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Flashcards in C39 - Australia Deck (179):
1

Describe the size of Australia

Its land mass is similar to that of the United States and larger than that of Europe

2

What is the general climate temperature in Australia? What is the main reason?

Warm or hot The southerly latitude

3

What are the main climate tempering influences in Australia?

The Southern or Indian Ocean or the Murray River system

4

Which areas of Australia are tempered by altitude?

Adelaide Hills and Eden Valley

5

What is rainfall like in many growing regions of Australia?

Very low, so irrigation is necessary

6

What can happen in Australia in years of extreme drought?

Waters from Murray River can run low (these are vital for irrigation)

7

Murray River is a vital source of water for inland areas such as...

Riverland

Murray-Darling

8

What is a risk in Australia as a result of high summer temperatures and drought?

Bush fires

9

Why are bush fires a risk even if they do not destroy crops?

The smoke can come into contact with grapes, which can taint the flavour of resulting wine

10

Many producers in Australia are seeking sites with...

Cool or moderate climates

11

What has been the result of the search for cooler climates in Australia?

Plantings have increased in high altitude sites and in Tasmania (it has a more southerly latitude)

12

What is Australia's principal grape variety of either colour?

Shiraz

13

...is grown widely in most regions of Australia

Shiraz

14

Describe the Shiraz produced in hot and warm regions of Australia

Full-bodied and intensely fruity Often display earthy or spicy notes and develop leather aromas with age

15

Describe the other style of Shiraz produced in the warmer areas of Australia

Producers are making a more restrained style by controlling the level of extraction in the winemaking process

16

Where is the leaner, more peppery style of Shiraz made in Australia?

Cooler regions such as Geelong and Heathcote

17

What are the styles of Shiraz available in Australia?

Full-bodied, lean and peppery or a multi-regional blend of the two

18

What is the role of Shiraz in Australian multi-varietal blends?

It performs a similar role to Merlot in Bordeaux, adding softness to Cabernet blends

19

Describe Australian Cabernet

Generally dark with firmer tannins and higher acidity than Shiraz

Ripe black fruit (blackcurrant, black cherry)

Toasty oak notes

20

Give two classic regions for Cabernet Sauvignon in Australia

Coonawarra

Margaret River

21

What is the role of Merlot in Australia?

Typically found in blended wines

Often alongside Cabernet, to provide body and fleshy, plummy fruit

22

Where in Australia are the best examples of Pinot Noir grown? Give examples

Cool or moderate sites

Yarra Valley

Mornington Peninsula

Tasmania

23

Describe the style of Pinot Noir from premium sites

Medium body Medium alcohol Medium to high acidity Typical flavours of cherry and strawberry

24

Which varieties do best in Australia's hot regions?

Grenache Petit Verdot Mataro

25

Besides Grenache, Petit Verdot and Mataro, which other varieties have gained in popularity in Australia's hot regions? Why?

Varieties from Italy and Spain such as Sangiovese and Tempranillo They are well adapted to high summer temperatures and a limited water supply

26

What is the most planted white wine grape in Australia?

Chardonnay

27

Describe basic Australian Chardonnay

Often a blend of fruit from different regions Unoaked for peachy flavours Oak chips/staves for toast/vanilla flavours

28

What are the cool/moderate sources of high quality Chardonnay in Australia?

Adelaide Hills

Mornington Peninsula

Yarra Valley

29

Name a warm region source of Chardonnay in Australia

Margaret River

30

Describe top examples of Chardonnay in Australia

Beautifully balanced with fresh, vibrant fruit complemented by subtle flavours from careful use of lees, MLF and/or oak maturation

31

What is now being planted widely in Australia, thanks to domestic and export market?

Sauvignon Blanc

32

Which area of Australia is said to produce its benchmark of Sauvignon Blanc?

Adelaide Hills

33

What is the general temperature of the climate in Adelaide Hills?

