C6 - Vineyard Management Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in C6 - Vineyard Management Deck (185):
1

What are the three main considerations a producer may need to make when choosing a site?

Environmental conditions
Business considerations
Grape variety

2

Which environmental conditions does a producer have to consider?

Average temperature
Rainfall
Sunlight
Soil fertility
Drainage

3

What business considerations must be made by a producer when selecting a vineyard site?

Proximity to utility infrastructure (power, water etc.)
Availability of a vineyard workforce
Accessibility for machinery
Cost of land

4

What must a producer consider regarding grape variety when selecting a site?

It must suit climatic conditions
Demand
Legal restrictions

5

How is a new vineyard prepared?

Existing vegetation is cleared
Fertility tested (and corrected with fertiliser if necessary)
Young vines are planted by hand or machine
Vines protected from animals with plastic sleeves
Irrigation allowed to help young vines establish themselves

6

Why is irrigation allowed in some places after new vines have been planted?

To allow the vines to establish themselves

7

When does a vine's first yield usually come?

In the third year after planting

8

At what age on average are vines usually replaced?

30 - 50 years

9

What is the main factor that makes old vines desirable?

They give a greater concentration of flavours

10

What are the potential disadvantages to growing an old vine?

Lower yield
Susceptibility to disease

11

For how long is a vineyard typically left fallow after the vines are dug up?

Three or more years

12

What are the four main techniques used to manage a vine?

Training
Pruning
Trellising
Planting density

13

The grower will adapt the four main vineyard management techniques to suit the availability of these resources:

Temperature
Sunlight
Water
Soil nutrients

14

Name a practical consideration a grower may have to make when establishing a vineyard

Use of machinery

15

What is the ultimate goal of a grape-grower?

To maximise the production of fruit at the desired quality level as economically as possible

16

What is vine training?

The shape of the permanent wood of the vine

17

What are the two principal branches of vine training?

Head training
Cordon training

18

Both head training and cordon training can be...to benefit from heat retained by the soil or...to avoid frosts

Low trained
High trained

19

Describe a head-trained vine

They have very little permanent wood
Some have only a trunk
Some have a few arms protruding from the trunk
They can be spur-pruned or replacement cane pruned

20

Describe a vine which is cordon trained

A trunk with one or two arms of permanent wood
Usually spur pruned

21

Describe a positive and negative of cordon training a vine

The sturdy permanent cordon with shoots positioned along its length, makes mechanisation easier
It can take longer to establish because of the greater amount of permanent wood

22

Cordon training can also be used to create...

Big vine structures

23

What is pruning?

The removal of unwanted leaves, canes and permanent wood

24

What is the purpose of pruning?

It shapes the vine and limits its size

25

When does pruning typically take place?

Every summer and every winter

26

What is the main purpose of winter pruning?

To determine the number and location of buds that will form shoots in the coming season

27

Why is it important to ensure that buds are not too close together?

To help with canopy management

28

What are the two styles of winter pruning?

Spur pruning
Replacement cane pruning

29

Describe spur pruning

Spurs are either distributed along a cordon or around the top of the trunk

30

Describe replacement cane pruning

Typically one or two canes are retained
Each cane is tied horizontally to the trellis for support
Most common on head-trained vines

31

What are the two main disadvantages to replacement cane pruning?

It requires a large, skilled workforce to choose suitable canes and train them
It is more complex than spur pruning

32

What is the alternative name for replacement cane pruning?

Guyot training

33

What does summer pruning involve?

Trimming the canopy to restrict vegetative growth and direct sugar production to the grape
It can involve leaf stripping so that bunches have optimal exposure to the sun

34

What is a vine's 'canopy'?

All green parts of the vine

35

What is a grower's most important concern when considering canopy management?

Whether to trellis

36

What is a trellis?

A permanent structure of stakes and wires, used to support any replacement canes and the vine's annual growth

37

What is a bush vine?

The vines do not have a trellis system and the shoots can hang down as far as the ground
They are head-trained and spur pruned

38

What kind of climate is a bush-trained vine most suited to? Give two examples...

Warm/hot, dry, sunny
Southern Rhône
Barossa Valley

39

Why is bush-training best suited to a hot, sunny environment?

The extra shade helps to protect the grapes

40

Why is bush-training unsuitable for cool or wet regions?

The shade can impede grape ripening
Lack of airflow can promote disease

41

Describe vines in Beaujolais

They are head-trained and spur-pruned
The buds are tied together at the tips, helping to expose bunches to air and sunlight

42

What kind of vines are not suitable for mechanical harvesting?

Untrellised

43

Give another name for bush-training

Gobelet

44

Describe the two main aspects of trellised vineyards
What is their collective term?

Each row of vines requires a line of posts joined by horizontal wires
Canes and shoots are tied to the trellis
Canopy management

45

What are the three important reasons for canopy management?

