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Flashcards in C22 - Germany Deck (155):
1

What climate does the majority of Germany's vineyard areas have?

Cool continental (with the associated viticultural challenges) Wet summers with rain declining in autumn

2

Where in Germany are vineyards noticeably warmer?

Baden in the far south

3

What effect does Germany's climate have on grapes?

The long, cool ripening period allows grapes to reach sugar ripeness while retaining acidity

4

What kind of wines can be made in every region of Germany?

Botrytised sweet wines

5

Why is there so much variance in German wines from year to year?

Due to high variations in annual water conditions

6

What is the result of the marginal conditions in Germany?

Small differences in vineyards can have a large impact on the wines produced

7

Describe the typically best site in all german regions

Steep, often stony slopes Southerly aspect

8

Describe grape-growing practices in Germany

Worked on by hand In steepest parts, equipment is manoeuvred into place by winches Vines are head-pruned, individually staked with canes tied in at the top of the stakes to maximise grape exposure to light and air circulation

9

What might the benefit be to a vine's proximity to rivers in Germany?

Reflected sunlight can help grapes to ripen Air movement caused by flowing water can help to protect against frosts

10

By which oenological characteristic are grapes classified in Germany? What effect does this have on the growing season?

By must weight (level of sugar in grape juice) The harvest can be spread out over a period of weeks and months

11

It is possible to make a range of Qualitätsweine and Prädikatsweine each year from...

An individual vineyard

12

How will harvest be performed in vineyards producing different levels of Qualitätsweine?

Pickers will pass through the vineyard several times to ensure that they get the ideal grapes for each category of wine

13

Besides picking-passes, how else may grapes be sorted for different levels of wine in Germany?

They may be sorted and categorised after each picking

14

What is the style trend in Germany? What has dictated this?

For dry wines The demands of the local market

15

How may the red and white wines (of varying quality) of Germany be sold?

As Qualitätsweine

16

Why are the dry red and white mass wines of Germany not usually labelled as Prädikatsweine?

This is largely the preserve of white wines

17

In terms of vineyard plantings and quality, what is the most important wine grape of Germany?

Riesling

18

Which grape must be used for Prädikatsweine?

There are several options

19

What is the most widely planted grape variety in Germany?

Riesling

20

What is the style of Riesling wines in Germany?

It varies due to differences in soil and climate From delicate and floral, to richer peachy fruit character Bone dry to lusciously sweet

21

How are dry styles of Riesling in Germany often labelled?

Qualitätsweine

22

What is the style range for dry Rieslings in Germany?

From light and fruity to very concentrated and intense

23

How are many of the very best dry Rieslings of Germany labelled?

Grosses Gewächs (GG)

24

Nearly all wines labelled as Prädikatsweine will have...

Residual sugar

25

Up to which category is possible to make a wine in a dry style?

Auslese

26

What is the key to understanding Prädikatsweine?

To think of them as an indicator of style

27

What is the most delicate of the Prädikatsweine styles?

Kabinett

28

Describe Kabinett wines

What levels of alcohol do they attain?

Light in body

High acidity

Flavours of green apple or citrus fruit, balanced with residual sweetness

Sweet styles will have an alcohol level of 8-9% abv

Drier styles can reach 12% abv

29

How can Kabinett wines be made sweet?

By stopping fermentation early (better quality wines) By adding sugar after fermentation (Süssreserve)

30

Why is stopping fermentation seen as a better quality way of creating sweetness?

It achieves a better sugar/acid balance

31

Describe Spätlese wines

Made in the same way as Kabinett wines, but more concentrated, riper and with a little more body, alcohol and sometimes sweetness

Citrus and stone fruit aromas (peach or apricot)

32

Describe Auslese wines

Made from individually selected extra-ripe bunches Richer and riper than Spätlese wines Noble rot can be involved

33

Describe Beerenauslese (BA) and Trockenbeerenauslese (TBA) wines

Noble rot essential to achieving required must weights for TBA - not essential for BA wines, but noble rot still typical Some sites more suitable than others, but these styles not necessarily produced every year Volumes vary considerably when produced Sweet and low in alcohol Flavours of honey, dried stone fruit, candied peel and flowers Some of the best sweet wines in the world

34

Describe Eiswein

Genuinely rare and made infrequently Very sweet Pure varietal fruit flavours

35

What is the flavour focus of Eiswein?