Moderate

34

Name the key features of Sauvignon Blanc from Adelaide Hills

Tend to show concentrated passion fruit flavours as well as refreshing high acidity

35

Which white grape makes a style which is unique to Australia?

Semillon

36

Where in Australia is Semillon planted?

It is planted widely

37

What is the classic region for Semillon in Australia?

Hunter Valley

38

How is Semillon typically made in Adelaide Hills?

It is harvested early with low sugar levels and high acidity Oxygen contact is kept to a minimum Inert vessels used for fermentation and storage

39

Describe the Semillons of Adelaide Hills

Low alcohol

Neutral in flavour when first bottled

Develop extraordinary flavours of honey and toast

Can age for 20 years or more

40

List the styles and locations of Semillon in Australia other than those made in Adelaide Hills

Western Australia: Herbaceous style, very similar to Sauvignon Blanc

Barossa Valley: Fuller bodied and softer. Some early-picked and unoaked styles being made

41

Describe the general style of Riesling in Australia

Dry/slightly off-dry (some sweet styles are made)

High acidity

Unoaked

Pronounced citrus fruit aromas and flavours of lime, lemon and/or grapefruit in youth

Flavours develop into toast, honey and petrol

42

What are the classic regions for Riesling in Australia?

Clare Valley and Eden Valley in South Australia

43

Which regions of Australia are beginning to develop a reputation for high quality Riesling?

Tasmania and the Franklin River sub-region of Western Australia

44

What is the flavour difference between the Rieslings of South Australia and those of Western Australia?

In western Australia they are more floral than citrusy

45

What is the largest zone in Australia?

South Eastern Australia Zone

46

What comprises the South Eastern Australia Zone?

It is a 'super-zone' comprised of all the GIs within South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland

 

47

What does the South Eastern Australia Zone allow for in winemaking?

Blending of grapes or wines from across most of Australia's wine regions

48

Describe wines labelled with South Eastern Australia

The majority are high volume brands and take advantage of being able to source fruit from the fertile , irrigated vineyards of Riverland in South Australia, Murray-Darling in Victoria and Riverina in New South Wales

49

Describe grapes of Riverland, Murray-Darling and Riverina

Can produce high yields of healthy grapes

Lack the flavour concentration of those from other, high-quality areas

50

How may the lack of flavour concentration from high yield areas of Australia be remedied?

By blending in components from regions such as Barossa, Adelaide Hills or McLaren Vale The choice of components depends on grape variety, style and price point

51

What else does Riverina specialise in?

The production of botrytised wines made from Semillon

52

What in Riverina encourages the development of noble rot?

Autumn morning mists and fogs

53

In which zone is the majority of Australia's wine produced?

South Australia

54

Where in South Australia are the vineyards mostly located?

They are mostly concentrated in the south east of the state

55

What are the advantages of labelling a wine with South Australia? What kind of producers use it?

It gives producers a range of premium vineyard locations, offering different characteristics Some of Australia's most prestigious and expensive wines take advantage of the opportunities provided by the GI

56

Which wine region is to the north east of Adelaide?

Barossa Valley

57

Which region of Australia is considered the heartland of the country's fine wine production?

Barossa Valley

58

Roughly what is the climate in Barossa Valley?

Warm and dry

59

What are vines like in Barossa Valley?

Bush vines

60

What are the outstanding grape varieties of Barossa Valley?

Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Grenache

61

Describe classic Barossa Valley Shiraz

Full-bodied

Soft tannins

Ripe black fruit

Sweet American oak

Develops leather and spice with age

62

What is the most notable white variety of Barossa Valley?

Semillon

63

What style of Semillon is made in Barossa Valley?

Increasingly made in a fresh, unoaked style

64

Describe wines labelled Barossa

Come from Barossa zone and can be made from fruit sourced from Barossa Valley and Eden Valley

65

Where is Eden Valley?

