Describe the size of Australia
Its land mass is similar to that of the United States and larger than that of Europe
What is the general climate temperature in Australia? What is the main reason?
Warm or hot The southerly latitude
What are the main climate tempering influences in Australia?
The Southern or Indian Ocean or the Murray River system
Which areas of Australia are tempered by altitude?
Adelaide Hills and Eden Valley
What is rainfall like in many growing regions of Australia?
Very low, so irrigation is necessary
What can happen in Australia in years of extreme drought?
Waters from Murray River can run low (these are vital for irrigation)
Murray River is a vital source of water for inland areas such as...
What is a risk in Australia as a result of high summer temperatures and drought?
Why are bush fires a risk even if they do not destroy crops?
The smoke can come into contact with grapes, which can taint the flavour of resulting wine
Many producers in Australia are seeking sites with...
Cool or moderate climates
What has been the result of the search for cooler climates in Australia?
Plantings have increased in high altitude sites and in Tasmania (it has a more southerly latitude)
What is Australia's principal grape variety of either colour?
...is grown widely in most regions of Australia
Describe the Shiraz produced in hot and warm regions of Australia
Full-bodied and intensely fruity Often display earthy or spicy notes and develop leather aromas with age
Describe the other style of Shiraz produced in the warmer areas of Australia
Producers are making a more restrained style by controlling the level of extraction in the winemaking process
Where is the leaner, more peppery style of Shiraz made in Australia?
Cooler regions such as Geelong and Heathcote
What are the styles of Shiraz available in Australia?
Full-bodied, lean and peppery or a multi-regional blend of the two
What is the role of Shiraz in Australian multi-varietal blends?
It performs a similar role to Merlot in Bordeaux, adding softness to Cabernet blends
Describe Australian Cabernet
Generally dark with firmer tannins and higher acidity than Shiraz
Ripe black fruit (blackcurrant, black cherry)
Toasty oak notes
Give two classic regions for Cabernet Sauvignon in Australia
What is the role of Merlot in Australia?
Typically found in blended wines
Often alongside Cabernet, to provide body and fleshy, plummy fruit
Where in Australia are the best examples of Pinot Noir grown? Give examples
Cool or moderate sites
Describe the style of Pinot Noir from premium sites
Medium body Medium alcohol Medium to high acidity Typical flavours of cherry and strawberry
Which varieties do best in Australia's hot regions?
Grenache Petit Verdot Mataro
Besides Grenache, Petit Verdot and Mataro, which other varieties have gained in popularity in Australia's hot regions? Why?
Varieties from Italy and Spain such as Sangiovese and Tempranillo They are well adapted to high summer temperatures and a limited water supply
What is the most planted white wine grape in Australia?
Describe basic Australian Chardonnay
Often a blend of fruit from different regions Unoaked for peachy flavours Oak chips/staves for toast/vanilla flavours
What are the cool/moderate sources of high quality Chardonnay in Australia?
Name a warm region source of Chardonnay in Australia
Describe top examples of Chardonnay in Australia
Beautifully balanced with fresh, vibrant fruit complemented by subtle flavours from careful use of lees, MLF and/or oak maturation
What is now being planted widely in Australia, thanks to domestic and export market?
Which area of Australia is said to produce its benchmark of Sauvignon Blanc?
What is the general temperature of the climate in Adelaide Hills?
Name the key features of Sauvignon Blanc from Adelaide Hills
Tend to show concentrated passion fruit flavours as well as refreshing high acidity
Which white grape makes a style which is unique to Australia?
Where in Australia is Semillon planted?
It is planted widely
What is the classic region for Semillon in Australia?
How is Semillon typically made in Adelaide Hills?
It is harvested early with low sugar levels and high acidity Oxygen contact is kept to a minimum Inert vessels used for fermentation and storage
Describe the Semillons of Adelaide Hills
Neutral in flavour when first bottled
Develop extraordinary flavours of honey and toast
Can age for 20 years or more
List the styles and locations of Semillon in Australia other than those made in Adelaide Hills
Western Australia: Herbaceous style, very similar to Sauvignon Blanc
Barossa Valley: Fuller bodied and softer. Some early-picked and unoaked styles being made
Describe the general style of Riesling in Australia
Dry/slightly off-dry (some sweet styles are made)
Pronounced citrus fruit aromas and flavours of lime, lemon and/or grapefruit in youth
Flavours develop into toast, honey and petrol
What are the classic regions for Riesling in Australia?
