease with only canopy management?
It's financially and environmentally beneficial, as sprays are not needed
What do viruses do to a vine?
The reduce its ability to function
How do viruses affect wine?
They can dramatically reduce yield and quality
How are viruses usually spread among vines?
Via cutting or nematodes
What treatments are there for vine viruses?
How can viruses be eradicated?
By digging up vines and sanitising the land
How do bacterial diseases affect vines?
Many just reduce grape quality and quantity, but some can kill the vines
How are bacterial diseases usually spread?
By small insects called sharpshooters
How may bacterial diseases be treated or cured?
How can bacterial diseases be prevented?
Strict quarantine procedures and interrupting the lifecycle of the sharpshooters
How may bacterial diseases be eradicated?
Digging up vines and sanitising the land
What viticultural practice took off in the second half of the twentieth century?
The use of man made sprays/chemicals to control pests and diseases
An increased use of fertilisers
Why has chemical spraying become a concern?
It damages the environment
What are the three main options available to those wanting to reduce chemical spraying?
Are man-made chemicals prohibited in sustainable agriculture?
Fundamentally, what is sustainable agriculture?
Growers are encouraged to pay closer attention to pest lifecycles and weather, in order to prevent diseases and outbreak before it occurs
What is another possible name for sustainable agriculture when related specifically to pests?
Integrated Pest Management
How may pest numbers be controlled during IPM?
By encouraging the presence of the pests' natural predators
What is organic agriculture?
Similar to sustainable agriculture, but with only a limited number of the traditional treatments against pests and diseases and in smaller quantities
It is a set of accredited practices
Why is organic viticulture inconsistent?
Accreditation boards vary with regard to standards
What is the one main rule all organic vineyards must follow to be accredited?
They need to undergo a period of conversion before they can be certified
Who founded Biodynamic Agriculture?
Rudolf Steiner and Maria Thun
What broadly, is biodynamic agriculture?
It adopts organic practices but also incorporates philosophy and cosmology
Vineyard soil is seen as part of a connected system with Earth, the air and other planets
Practitioners adapt growing practices in coincidence with cosmic cycles
In biodynamic agriculture, what is used as fertiliser, disease treatment and pest deterrent?
Homeopathic remedies called treatments
How does a vineyard officially become biodynamic?
By being certified
When does budburst occur in the northern and Southern Hemispheres?
March - April
September - October
When does early shoot and leaf growth occur in the northern and Southern Hemispheres?
March - May
September - November
Where does flowering and fruit set occur in the northern and Southern Hemispheres?
May - June
November - December
When does Véraison and berry ripening occur in the northern and Southern Hemispheres?
July - September
January - March
When does harvest occur in the northern and Southern Hemispheres?
September - October
March - April
When is winter dormancy in the northern and Southern Hemispheres?
December - March
July - September
At what mean temperature does budburst generally begin?
The temperature at which budburst occurs depends on...
Name two varieties which bud at relatively low temperatures. Give another name for this...
Chardonnay and Pinot Noir
Name one variety which buds at relatively low temperatures. Give another name for this...
A late-budding variety
What is the biggest risk to budburst?
What practice begins at budburst?
Describe what happens during 'early shoot and leaf growth'? How is energy provided for this?
Shoots grow rapidly until the vine flowers
Initially fuelled by stored carbohydrate reserves
Energy provided partially by leaves as they grow and begin to photosynthesise
When are water and nutrients most important during a plant's lifecycle?
Early shoot and leaf growth
If practiced, when does shoot-tying take place?
During early shoot and leaf growth
What does the vine most need during flowering? Why?
Plenty of sunshine
Little or no rain
Pollination may be disrupted, reducing fruit-set
What is fruit set? What else occurs?
When a flower develops into a grape
Unpollinated flowers drop off
What is it called when more flowers than normal fail to fertilise?
What is Millerandage?
When grapes form without seeds and remain small
What is the outcome of Coulure or Millerandage?
What is generally the cause of Millerandage and Coulure?
Cold, cloudy or rainy weather during pollination
How long do grapes grow before veraison?
6 - 8 weeks
What is véraison? Describe it
The point at which grapes begin to ripen
Skin changes colour
What occurs between Véraison and ripening?