In the hills to the east of the Barossa Valley

66

Describe the climate of Eden Valley

Cool to moderate climate that varies with altitude

67

What is made with success in the cooler vineyards of Eden Valley?

Outstanding quality Rieslings

68

Describe the best Rieslings of Eden Valley

Intense lime and grapefruit aromas Steely character The best display marmalade and toasty characters after ten years

69

Besides Riesling, what else is grown with success in Eden Valley?

Shiraz, Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon

70

Where is Clare Valley?

To the north west of Barossa Valley

71

What is the speciality of Clare Valley?

Riesling

72

Describe the climate in Clare Valley

Warm climate

Tempered by cool afternoon breezes

Nights are cold

73

What is the topography of Clare Valley?

Many vineyards are planted at altitude (300 - 400m) Some vineyards as high as 570m

74

Describe Clare Valley Rieslings

Dry in style Intense citrus and lime aromas High acidity With age, they can develop honey and toast characters

75

Describe Clare Valley Shiraz

Fragrant, powerful and structured

76

What else is produced to a high quality in Clare Valley, besides Riesling and Shiraz?

Cabernet Sauvignon

77

Describe Cabernet in Clare Valley

It's made into different styles, depending on vineyard location, soil and elevation

78

Where is the Adelaide Hills region?

Twenty-five kilometres east of Adelaide

79

What is the climate of the Adelaide Hills region?

Moderate climate Rainfall in the winter

80

What are the growing conditions like in Adelaide Hills?

Vineyards are planted above 400m Soils have limited water holding capacity

81

What is the consequence of the low water-holding capacity of the soils in Adelaide Hills?

Irrigation is often necessary during the growing season

82

What are the specialities of Adelaide Hills?

Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay

83

Describe the style of Chardonnay made in Adelaide Hills

Elegant

High natural acidity

Pronounced citrus and peach aromas

84

What is the 'third' grape of Adelaide Hills?

Pinot Noir

85

How is Pinot Noir used in Adelaide Hills?

For still red wines For blending with Chardonnay for sparkling wine

86

Where is the McLaren Vale?

On the coast to the south of Adelaide

87

Describe the climate in McLaren Vale

Warm climate Tempered by afternoon ocean breezes

88

What is the majority of wine produced in McLaren Vale?

Red wines from Shiraz, Cabernet, Merlot and Grenache

89

What are wines generally like in McLaren Vale?

Intensely flavoured Dark fruit aromas Soft, ripe tannins

90

Some wines are made with depth and complexity in McLaren Vale. What are they made from?

Old vine Shiraz and Grenache

91

Which region is directly south of Riverland, within the Limestone Coast?

Coonawarra

92

Describe Coonawarra

A narrow strip of land 1.5 kilometres wide and 15 kilometres long

93

Where is Coonawarra?

400km south-east of Adelaide, towards the Victorian border

94

Describe the soil of Coonawarra

Distinctive red terra rossa soil over a limestone subsoil

95

What is the climate of Coonawarra?

Moderate maritime Influenced by cold currents from the Antarctic Summer temperatures moderated by cloud cover

96

What is the predominant grape in Coonawarra?

Cabernet Sauvignon

97

Describe Cabernet from Coonawarra

Concentrated, structured wines Characteristic blackcurrant and eucalyptus or menthol aromas Best examples age very well

98

Besides Cabernet, what else is widely planted in Coonawarra?

Shiraz, Merlot and Chardonnay

99

Where is the Victoria zone?

The far southern tip of Australia

100

What is the climate broadly like in Victoria?

It offers some of the coolest vineyard locations on mainland Australia

101

Describe the wine regions around Melbourne and Port Phillip Bay and their grapes

Benefit from ocean breezes, giving conditions cool enough to grow high quality Pinot Noir, Chardonnay and grapes for sparkling wine

102

What is further inland in Victoria? How does it affect growing?

