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Flashcards in C13 - Bordeaux Deck (129):
1

In terms of volume and value, what is the largest appellation in France?

Bordeaux

 

2

What kind of climate does Bordeaux have?

Moderate maritime

3

What effect does the Gulf Stream have on the growing season in Bordeaux?

It extends it

4

How late can grape-ripening continue in Bordeaux?

Into October

5

What potential weather hazard is rarely a problem in Bordeaux? Why?

Spring frosts

The warming effect of the Gulf Stream

6

What effect does proximity to the Atlantic have on Bordeaux?

High levels of rainfall and humidity

7

What protects vineyards from the worst of the Atlantic storms?

The Landes forest and coastal sand dunes

8

What effects on wine can the common rainfall promote in Bordeaux?

Disruption of flowering and fruit set Promote rot Dilute flavours at harvest

9

Which climatic phenomenon makes vintage variation relevant in Bordeaux?

The potential negative effects of rain

10

How do top producers reduce vintage variation in Bordeaux?

By rejecting unhealthy and unripe grapes

11

Besides grape selection, what else has contributed to healthier, riper grapes on average in Bordeaux?

Changes in canopy management techniques A decline in the use of sprays

12

Almost all red Bordeaux wines and most white Bordeaux are ...

Blended

13

Why in general are Bordeaux wines blended?

Variability in weather makes it too risky to rely on one grape variety

14

Why is it a good solution to be reliant on several grape varieties in Bordeaux?

The different varieties permitted in Bordeaux flower and ripen at different times, meaning that one bad episode of weather is unlikely to ruin an entire crop

15

How many grapes are technically permitted in Bordeaux?

Thirteen

16

How many grapes predominate in Bordeaux?

Three black Two white (Five)

17

Which are the five main grapes of Bordeaux?

Cabernet Sauvignon

Merlot

Cabernet Franc

Sémillon

Sauvignon Blanc

18

Where in Bordeaux does Cabernet Sauvignon dominate?

The Haut-Médoc

19

In which two areas of Bordeaux is Cabernet Sauvignon also very important?

The Bas-Médoc The Graves

20

Why are Cabernet's main regions of Bordeaux the only areas in which it can reliably ripen?

Their high stone/gravel content raises vineyard temperature

21

What percentage of the blend can Cabernet account for in its main areas of Bordeaux?

75%

22

Where in Bordeaux is Cabernet Franc most widely grown?

Saint-Émilion

To a lesser extent, in the Médoc and the Graves

23

What kind of wines does Cab Franc produce in Bordeaux?

Wines with less body and tannin than Cabernet Sauvignon

Herbaceous and stalky flavours when unripe

Vibrant fruit and floral notes when ripe

24

What kind of soils does Cabernet Franc prefer?

Well drained, warm soils

25

What is the most widely planted grape in Bordeaux?

Merlot

26

In which Bordeaux wines is Merlot most important?

The premium wines of Saint-Émilion and Pomerol

27

Why are Saint-Émilion and Pomerol good for growing Merlot as opposed to Cabernet Sauvignon?

Merlot can successfully grow on the cooler, clay based soils here where Cabernet would struggle

28

Which Bordeaux grape is predominant in the cheaper high volume wines? Why?

Merlot It is the softest in flavour

29

Which Bordeaux grape ripens fully in only the very hot years?

Petit Verdot

30

What kind of wines does Petit Verdot give in Bordeaux?

Very deep-coloured, tannic wine that ages slowly

31

What is Petit-Verdot used for in Bordeaux?

To add tannin, colour and some spicy notes

32

Which winemaking vessels are used in Bordeaux?

All (there is little agreement in Bordeaux as to which fermentation vessels produce the best wines)

33

When are most wines blended in Bordeaux? What is the other possible practice in Bordeaux?

The Spring following the vintage Some winemakers prefer to keep their parcels of wine separate until the end of maturation

34

Which blending practices are most common among leading Chateaux in Bordeaux?

Making second and sometimes third wines with blends that may not be suitable for the grand vin Some wine may be sold to a negociant

35

How is the top quality red in Bordeaux aged? Some of the finest chateaux may even use...casks

In 225 litre barriques

New

36

Generic Bordeaux wines are unlikely to see...at all

Oak

37

What is the most important variety for sweet wines in Bordeaux?

Semillon

38

What is blended with Sémillon in the premium dry white wines of Pessac-Léognan and Graves? What Semillon's role in these blends?

Sauvignon Blanc It adds body

39

What aromas do Sauvignon Blanc based wines produce in Bordeaux?

Citrus and green fruit

40

What is the one exception to the rule of all Bordeaux being blends?

Sauvignon Blanc varietal dry wines

41

What is the role of Sauvignon Blanc in Bordeaux blends?

It adds high acidity

42

What is the importance of Sauvignon Blanc in sweet wines of Bordeaux?