Clare Valley and Eden Valley in South Australia
Which regions of Australia are beginning to develop a reputation for high quality Riesling?
Tasmania and the Franklin River sub-region of Western Australia
What is the flavour difference between the Rieslings of South Australia and those of Western Australia?
In western Australia they are more floral than citrusy
What is the largest zone in Australia?
South Eastern Australia Zone
What comprises the South Eastern Australia Zone?
It is a 'super-zone' comprised of all the GIs within South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland
What does the South Eastern Australia Zone allow for in winemaking?
Blending of grapes or wines from across most of Australia's wine regions
Describe wines labelled with South Eastern Australia
The majority are high volume brands and take advantage of being able to source fruit from the fertile , irrigated vineyards of Riverland in South Australia, Murray-Darling in Victoria and Riverina in New South Wales
Describe grapes of Riverland, Murray-Darling and Riverina
Can produce high yields of healthy grapes
Lack the flavour concentration of those from other, high-quality areas
How may the lack of flavour concentration from high yield areas of Australia be remedied?
By blending in components from regions such as Barossa, Adelaide Hills or McLaren Vale The choice of components depends on grape variety, style and price point
What else does Riverina specialise in?
The production of botrytised wines made from Semillon
What in Riverina encourages the development of noble rot?
Autumn morning mists and fogs
In which zone is the majority of Australia's wine produced?
Where in South Australia are the vineyards mostly located?
They are mostly concentrated in the south east of the state
What are the advantages of labelling a wine with South Australia? What kind of producers use it?
It gives producers a range of premium vineyard locations, offering different characteristics Some of Australia's most prestigious and expensive wines take advantage of the opportunities provided by the GI
Which wine region is to the north east of Adelaide?
Which region of Australia is considered the heartland of the country's fine wine production?
Roughly what is the climate in Barossa Valley?
Warm and dry
What are vines like in Barossa Valley?
What are the outstanding grape varieties of Barossa Valley?
Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Grenache
Describe classic Barossa Valley Shiraz
Ripe black fruit
Sweet American oak
Develops leather and spice with age
What is the most notable white variety of Barossa Valley?
What style of Semillon is made in Barossa Valley?
Increasingly made in a fresh, unoaked style
Describe wines labelled Barossa
Come from Barossa zone and can be made from fruit sourced from Barossa Valley and Eden Valley
Where is Eden Valley?
In the hills to the east of the Barossa Valley
Describe the climate of Eden Valley
Cool to moderate climate that varies with altitude
What is made with success in the cooler vineyards of Eden Valley?
Outstanding quality Rieslings
Describe the best Rieslings of Eden Valley
Intense lime and grapefruit aromas Steely character The best display marmalade and toasty characters after ten years
Besides Riesling, what else is grown with success in Eden Valley?
Shiraz, Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon
Where is Clare Valley?
To the north west of Barossa Valley
What is the speciality of Clare Valley?
Describe the climate in Clare Valley
Tempered by cool afternoon breezes
Nights are cold
What is the topography of Clare Valley?
Many vineyards are planted at altitude (300 - 400m) Some vineyards as high as 570m
Describe Clare Valley Rieslings
Dry in style Intense citrus and lime aromas High acidity With age, they can develop honey and toast characters
Describe Clare Valley Shiraz
Fragrant, powerful and structured
What else is produced to a high quality in Clare Valley, besides Riesling and Shiraz?
Describe Cabernet in Clare Valley
It's made into different styles, depending on vineyard location, soil and elevation
Where is the Adelaide Hills region?
Twenty-five kilometres east of Adelaide
What is the climate of the Adelaide Hills region?
Moderate climate Rainfall in the winter
What are the growing conditions like in Adelaide Hills?
Vineyards are planted above 400m Soils have limited water holding capacity
What is the consequence of the low water-holding capacity of the soils in Adelaide Hills?
Irrigation is often necessary during the growing season
What are the specialities of Adelaide Hills?
Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay
Describe the style of Chardonnay made in Adelaide Hills
High natural acidity
Pronounced citrus and peach aromas
What is the 'third' grape of Adelaide Hills?
How is Pinot Noir used in Adelaide Hills?
For still red wines For blending with Chardonnay for sparkling wine
Where is the McLaren Vale?