Varietal purity The best Eisweins achieve a balance between acidity and sweetness

36

Which additional winemaking methods may winemakers use to maintain varietal flavours in Eiswein?

Using carefully selected yeast, handling juice with care and avoiding processes which can mask the flavours of the grape such as MLF and new oak

37

Give an alternative name for Müller-Thurgau

Rivaner

38

When was Müller-Thurgau created and between which grapes?

1880s

Riesling and Madeleine Royale

39

How does MT compare with Riesling?

It ripens earlier, but does not have the same level of acidity or intensity of flavour

40

What kinds of flavours can Müller-Thurgau produce?

Attractive floral and fruity flavours

41

What are quality levels of MT like in Germany?

Rarely high

42

What is the second most widely planted white grape variety in Germany?

Müller-Thurgau

43

Which white grape is on a steady decline? Why?

Müller-Thurgau The market for inexpensive medium-dry/medium-sweet Qualitätsweine made from the variety has declined

44

What is Germany's third most widely planted white grape variety?

Silvaner

45

Where is Silvaner mainly found in Germany?

In those regions where it has traditionally been strong Particularly Rheinhessen and Franken

46

What style is Silvaner made into?

Dry and sweet styles

47

What is the profile of Silvaner wines in Germany?

Less acidic and less overtly fruity than Riesling Sometimes have an earthy quality

48

What kind of quality can Silvaner produce?

High quality on the right sites

49

Name the 'other' white varieties which are growing in importance in Germany

Grauburgunder (Pinot Gris) Weißburgunder (Pinot Blanc)

50

How are Grauburgunder and Weißburgunder often labelled?

Using the French or Italian name

51

What style are Grauburgunder and Weißburgunder often made into?

Dry styles

52

How else is Spätburgunder known?

Pinot Noir

53

What is the third most planted grape variety in Germany?

Spätburgunder

54

What kind of German vineyards does Spätburgunder thrive in?

The warmer sites

55

Where is Spätburgunder most important in Germany?

Pfalz and Baden

56

What styles are Spätburgunder wines made into?

Dry Either relatively light and fruity or in a more concentrated style with oak aromas

57

Which is the second most widely planted black variety in Germany?

Dornfelder

58

What is fairly unique to Dornfelder wines in Germany?

They are very deeply coloured

59

List three more popular black grape varieties in Germany What style do they usually produce?

Portugieser Trollinger Scwarzriesling (Pinot Meunier) Usually light-bodied and fruity wines, though some intensely coloured and flavoured examples with oak character do exist

60

How are Germany's less popular red wines marketed?

As Qualitätsweine and consumed by the domestic market

61

Where is the Mosel region?

Between where it joins the Rhine and the German border and its two small tributaries; the Saar and the Ruwer

62

Which grapes dominate the Mosel?

White grapes Mostly Riesling

63

Which varieties are permitted for Grosses Gewächs wines in the Mosel?

Only Riesling

64

Where in the Mosel is production concentrated?

In the centre of the region, in an area called the Middle Mosel

65

What are the Middle Mosel villages with an established reputation for top-quality wine?

Piesport Bernkastel Wehlen

66

Describe the best vineyards of the Middle Mosel

Very steep slopes Slate soils Right next to the river

67

Describe the Riesling wines of Mosel's best vineyards

Lighter in body, lower in alcohol and higher in acidity than those of Rheingau, Rheinhessen and Pfalz

Floral and green fruit flavours

68

How many plantings of Riesling are in the cooler Saar and Ruwer areas of Mosel

Only a tiny percentage of the overall plantings

69

How do the best wines of the Saar/Ruwer compare with those of the Middle Mosel?

They are comparable in style and quality, with even more acidity

70

What can happen in the Mosel in cooler vintages?

Grapes may not ripen in even the best sites The grapes may then be used in sparkling wine production

71

Where is the Nahe region?

Between Mosel and Rheinhessen

72

Where are the best sites in Nahe?

On steep, south-facing slopes on the banks of the river Nahe, between the villages of Schlossböckelheim and Bad Kreuznach

73

What are the best wines of Nahe made from?

Riesling

74

What is the most widely planted variety of Nahe?

Riesling

75

What style is Riesling made into in Nahe?