Grapes swell and fill with water
Sugar levels rise, acid levels drop
Colour pigments and flavour compounds accumulate
What conditions are ideal for ripening?
Warm and sunny conditions
Mild water stress to inhibit shoot growth and encourage grape ripening
What processes may happen during berry ripening? What is the purpose?
Summer pruning removes excess foliage, ensuring the canopy remains open
Green harvesting controls yield and improves fruit quality
What conditions are ideal for harvest? Why?
Excess rainfall before harvest can cause the grapes to swell, diluting flavour
Chances of rot are increased too
When must spraying finish?
A reasonable time before harvest to ensure there are no harmful residues in the wine
What happens naturally during winter dormancy?
Shoots become woody
The vine stores carbohydrates in its roots
What effect can winter freeze have on a vine?
Buds can die
The vine can die
How may a vine be protected from winter freeze?
By piling earth up around the vine
What may a grape grower do during winter dormancy?
How is Véraison defined?
The point at which grapes begin to ripen
What signals the start of Véraison?
A change in colour of the grapes' skin
What happens to the colours of black and white grapes during Véraison?
Black grapes turn red, then purple
White grapes turn translucent and golden
What happens within grapes as they ripen?
Sugar levels rise and acid levels drop
How is the ripening process in a grape tracked?
Monitoring the rise in sugar levels
What else may happen within a grape as acid levels drop and sugar levels rise?
The grapes will develop their signature flavours
Tannins in the grape skins become less bitter and astringent
What dictates when the ideal balance of sugar, acid, flavour and tannin is reached in a grape?
Style/quality of wine being produced
When does harvest ideally begin?
When the vigneron believes the grapes have the exact qualities needed to create the desired style of wine
What may cause a winemaker to bring the harvest forward?
Poor weather conditions
What does hail do to crops?
What can rain do to crops?
Cause the grapes to swell excessively and dilute the juice
Why do winemakers need to coordinate the arrival of fruit at the winery?
To make sure it is not suddenly overwhelmed with fruit it does not have the capacity to process
How is harvesting done?
By hand or machine
Name the main factors which dictate how a vineyard should be harvested
How the vineyard is planted
How must premium wine be harvested?
By machine or hand
How do machine harvesters work?
By shaking the trunk of the vine and collecting the ripe berries as they fall off, leaving the stalks behind
What are the major disadvantages/difficulties of machine harvesting?
They are unselective, often collecting unhealthy, damaged and unripe grapes, as well as bits of leaf, insects and other contaminants
They can only be used on flat or gently sloping land
They are best suited to varieties whose grapes are not easily damaged and come away easily from their stems
They cannot be used for wines whose grapes need to be picked in whole bunches
What is MOG?
Matter Other than Grapes
Unwanted contaminants collected often by machines during harvest
How are MOG dealt with during harvest?
They can be removed at the winery during sorting
When might it not be possible to sort out MOG?
Some harvesting operations are too large
What is arguably the biggest advantage of machine harvesting?
Give two reasons as to why speed is such a big benefit when it comes to machine-harvesting
The vintage may be threatened by bad weather
Some varieties may become overripe very quickly
Why might it be beneficial that machines can work overnight? Explain your answer
Grapes can be brought back to the winery when they are still cool
If they are cool, money is saved on cooling them before fermentation
It slows down the process of oxidation
Name two wines whose grapes need to be picked in whole bunches
Describe hand harvesting
It involves pickers cutting off individual bunches of grapes with secateurs
List the three main disadvantages of hand harvesting
It is slower
It is more labour-intensive
It can be more expensive
What is the biggest advantage of hand-harvesting?
It allows grape selection to take place in the vineyard
For which wines is hand-harvesting essential? Why?
Those requiring grapes affected by noble rot
Onset and level of rot can vary between bunches
Less damage occurs
Grapes can be further protected from damage by transporting them in shallow, stackable trays
Unlike machine harvesting, the...are retained
Why is it good that hand harvesting allows stems to be retained
Whole, intact bunches can produce a very clean, pure juice when pressed during white winemaking
It is essential for whole-bunch fermentations in red winemaking