On the coast to the south of Adelaide
Describe the climate in McLaren Vale
Warm climate Tempered by afternoon ocean breezes
What is the majority of wine produced in McLaren Vale?
Red wines from Shiraz, Cabernet, Merlot and Grenache
What are wines generally like in McLaren Vale?
Intensely flavoured Dark fruit aromas Soft, ripe tannins
Some wines are made with depth and complexity in McLaren Vale. What are they made from?
Old vine Shiraz and Grenache
Which region is directly south of Riverland, within the Limestone Coast?
A narrow strip of land 1.5 kilometres wide and 15 kilometres long
Where is Coonawarra?
400km south-east of Adelaide, towards the Victorian border
Describe the soil of Coonawarra
Distinctive red terra rossa soil over a limestone subsoil
What is the climate of Coonawarra?
Moderate maritime Influenced by cold currents from the Antarctic Summer temperatures moderated by cloud cover
What is the predominant grape in Coonawarra?
Describe Cabernet from Coonawarra
Concentrated, structured wines Characteristic blackcurrant and eucalyptus or menthol aromas Best examples age very well
Besides Cabernet, what else is widely planted in Coonawarra?
Shiraz, Merlot and Chardonnay
Where is the Victoria zone?
The far southern tip of Australia
What is the climate broadly like in Victoria?
It offers some of the coolest vineyard locations on mainland Australia
Describe the wine regions around Melbourne and Port Phillip Bay and their grapes
Benefit from ocean breezes, giving conditions cool enough to grow high quality Pinot Noir, Chardonnay and grapes for sparkling wine
What is further inland in Victoria? How does it affect growing?
The Great Dividing Range Provides a range of altitudes and aspects
Name two high altitude areas around Victoria's Great Dividing Range
Macedon Ranges Upper Goulburn
What's made in the higher altitude areas of The Great Dividing Range in Victoria?
Elegant Pinot Noir and Chardonnay Aromatic Riesling and Sauvignon Blanc
What do the regions of the lower slopes of The Great Dividing Range generally produce?
They grow later-ripening black varieties such as Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon
Fresher and lighter than those from Australia's hotter regions
Which region is directly to the north-east of Melbourne?
The Yarra Valley
What is the climate of Yarra Valley?
Cool to moderate Maritime
What is the terroir of Yarra Valley like?
Very varied with a wide range of altitudes and aspects
What is the speciality of the Yarra Valley?
What are the main styles of wine produced in Yarra Valley?
High quality table wines
Excellent quality sparkling wines
Describe Yarra Valley Pinot Noir
Ripe, soft tannins Rich fruit with strawberries, plums and dark cherries Complexity added by careful oak handling Age-worthy when made by top producers
Which grapes other than Pinot Noir can be made successfully in Yarra Valley? Why?
Chardonnay, Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (though never with quite the weight of similar wines made in other regions) Due to the wide geographical diversity
What is the speciality of Mornington Peninsula?
Pinot Noir and Chardonnay
Where is Mornington Peninsula?
To the south of Melbourne, on the coast
What is the climate in Mornington Peninsula?
Cool to moderate maritime climate
What kind of wineries is Mornington Peninsula home to?
Small, boutique estates
What is vintage variation like in Mornington Peninsula?
It varies a lot, due to the chance of cool, wet and windy weather at flowering and often at harvest
Describe weather and wines in the best seasons at Mornington Peninsula
Long growing season, producing fragrant, elegant wines with finesse
Describe Pinot Noir from Mornington Peninsula
It ranges from light and delicate to more structured
All tends to display very pure fruit characteristics
Describe Chardonnays from Mornington Peninsula
High acidity (reflecting the cool climate) Usually softened by MLF Citrus, pear and apple aromas
Where is the Geelong region?
West of Melbourne
What is the climate of Geelong?
Similar to that of Mornington Peninsula
What is the reputation of Geelong Chardonnay?
It's renowned for its quality
Describe Chardonnay from Geelong
Complex, concentrated and full bodied
What are the major red grapes of Geelong?
Pinot Noir and Shiraz
Describe Pinot Noir from Geelong
Can take on earthy aromas
Describe Shiraz from Geelong
Fresh and peppery
What else is made in Geelong?
Sparkling wine from Chardonnay and Pinot Noir
Where is Heathcote?
In the centre of Victoria, much further inland than the Yarra Valley, Mornington Peninsula and Geelong
Where do Heathcote's cooling influences come from?