Somewhere between that of Mosel and the fuller-bodied style of Rheingau, Rheinhessen and Pfalz

Pronounced acidity of Mosel

Riper fruit character than that of Mosel due to warmer character

76

Which varieties are permitted for Grosses-Gewächs wines in Nahe?

Riesling only

77

How is Rheingau best described?

Small but prestigious

78

Where is Rheingau?

North of Rheinhessen, east of Mosel

79

Where in Rheingau are most vineyards situated? Describe them

On the slopes of the north bank of the River Rhine (in the west of the region) and the River Main (in the east) They have a southerly aspect

80

Other than their southerly aspect, what other feature of the best sites in Rheingau contributes to their favourable terroir?

The protection from winds offered by the Taunus Hills to the north

81

Where are the majority of vineyards in Rheingau?

On the slopes to the west of the region and surrounding the villages of Johannisberg and Rüdesheim

82

Which grape variety dominates plantings in Rheingau?

Riesling

83

What style are the wines of Rheingau?

Dry

84

Describe Rieslings of Rheingau

Medium to full-body

Distinctive ripe peach character

85

What other style of wines can be made in Rheingau? Why?

Some of Germany's best BA and TBA wines

Due to high humidity

86

Around which village to the east of Rheingau are vineyards centred around?

Hochheim

87

Describe wines from around Hochheim

Can be riper and fuller bodied due to a slightly warmer climate

88

Which other grape variety can do well in Rheingau? Where specifically?

Spätburgunder

To the west of Rüdesheim in the village of Assmannhausen

89

Which grapes of Rheingau can be used for Grosses Gewächs wines?

Riesling

Spätburgunder

90

What is the largest wine region in Germany?

Rheinhessen

91

Which varieties are planted in Rheinhessen?

There's a very broad range of varieties planted

92

What are the most planted white varieties in Rheinhessen?

Müller-Thurgau and Riesling

93

Which red varieties dominate in Rheinhessen?

What percentage of plantings do they occupy here?

Dornfelder

Portugieser

Spätburgunder

30%

94

Which wines of Rheinhessen can be used for GG?

Riesling

Spätburgunder

95

Where are the best wines of Rheinhessen produced?

On the steeply terraced vineyards on the west bank of the Rhine, centred around the village of Nierstein

96

What are the terraces around Nierstein sometimes called?

The Rheinterrasse

97

What reputation do the Rheinterrasse have in the wine world of Germany?

As producing some the fullest bodied Rieslings in Germany

98

What other wine movement is happening in Germany? Whereabouts and what is happening?

In some less known parts of Rheinhessen e.g. the area in the south near Worms, top-quality wines have begun to be produced

99

What reputation does Rheinhessen have?

As a result of its new winemaking movement, it has a reputation for innovation and excellence

100

What is the second largest wine producing area of Germany?

Pfalz

101

How can the vineyards of Pfalz be seen geographically?

As a continuation of the vineyards of Alsace

102

Describe the vineyards of Pfalz

They run in a narrow 80km strip from the french border and lie to the east of the Haardt mountains (which are a continuation of the Vosges mountains)

103

Describe the climate of Pfalz and its effect on vines

It is the driest of the German regions and the vines can suffer from water stress

104

What is the most widely planted variety in Pfalz?

Riesling

105

What reputation does Pfalz have in Germany for winemaking?

It has the longest reputation for high quality winemaking

106

Which other white grape is widely grown in Pfalz?

Müller-Thurgau

Increasing plantings of Grauburgunder and Weißburgunder

107

What percentage of vineyard area do black grape plantings account for in Pfalz?

Just under 40%

108

What is the second most planted grape of either colour in Pfalz?

Dornfelder

109

Which other red grapes are grown in Pfalz?

Portugieser (for the local market)

Spätburgunder (which is gaining an international reputation)

110

From which varieties can GG wines be made in Pfalz?

Riesling

Weißburgunder

Spätburgunder

111

Where are Pfalz's most established quality vineyards located?

Forst

Deidesheim

112

What is the collective name for Forst and Deidesheim?

Mittelhaardt

113

Where in relation to Mittelhaardt are the vineyards?

On the steep slopes to the west

114

What is the style of wines produced in Mittelhaardt?

Ripe and fuller-bodied

115

Besides Rheinhessen, where else in Germany are new and young producers making top-quality wines?

Pfalz

116

What style are the wines of Pfalz being made into?