It adds a necessary acidity

43

What flavours does Muscadelle have?

Pronounced grapey, floral flavour

44

What role does Muscadelle play in Bordeaux?

It plays an important role in sweet and dry white wines of Bordeaux (it makes up a small percentage of the blend)

45

What is the general style of lower-end dry whites in Bordeaux?

Fresh and fruity

Some show hints of oak

46

How are less expensive dry Bordeaux whites generally vinified?

Fermented in temperature controlled, inert vessels with minimal further ageing

47

How are premium dry whites generally vinified in Bordeaux?

Frequently fermented and matured in new oak barrels

48

What is distinctive about the premium dry whites of Bordeaux?

They have a richness and concentrated nutty flavour overlaying the fruit

49

How are many of the great sweet wines of Bordeaux made?

From fruit that has been infected with noble rot

50

How are the best examples of Bordeaux sweet wines made (after harvest)?

They are fermented and matured in new oak barrels for anything up to 3 years

51

The...and...rivers combine in Bordeaux to form the...estuary

Dordogne Garonne Gironde

52

Which three broad areas lie to the south and west of the Gironde/Garonne?

The Médoc Graves Sauternes

53

Which appellation covers most of the area between the Dordogne and the Garonne?

Entre-Deux-Mers

54

What are the principal districts comprising the right bank?

St Emilion Pomerol

55

How many appellations are there in Bordeaux?

More than fifty

56

Bordeaux's classification does not rank...but...

Vineyards Estates/Chateaux

57

What prompted the creation of the 1855 classification?

On the occasion of the Paris Universal Exhibition, the Bordeaux Chamber of Commerce was approached to produce an official list of their best red wines from Médoc and white wines from Sauternes

58

What term is used for Chateaux in the 1855 classification?

Cru classés

59

How many ranks are in the 1855 Médoc classification?

Five

60

How many ranks are in the 1855 classification for Sauternes?

Three

61

Which wines are in the top classification for the Médoc?

Chateau Lafite Rothschild Chateau Latour Chateau Margaux Chateau Mouton Rothschild Chateau Haut Brion (Graves)

62

Which chateau occupies the top rank of Sauternes wine in the 1855 classification?

Chateau d'Yquem

63

What is Cru Bourgeois?

A classification invented for chateaux not included in the 1855 classification

It is only for specific wines in specific vintages, so wines must be submitted every year

64

How are the wines of Graves (Pessac-Leognan) classified?

They are classified within a separate list (for red and white) entitling them to be called 'Cru Classés'

65

How are Cru classé wines ranked in Graves/Pessac-Léognan?

They're not

66

How are the best wines classified in Saint-Émilion?

Within a separate appellation, Saint-Émilion Grand Cru. There is a separate classification within this appellation of the best Châteaux

67

What is the lower classification within Saint-Émilion Grand Cru?

Saint-Émilion Grand Cru Classé

68

What is the higher classification within Saint-Émilion?

Saint-Émilion Premier Grand Cru Classé

Subdivided into A and B

69

How often are Saint-Émilion Premier Grand Cru Classé reconsidered?

At least once every ten years

70

What are the generic appellations of Bordeaux?

Bordeaux

Bordeaux Supérieur

71

What differentiates Bordeaux Supérieur?

Slightly stricter appellation rules

A higher required minimum level of alcohol

72

How are generic white Bordeaux labelled? Rosé?

Bordeaux

Bordeaux Rosé/Clairet

73

Why are basic Bordeaux improving?

Export focused producers are having to compete with similarly priced wines from other parts of the world

74

Describe the best Bordeaux and Bordeaux Supérieur wines

Early drinking

Medium bodied

Ripe red and black fruit

Occasional cedar notes from oak

75

Describe the cheaper Bordeaux and Bordeaux Supérieur wines

Lighter bodied with more astringent tannins

76

How does the best Bordeaux Rosé taste?

Fresh and fruity

77

Why is there less Bordeaux Clairet here than elsewhere?

It is mainly popular on the French market

78

Describe a unique characteristic of Bordeaux Clairet compared with many other French Rosés. Why is it like this?

It is deeper in colour and fuller in body due to longer maceration

79

White Bordeaux is increasingly dominated by... What is its flavour character?

Sauvignon Blanc

Vibrant and grassy

80

Describe the location of the city of Bordeaux

South of the Médoc

North of Graves

81

What's the northernmost part of the Médoc called?

The Bas-Médoc

82

How are wines of the Bas-Médoc labelled?

Médoc

83

What is the soil/ground like in the Bas-Médoc?

Predominantly clay with outcrops of gravel

84

What is usually the higher proportion of the Bas-Médoc blends? What style are the wines?

Merlot

Easy drinking

85

What is the northernmost limit of the Haut-Médoc?

Saint-Estèphe

86

What are the smaller appellations within the Haut-Médoc called?