Altitude rather than the ocean
What is the climate of Heathcote?
Describe Shiraz from Heathcote
Firmer fruit structure and fresher fruit than those of other regions
What is planted in Heathcote other than Shiraz?
Chardonnay and Cabernet Mediterranean varieties are showing promise e.g. Sangiovese and Tempranillo
Where is Goulburn Valley?
To the east of Heathcote in the Goulburn Valley Region
What is the climate in Goulburn Valley?
How is the temperature of Goulburn Valley mitigated?
By the lakes and creeks associated with the Goulburn River
What is the most planted variety in Goulburn Valley?
What is the speciality of the Goulburn Valley area?
What are the Marsanne wines of Goulburn Valley like?
Citrus fruit in youth Developing honeyed aromas with bottle age
What is the reputation of New South Wales?
The longest history of wine production in Australia
What is the main region of New South Wales?
What is the general temperature of Hunter Valley?
Which areas of New South Wales are slightly cooler?
Mudgee, Orange and Cowra
Where are the vineyards of Mudgee, Orange and Cowra?
Inland from Sydney on the western slopes of the Great Dividing Range
Describe the vineyards of New South Wales's cooler regions and what they produce
They are at altitude and are capable of producing some very concentrated Chardonnays and structured Cabernet Sauvignons
Describe the climate of Hunter Valley
Hot and humid Effect of summer heat reduced by high cloud cover and ocean breezes
Describe the main weather hazard of Hunter Valley
Unsettled rainy weather at harvest
How is rot minimised in Hunter Valley?
With good canopy management techniques
What is the most planted grape in Hunter Valley?
Describe Semillon wines of Hunter Valley
Light bodied Low alcohol High acidity Neutral flavours that develop into toast, nut and honey with bottle age
What is the second most planted white variety in Hunter Valley?
What style is Chardonnay made into in Hunter Valley?
Both oaked and unoaked
What is the black variety with the largest production in Hunter Valley?
Describe Shiraz from Hunter Valley
Black fruit flavours (blackberry and cherry)
Where are the wine regions of Western Australia?
In the south-west tip of the state
What is the largest appellation of Western Australia? Describe it
The fruit or wine from its regions can be blended together
What are the only Australian wines not part of South Eastern Australia?
Those of Western Australia
Where is Margaret River?
Western Australia 200km south of Perth
Describe the climate in Margaret River
Warm maritime climate High rainfall (but falls mainly in winter)
What is the most widely planted red grape in Margaret River?
How does Cabernet often appear in Margaret River?
As a blend with Merlot
What are the styles of Margaret River's Bordeaux blends?
From elegant and restrained to fruity and powerful
Describe Chardonnays of Margaret River
Concentrated stone fruit
High levels of natural acidity
A range of styles using MLF and barrel ageing
What other white grapes are widely grown in Margaret River?
Sauvignon Blanc Semillon
Describe the role of Sauvignon Blanc in Margaret River and its wines
It's often blended with Semillon
Attractive gooseberry and tropical fruit aromas with high acidity
Which area of Margaret River is relatively new? What is it called?
The area to the south
Great Southern region
Name two sub-regions within Margaret River's Great Southern region What are they known for?
Mount Barker and Frankland River Deeply coloured Cabernet Sauvignon, elegant, peppery Shiraz and floral Riesling
What is the climate of Tasmania?
Cool maritime Cooled by westerly winds off the Southern Ocean Generally free from extremes
What is Tasmania's original reputation in wine?
As a prime source of base wine for Australian sparkling wine
What are the principal varieties of Tasmania now?
Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Gris and some Cabernet Sauvignon (in the warmest, driest areas)
What is the hierarchy of GIs in Australia?
Zones, regions and sub-regions
Describe what a zone is in Australia
A large area without any particularly qualifying attributes Can be a state or cover several states
... can also make up part of a state in Australia, but with the exception of ..., these are rare
Give examples of regions in Australia
Coonawarra, Clare Valley, Margaret River etc.
Describe what a region is in Australia
Vary in size, but are smaller than zones Must have consistent and distinct qualities from neighbouring regions
Many regions in Australia are split into...
How many regions may a sub-region fall across in Australia?
T or F: Some Australian regions are covered by several zones
Give an example of a region in Australia which is covered by several zones
Eden Valley is in Barossa Zone, which is within South Australia Zone, which is in South Eastern Australia Zone