Drier styles

117

What is the warmest/most southerly region of Germany?

Baden

118

What are the wines of Baden like?

Fullest-bodied with highest alcohols

119

Describe the size of Baden

The vineyards are spread over a large area, but in terms of vineyard area, it's only the third largest in Germany

120

Where in Baden are most of the vineyards located?

They are spaced out over a narrow strip of land that follows the Rhine to the Swiss border

121

Around which areas are nearly a third of plantings focused in Baden?

Kaiserstuhl and Tuniberg (opposite Colmar in Alsace)

122

How and where are the best vineyards of Baden situated?

They are on the south facing slope of Kaiserstuhl (an extinct volcano)

123

What is the most widely planted variety in Baden?

Spätburgunder

124

Which area has the best reputation for Spätburgunder in Baden?

Kaiserstuhl

125

After Spätburgunder, what are the most widely planted varieties in Baden, listed in descending order?

Müller-Thurgau Grauburgunder Weißburgunder Riesling

126

Which variety can be used for GG wines in Baden?

A range of red and white wines can be used

127

What is unusual about Franken in relation to the rest of Germany?

Riesling is neither most widely planted, nor is it considered to be prestigious

128

What is seen as the top wine grape of Franken?

Silvaner

129

What are the key viticultural characteristics of Silvaner?

Early flowering and ripening Susceptible to frost damage

130

On what kinds of sites is Silvaner planted in Franken?

In the warmest sites

131

What is the result of Silvaner being planted in the warmest sites of Franken?

It is able to reach a level of ripeness rarely achieved elsewhere in Germany

132

Where are the best wines of Franken?

From the south-facing slopes around Würzburg

133

Describe the best wines of Franken

Dry, with a richness on the palate With an earthy quality

134

What is distinctive about the way Franken Silvaner is packaged?

They are bottled in distinctive flask-shaped bottles

135

Which varieties can be used for GG wines?

Silvaner Riesling Weißburgunder Grauburgunder Spätburgunder

136

How are some German PGI wines labelled?

Landwein

137

How is German wine without a GI labelled?

Deutscher Wein

138

How many delimited regions are there for German PDO wines?

13

139

What is the big difference between Germany's delimited regional PDO system and France's?

Germany's is not linked to specific grape varieties

140

How are German wines typically labelled?

Varietally and classified by minimum must weight at harvest

141

What are the two fundamental levels in the German classification system?

Qualitätswein

Prädikatswein

142

How is the Prädikatswein level divided?

Into six Prädikat levels

143

All PDO wines in Germany must come from...

Only one region

144

What must appear on a German PDO label?

The name of the region For Prädikatsweine, the Prädikat level Varietal labelling is common

145

Other than Prädikat levels, how may different levels of wines be labelled?

Dry= Trocken Off-dry/medium= Halbtrocken

146

What is the alternative to Halbtrocken as a labelling term in Germany? Why may this be used instead?

Feinherb Some producers believe 'Halbtrocken' has an association with lower quality wines

147

What is the legal definition of 'Feinherb'?

There is no legal definition

148

Other than written indications, how else may sugar levels be deduced for a German wine?

From the wine category or alcohol level

149

When stated on German labels, how is vineyard location expressed? Give an example

Village name followed by vineyard name Piesporter Goldtröpfchen

150

How from the location name, may one deduce whether a German wine is from a single vineyard or multiple?

It is not possible from location labelling, but price is a good indicator

151

List in order, German categories by minimum must weight, from lowest to highest, including what style they can be made into

Qualitätswein - dry to medium sweet Prädikatswein Kabinett - dry to medium sweet Spätlese- dry to medium sweet Auslese - dry to sweet Beerenauslese - sweet only Eiswein - sweet only Trockenbeerenauslese - sweet only

152

How may quality be indicated on a German label?

There is no legally defined labelling term indicating quality

153

Which German organisation has attempted to address the issue of labelling quality indications? Who are they?

Verband Deutscher Prädikatsweingüter (VDP) A group of producers who have classified the vast majority of the best vineyard sites in Germany

154

For which wines may Grosses Gewächs be used? How does it appear on labels?

Dry Qualitätsweine from the best vineyard sites

'GG' and a bunch of grapes embossed on the neck of the bottle

155

When did GG become a part of German law?

It is not a part of German law