To control the amount of sunlight that gets to the canopy
To improve air circulation
To aid mechanisation

46

How does trellising aid mechanisation?

It separates leaves from grapes

47

What is the secondary benefit of separating leaves and fruit?

Spraying of insecticides and fungicides is more effective

48

What is the most widely used trellising system?

Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP)

49

Which pruning system can VSP be used with?

Either

50

Describe VSP

Shoots are trained vertically and tied in place onto the trellis

51

How can VSP be adapted in hot, sunny regions?

Rather than tying the top of the shoots, allowing them to flop over, providing some shade for the fruit

52

Why might a grape grower choose adapted VSP over bush vine training?

It allows for mechanisation

53

How is planting density measured?

It is the number of vines planted in a given area

54

What is a hectare?

An area enclosed by a square with 100m sides

55

What is the rough range of planting densities?

1,000 - 10,000 vines per hectare

56

How does an acre relate to a hectare?

One acre is approximately 0.4 hectares

57

Name a very important set of criteria when deciding on planting density

Availability of nutrients and water

58

Explain the most advantageous planting density considerations for areas with limited water availability

Low planting density allows each vine's roots to take up water from a larger volume of soil without any competition

59

Explain the effect on a vine of having low levels of nutrients but sufficient water?

It can still grow vigorously and produce lots of vegetative growth in preference to fruit

60

In a situation where a vine has plenty of rainfall/water, what may a grower do to reduce vigour?

Plant at high density to provide competition for resources

61

How may pruning be used to affect vine vigour in a well watered area? Describe why accuracy is important

Careful winter pruning can affect vine vigour
Too few buds left means the buds will have too much energy in the form of carbohydrates and will grow too vigorously and vice versa

62

What are the two human-controlled factors in the vineyard which can affect vine vigour?

Planting density
Pruning

63

What is the problem for a winemaker when there is ample rainfall and very fertile soils?

Vines can be overly vigorous
Pruning and planting density are often not enough

64

What is an additional practice which can be used when planting density and pruning aren't enough to reduce vigour sufficiently?

Vines may be planted at low density with multiple cordons or canes

65

What is yield?

A measure of the amount of grapes produced

66

In what units may yield be measured?

Weight
Volume

67

What are the three principal reasons why a winemaker may need to know yield?

Legal requirements
Contractual obligations
Predicting tank space

68

How may yield be approximately predicted?

By observing the number of buds left on a vine after winter pruning

69

Which factors may make predicting yield difficult/inaccurate?

Frost damage
Poor fruit set
Pests and diseases

70

How may yields be reduced by the winemaker?

By removing immature grapes shortly after véraison

71

What is the process of removing immature grapes after véraison called?

Green harvesting

72

Why must green harvesting be carefully timed?

If done at the wrong time, the vine will compensate for the loss by increasing the size of the grapes that have been retained, causing flavour dilution and a re-increase of yield

73

What effect does yield have on grape quality?

No discernible effect

74

What are the broad potential effects of pests and diseases?

Reduced yield
Reduced fruit quality

75

What effect does leaf-damage have on a vine?

It reduces photosynthesis and consequently limits the vine's ripening ability

76

What are nematodes?

Microscopic worms that attack the roots of the vine, interfering with water and nutrient uptake

77

What is the other effect a nematode can have other than interfering with nutrient/water uptake?

Transmitting vine diseases

78

What is the best treatment for nematodes?

Prevention

79

How may nematodes be effectively prevented?

Sanitising the soil before replanting
Using resistant rootstocks

80

What are the two biggest problems when it comes to birds and mammals?

They can eat large numbers of grapes
Half eaten/crushed grapes are more susceptible to fungal disease

81

How are birds and mammals deterred?

Nets and fences

82

What do insects do to a vine?

Feed on grapes and leaves

83

How is the problem of insects treated?

With insecticide sprays or integrated pest management

84

What kind of environment do downy and powdery mildew thrive in?

Warm, humid environments

85

Which parts of the vine can downy and powdery mildew attack?

All green parts

86

What effect does it have on a wine if attacked by mildew?

Grapes lose their fruity flavour
The wine develops a mouldy, bitter taint

87

What is grey rot caused by?

The fungus Botrytis Cinerea

88

In what conditions does grey rot thrive?

Damp conditions

89

Which part of the vine does grey rot attack?

Grapes

90

What effect can grey rot have on black grapes?

They can lose their colour

91

What is noble rot?

The name for grey rot when it has been used for winemaking

92

How was powdery mildew traditionally treated?

With a sulphur-based spray

93

How was downy mildew traditionally treated?

With Bordeaux Mixture - a copper based spray

94

How is spraying most commonly done?

By tractor

95

Why must spraying stop close to harvest?

So that there are no harmful chemical residues in the wine

96

Other than spraying, how may the risk of fungal diseases developing be reduced?