Communes

87

What are the highest reputation communes in Haut-Médoc called (from north to south)?

Saint-Estèphe

Pauillac

Saint-Julien

Margaux

88

Describe the varietal ratios in the best commune appellations of Haut-Médoc

They have a high percentage of Cabernet Sauvignon

89

Describe the flavour profile of commune appellation wines from Haut-Médoc

A core of Blackcurrant fruit complemented by cedar notes from oak

Grippy tannins when young

Often long ageing potential

90

Where is Pessac-Léognan

Immediately south of Bordeaux

91

What are soils like in Pessac-Léognan?

Gravelly

92

What is the most suitable grape for Pessac soils?

Cabernet Sauvignon

93

How do Pessac reds compare with those of the Haut-Médoc?

Usually lighter in body and more fragrant

94

How do wines of Graves compare with those of Pessac?

Similar, but less concentrated and complex

Higher proportion of Merlot usually

95

Which variety dominates blends of the right bank?

Merlot

96

Which is the second dominant variety of the right bank?

Cabernet Franc

97

Which is the larger of the two appellations in Bordeaux's right bank?

Saint-Émilion

98

How many groups of distinct vineyards are there in Saint-Émilion?

Three

99

Where is the first group of Saint-Émilion vineyards? Describe it...

To the north and west of the town of Saint-Émilion

On a plateau, with warm, well drained gravel and limestone soils

Mostly Cab Franc but some Cab Sauvignon

100

Where is the second group of Saint-Émilion vineyards? Describe it...

On the escarpment to the south and east of the region Clay limestone soils

101

Where do the most prestigious wines of Saint-Émilion come from?

The first two regions

102

Describe the most prestigious wines of Saint-Émilion

Medium to high tannins

Soft and rich mouthfeel

Complex red berry fruit and plum aromas, developing tobacco and cedar notes with evolution

103

Where is the third group of Saint-Émilion vineyards? Describe it...

At the foot of the escarpment

Lighter bodied and less prestigious

104

Describe wines of Pomerol

Richer than those of Saint-Émilion with spicy, blackberry fruit character

105

What winemaking movement has recently appeared in the right bank?

The appearance of full-bodied, very ripe wines in small quantities, from small plots of land

106

What were the original terms for the breakout wines/winemakers of the right bank?

Vins de garage

Garagistes

107

Describe the 'other' wines of the right bank...

Saint-Émilion and Pomerol are surrounded by a group of appellations producing Merlot dominated wines, similar in style to their better-known neighbours

108

What is the collective name for the lesser known appellations of Bordeaux?

Côtes de Bordeaux

109

Which appellations can append their names to the beginning of Côtes de Bordeaux?

Cadillac Blaye Castillon Francs

110

What style of wines are Côtes de Bordeaux?

Early drinking, Merlot based wines

Excellent value for money

111

Name a group of producers who have chosen not to join Côtes de Bordeaux

Côtes de Bourg

112

Which Bordeaux appellation can only produce white wines?

Entre-Deux-Mers

113

How must red wines be named if they are from Entre-Deux-Mers?

With a generic appellation name

114

What wines may Graves and Pessac-Léognan produce?

Red and white

115

Describe the white wines of Graves and Entre-Deux-Mers

Both made from unoaked Sauvignon Blanc

116

Where are many of the very best dry whites of Bordeaux made?

Pessac-Léognan

117

Where may some white wines be eligible for Cru Classé status in Bordeaux?

Pessac-Léognan

118

Describe the best white wines of Pessac and how they are vinified

They tend to be blends of Semillon and Sauvignon Blanc Usually fermented and/or matured at least partly in new oak Medium to full body Toasty oak flavours

119

Can whites be made in Médoc and Sauternes?

Yes, but with a generic Bordeaux appellation

120

Where are the top sweet wine appellations of Bordeaux?

Grouped on the banks of the Garonne and its tributary (Ciron)

121

Why is the proximity of water important for vinification of sweet wine in Bordeaux?

The rivers create the ideal misty Autumn conditions for noble rot to develop

122

What is needed to help concentrate sugars in sweet Bordeaux when there is little noble rot

Passerillage

123

Where do the best sweet wines of Bordeaux come from?

Sauternes

124

Where is Sauternes?

The West Bank of the Garonne

125

Where is the village of Barsac?

Within Sauternes

126

Which appellation must Barsac producers use?

Either Barsac or Sauternes

127

Which grape variety dominates in Sauternes? Why?

Sémillon

Because of its thin skin and consequential susceptibility to Botrytis

128

Describe the best sweet wines of Sauternes

High in alcohol

Sweet, but balanced with high acidity

Apricot and citrus peel aromas of noble rot

Toast and vanilla from oak fermentation and/or maturation

129

Where else can sweet wine be made in Bordeaux?

Near to Sauternes (made in a similar style)