The Great Dividing Range Provides a range of altitudes and aspects

103

Name two high altitude areas around Victoria's Great Dividing Range

Macedon Ranges Upper Goulburn

104

What's made in the higher altitude areas of The Great Dividing Range in Victoria?

Elegant Pinot Noir and Chardonnay Aromatic Riesling and Sauvignon Blanc

105

What do the regions of the lower slopes of The Great Dividing Range generally produce?

They grow later-ripening black varieties such as Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon

Fresher and lighter than those from Australia's hotter regions

106

Which region is directly to the north-east of Melbourne?

The Yarra Valley

107

What is the climate of Yarra Valley?

Cool to moderate Maritime

108

What is the terroir of Yarra Valley like?

Very varied with a wide range of altitudes and aspects

109

What is the speciality of the Yarra Valley?

Pinot Noir

110

What are the main styles of wine produced in Yarra Valley?

High quality table wines

Excellent quality sparkling wines

111

Describe Yarra Valley Pinot Noir

Ripe, soft tannins Rich fruit with strawberries, plums and dark cherries Complexity added by careful oak handling Age-worthy when made by top producers

112

Which grapes other than Pinot Noir can be made successfully in Yarra Valley? Why?

Chardonnay, Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (though never with quite the weight of similar wines made in other regions) Due to the wide geographical diversity

113

What is the speciality of Mornington Peninsula?

Pinot Noir and Chardonnay

114

Where is Mornington Peninsula?

To the south of Melbourne, on the coast

115

What is the climate in Mornington Peninsula?

Cool to moderate maritime climate

116

What kind of wineries is Mornington Peninsula home to?

Small, boutique estates

117

What is vintage variation like in Mornington Peninsula?

It varies a lot, due to the chance of cool, wet and windy weather at flowering and often at harvest

118

Describe weather and wines in the best seasons at Mornington Peninsula

Long growing season, producing fragrant, elegant wines with finesse

119

Describe Pinot Noir from Mornington Peninsula

It ranges from light and delicate to more structured

All tends to display very pure fruit characteristics

120

Describe Chardonnays from Mornington Peninsula

High acidity (reflecting the cool climate) Usually softened by MLF Citrus, pear and apple aromas

121

Where is the Geelong region?

West of Melbourne

122

What is the climate of Geelong?

Similar to that of Mornington Peninsula

123

What is the reputation of Geelong Chardonnay?

It's renowned for its quality

124

Describe Chardonnay from Geelong

Complex, concentrated and full bodied

125

What are the major red grapes of Geelong?

Pinot Noir and Shiraz

126

Describe Pinot Noir from Geelong

Can take on earthy aromas

127

Describe Shiraz from Geelong

Fresh and peppery

128

What else is made in Geelong?

Sparkling wine from Chardonnay and Pinot Noir

129

Where is Heathcote?

In the centre of Victoria, much further inland than the Yarra Valley, Mornington Peninsula and Geelong

130

Where do Heathcote's cooling influences come from?

Altitude rather than the ocean

131

What is the climate of Heathcote?

Moderate

132

Describe Shiraz from Heathcote

Firmer fruit structure and fresher fruit than those of other regions

133

What is planted in Heathcote other than Shiraz?

Chardonnay and Cabernet Mediterranean varieties are showing promise e.g. Sangiovese and Tempranillo

134

Where is Goulburn Valley?

To the east of Heathcote in the Goulburn Valley Region

135

What is the climate in Goulburn Valley?

Warm

136

How is the temperature of Goulburn Valley mitigated?

By the lakes and creeks associated with the Goulburn River

137

What is the most planted variety in Goulburn Valley?

Shiraz

138

What is the speciality of the Goulburn Valley area?

Marsanne

139

What are the Marsanne wines of Goulburn Valley like?

Citrus fruit in youth Developing honeyed aromas with bottle age

140

What is the reputation of New South Wales?

The longest history of wine production in Australia

141

What is the main region of New South Wales?