Using appropriate canopy management

97

Explain how canopy management may reduce the chance of fungal disease

An open vine canopy allows greater flow of air, promoting evaporation and keeping it dry

98

What's the big advantage of preventing fungal disease with only canopy management?

It's financially and environmentally beneficial, as sprays are not needed

99

What do viruses do to a vine?

The reduce its ability to function

100

How do viruses affect wine?

They can dramatically reduce yield and quality

101

How are viruses usually spread among vines?

Via cutting or nematodes

102

What treatments are there for vine viruses?

None

103

How can viruses be eradicated?

By digging up vines and sanitising the land

104

How do bacterial diseases affect vines?

Many just reduce grape quality and quantity, but some can kill the vines

105

How are bacterial diseases usually spread?

By small insects called sharpshooters

106

How may bacterial diseases be treated or cured?

They can't

107

How can bacterial diseases be prevented?

Strict quarantine procedures and interrupting the lifecycle of the sharpshooters

108

How may bacterial diseases be eradicated?

Digging up vines and sanitising the land

109

What viticultural practice took off in the second half of the twentieth century?

The use of man made sprays/chemicals to control pests and diseases
An increased use of fertilisers

110

Why has chemical spraying become a concern?

It damages the environment

111

What are the three main options available to those wanting to reduce chemical spraying?

Sustainable agriculture
Organic agriculture
Biodynamic agriculture

112

Are man-made chemicals prohibited in sustainable agriculture?

No

113

Fundamentally, what is sustainable agriculture?

Growers are encouraged to pay closer attention to pest lifecycles and weather, in order to prevent diseases and outbreak before it occurs

114

What is another possible name for sustainable agriculture when related specifically to pests?

Integrated Pest Management

115

How may pest numbers be controlled during IPM?

By encouraging the presence of the pests' natural predators

116

What is organic agriculture?

Similar to sustainable agriculture, but with only a limited number of the traditional treatments against pests and diseases and in smaller quantities
It is a set of accredited practices

117

Why is organic viticulture inconsistent?

Accreditation boards vary with regard to standards

118

What is the one main rule all organic vineyards must follow to be accredited?

They need to undergo a period of conversion before they can be certified

119

Who founded Biodynamic Agriculture?

Rudolf Steiner and Maria Thun

120

What broadly, is biodynamic agriculture?

It adopts organic practices but also incorporates philosophy and cosmology
Vineyard soil is seen as part of a connected system with Earth, the air and other planets
Practitioners adapt growing practices in coincidence with cosmic cycles

121

In biodynamic agriculture, what is used as fertiliser, disease treatment and pest deterrent?

Homeopathic remedies called treatments

122

How does a vineyard officially become biodynamic?

By being certified

123

When does budburst occur in the northern and Southern Hemispheres?

March - April
September - October

124

When does early shoot and leaf growth occur in the northern and Southern Hemispheres?

March - May
September - November

125

Where does flowering and fruit set occur in the northern and Southern Hemispheres?

May - June
November - December

126

When does Véraison and berry ripening occur in the northern and Southern Hemispheres?

July - September
January - March

127

When does harvest occur in the northern and Southern Hemispheres?

September - October
March - April

128

When is winter dormancy in the northern and Southern Hemispheres?

December - March
July - September

129

At what mean temperature does budburst generally begin?

10C

130

The temperature at which budburst occurs depends on...

Grape variety

131

Name two varieties which bud at relatively low temperatures. Give another name for this...

Chardonnay and Pinot Noir
Early-budding varieties

132

Name one variety which buds at relatively low temperatures. Give another name for this...

Cabernet Sauvignon
A late-budding variety

133

What is the biggest risk to budburst?

Spring frosts

134

What practice begins at budburst?

Spraying

135

Describe what happens during 'early shoot and leaf growth'? How is energy provided for this?

Shoots grow rapidly until the vine flowers
Initially fuelled by stored carbohydrate reserves
Energy provided partially by leaves as they grow and begin to photosynthesise

136

When are water and nutrients most important during a plant's lifecycle?

Early shoot and leaf growth

137

If practiced, when does shoot-tying take place?

During early shoot and leaf growth

138

What does the vine most need during flowering? Why?

Warm temperatures
Plenty of sunshine
Little or no rain
Pollination may be disrupted, reducing fruit-set

139

What is fruit set? What else occurs?

When a flower develops into a grape
Unpollinated flowers drop off

140

What is it called when more flowers than normal fail to fertilise?

Coulure

141

What is Millerandage?

When grapes form without seeds and remain small

142

What is the outcome of Coulure or Millerandage?

Reduced yields

143

What is generally the cause of Millerandage and Coulure?

Cold, cloudy or rainy weather during pollination

144

How long do grapes grow before veraison?

6 - 8 weeks

145

What is véraison? Describe it

The point at which grapes begin to ripen
Skin changes colour

146

What occurs between Véraison and ripening?

Grapes swell and fill with water
Sugar levels rise, acid levels drop
Colour pigments and flavour compounds accumulate
Tannins develop

147

What conditions are ideal for ripening?

Warm and sunny conditions
Mild water stress to inhibit shoot growth and encourage grape ripening

148

What processes may happen during berry ripening? What is the purpose?

Summer pruning
Green harvesting
Summer pruning removes excess foliage, ensuring the canopy remains open
Green harvesting controls yield and improves fruit quality

149

What conditions are ideal for harvest? Why?

Dry
Excess rainfall before harvest can cause the grapes to swell, diluting flavour
Chances of rot are increased too

150

When must spraying finish?

A reasonable time before harvest to ensure there are no harmful residues in the wine

151

What happens naturally during winter dormancy?

Shoots become woody
Leaves fall
The vine stores carbohydrates in its roots

152

What effect can winter freeze have on a vine?

Buds can die
The vine can die

153

How may a vine be protected from winter freeze?

By piling earth up around the vine

154

What may a grape grower do during winter dormancy?

Winter pruning

155

How is Véraison defined?

The point at which grapes begin to ripen

156

What signals the start of Véraison?

A change in colour of the grapes' skin

157

What happens to the colours of black and white grapes during Véraison?

Black grapes turn red, then purple
White grapes turn translucent and golden

158

What happens within grapes as they ripen?

Sugar levels rise and acid levels drop

159

How is the ripening process in a grape tracked?

Monitoring the rise in sugar levels

160

What else may happen within a grape as acid levels drop and sugar levels rise?

The grapes will develop their signature flavours
Tannins in the grape skins become less bitter and astringent

161

What dictates when the ideal balance of sugar, acid, flavour and tannin is reached in a grape?

Grape variety
Climate
Style/quality of wine being produced

162

When does harvest ideally begin?

When the vigneron believes the grapes have the exact qualities needed to create the desired style of wine

163

What may cause a winemaker to bring the harvest forward?

Poor weather conditions

164

What does hail do to crops?

Destroys them

165

What can rain do to crops?

Cause the grapes to swell excessively and dilute the juice

166

Why do winemakers need to coordinate the arrival of fruit at the winery?

To make sure it is not suddenly overwhelmed with fruit it does not have the capacity to process

167

How is harvesting done?

By hand or machine

168

Name the main factors which dictate how a vineyard should be harvested

How the vineyard is planted
Labour availability/cost
Vineyard topography
Weather conditions
Winemaking choices

169

How must premium wine be harvested?

By machine or hand

170

How do machine harvesters work?

By shaking the trunk of the vine and collecting the ripe berries as they fall off, leaving the stalks behind

171

What are the major disadvantages/difficulties of machine harvesting?

They are unselective, often collecting unhealthy, damaged and unripe grapes, as well as bits of leaf, insects and other contaminants
They can only be used on flat or gently sloping land
They are best suited to varieties whose grapes are not easily damaged and come away easily from their stems
They cannot be used for wines whose grapes need to be picked in whole bunches

172

What is MOG?

Matter Other than Grapes
Unwanted contaminants collected often by machines during harvest

173

How are MOG dealt with during harvest?

They can be removed at the winery during sorting

174

When might it not be possible to sort out MOG?

Some harvesting operations are too large

175

What is arguably the biggest advantage of machine harvesting?

Speed

176

Give two reasons as to why speed is such a big benefit when it comes to machine-harvesting

The vintage may be threatened by bad weather
Some varieties may become overripe very quickly

177

Why might it be beneficial that machines can work overnight? Explain your answer

Grapes can be brought back to the winery when they are still cool
If they are cool, money is saved on cooling them before fermentation
It slows down the process of oxidation

178

Name two wines whose grapes need to be picked in whole bunches

Champagne
Beaujolais

179

Describe hand harvesting

It involves pickers cutting off individual bunches of grapes with secateurs

180

List the three main disadvantages of hand harvesting

It is slower
It is more labour-intensive
It can be more expensive

181

What is the biggest advantage of hand-harvesting?

It allows grape selection to take place in the vineyard

182

For which wines is hand-harvesting essential? Why?

Those requiring grapes affected by noble rot
Onset and level of rot can vary between bunches
Less damage occurs
Grapes can be further protected from damage by transporting them in shallow, stackable trays

183

Unlike machine harvesting, the...are retained

Stems

184

Why is it good that hand harvesting allows stems to be retained

Whole, intact bunches can produce a very clean, pure juice when pressed during white winemaking
It is essential for whole-bunch fermentations in red winemaking

185

Give three examples of places where machine harvesting is not possible. Give the reason

Douro
Mosel
Northern Rhône