Hunter Valley

142

What is the general temperature of Hunter Valley?

Hot

143

Which areas of New South Wales are slightly cooler?

Mudgee, Orange and Cowra

144

Where are the vineyards of Mudgee, Orange and Cowra?

Inland from Sydney on the western slopes of the Great Dividing Range

145

Describe the vineyards of New South Wales's cooler regions and what they produce

They are at altitude and are capable of producing some very concentrated Chardonnays and structured Cabernet Sauvignons

146

Describe the climate of Hunter Valley

Hot and humid Effect of summer heat reduced by high cloud cover and ocean breezes

147

Describe the main weather hazard of Hunter Valley

Unsettled rainy weather at harvest

148

How is rot minimised in Hunter Valley?

With good canopy management techniques

149

What is the most planted grape in Hunter Valley?

Semillon

150

Describe Semillon wines of Hunter Valley

Light bodied Low alcohol High acidity Neutral flavours that develop into toast, nut and honey with bottle age

151

What is the second most planted white variety in Hunter Valley?

Chardonnay

152

What style is Chardonnay made into in Hunter Valley?

Both oaked and unoaked

153

What is the black variety with the largest production in Hunter Valley?

Shiraz

154

Describe Shiraz from Hunter Valley

Medium body

Soft tannins

Black fruit flavours (blackberry and cherry)

Earthy undertone

155

Where are the wine regions of Western Australia?

In the south-west tip of the state

156

What is the largest appellation of Western Australia? Describe it

Western Australia

The fruit or wine from its regions can be blended together

157

What are the only Australian wines not part of South Eastern Australia?

Those of Western Australia

158

Where is Margaret River?

Western Australia 200km south of Perth

159

Describe the climate in Margaret River

Warm maritime climate High rainfall (but falls mainly in winter)

160

What is the most widely planted red grape in Margaret River?

Cabernet Sauvignon

161

How does Cabernet often appear in Margaret River?

As a blend with Merlot

162

What are the styles of Margaret River's Bordeaux blends?

From elegant and restrained to fruity and powerful

163

Describe Chardonnays of Margaret River

Concentrated stone fruit

High levels of natural acidity

A range of styles using MLF and barrel ageing

164

What other white grapes are widely grown in Margaret River?

Sauvignon Blanc Semillon

165

Describe the role of Sauvignon Blanc in Margaret River and its wines

It's often blended with Semillon

Attractive gooseberry and tropical fruit aromas with high acidity

166

Which area of Margaret River is relatively new? What is it called?

The area to the south

Great Southern region

167

Name two sub-regions within Margaret River's Great Southern region What are they known for?

Mount Barker and Frankland River Deeply coloured Cabernet Sauvignon, elegant, peppery Shiraz and floral Riesling

168

What is the climate of Tasmania?

Cool maritime Cooled by westerly winds off the Southern Ocean Generally free from extremes

169

What is Tasmania's original reputation in wine?

As a prime source of base wine for Australian sparkling wine

170

What are the principal varieties of Tasmania now?

Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Gris and some Cabernet Sauvignon (in the warmest, driest areas)

171

What is the hierarchy of GIs in Australia?

Zones, regions and sub-regions

172

Describe what a zone is in Australia

A large area without any particularly qualifying attributes Can be a state or cover several states

173

... can also make up part of a state in Australia, but with the exception of ..., these are rare

Zones Barossa

174

Give examples of regions in Australia

Coonawarra, Clare Valley, Margaret River etc.

175

Describe what a region is in Australia

Vary in size, but are smaller than zones Must have consistent and distinct qualities from neighbouring regions

176

Many regions in Australia are split into...

Sub-regions

177

How many regions may a sub-region fall across in Australia?

One

178

T or F: Some Australian regions are covered by several zones

True

179

Give an example of a region in Australia which is covered by several zones

Eden Valley is in Barossa Zone, which is within South Australia Zone, which is in South Eastern Australia Zone