Flashcards in C9 - Red and Rose Winemaking Deck (148):
The vast majority of fruit used in red winemaking is...and...
What do some red winemakers do after crushing?
Leave the grapes to macerate for a period of a low temperature
What is the name of the process of cool maceration of red grapes after crushing?
Cold maceration/cold soaking
What is the purpose of cold soaking?
To extract colour and flavour compounds as tannins are more soluble in alcohol, therefore not readily extracted during fermentation
Between what temperatures does red wine fermentation usually occur?
20C - 32C (depending on style)
Why are the temperatures of fermentation higher for red wine than for white?
It's necessary to aid extraction of colour, flavour and tannin
Beyond what temperature should red wine fermentation not go? Why?
This may kill the yeast
How may a red winemaker influence the amounts of colour, flavour and tannin extracted during fermentation?
By precisely controlling temperature
Describe how tannin levels may be reduced in red wines
By reducing the temperature near the end of fermentation
What will happen to a fermenting red wine if left to itself?
A thick mass of pulp and skins will form on its surface
What is the mass of pulp and skins called, that forms on a fermenting red wine?
What will be the result if the cap is left to float on a wine?
Little colour, flavour or tannin will be extracted from it
How may the problem of the cap be managed?
Using cap management techniques
How may cap management techniques be used to control levels of extraction?
By altering the duration of each technique
By altering the number of times they are practiced each day
What is the traditional method of punching down?
The cap would be punched down by hand with paddles on the end of sticks
What was the big problem with the traditional method of punching-down?
There was a danger for the workers of CO2 intoxication
Why is the danger of manual punching-down not really a problem anymore?
The same effect can now be achieved with mechanical paddles
Which cap management technique is particularly effective at extracting colour and tannin?
What is the potential problem when punching down, mechanical or otherwise? When is it most important to consider this/why?
It can be too effective at extracting colour and tannin
At the end of fermentation
Tannins are more easily extracted at this point
What is pumping over?
It involved drawing off juice from the bottom of the vat and pumping it onto the top of the fermenting wine
What is pumping over particularly good at?
It is a good way of oxygenating the juice and dissipating heat
Describe Rack and Return
The fermenting juice is drained from the vessel into another one, leaving the cap behind
The juice is then pumped back over the cap
What is the big disadvantage of Rack and Return? How is this managed?
It can be very extractive
It is only performed once or twice during a fermentation
What is Rack and Return particularly good at?
Describe Rotary Fermentation
Fermentation takes place in rotating horizontal tanks
What is the intention of Rotary Fermentation?
To keep the juice in constant contact with the skins
What effect does cap management techniques have on the fermentation vessel that's chosen?
They are usually large and open-topped
What kind of vessel should NOT be used for fermenting red wines? Why?
It would be almost impossible to maintain sufficient contact between the skins and the juice
What is the main aim of post-fermentation maceration?
To extract further tannin
Some winemakers have found that...can create a smoother tannin structure
Extended periods of post-fermentation maceration
What happens to red wine immediately after fermentation/maceration?
The free run wine is drawn off the skins
The remaining mass is pressed
What is press wine?
The wine which is released from pressing the grape mass after fermentation (in the case of red wine)
Describe how press wine differs as it's being pressed
It is similar in composition to free-run wine at the beginning, but becomes deeper in colour and higher in tannin as pressing continues
How is press wine managed by red winemakers?
They will usually separate the wine at different stages of pressing
What is the name for the wines separated at different stages of pressing?
What may press fractions be used for later in the process of red winemaking?
To adjust colour and tannin in the final blend
What is the main consideration for a winemaker when they are using whole bunches? Why?
That the stems are ripe
The unripe stems of a whole bunch may give the finished wine an undesirable bitter taste
What is the main reason for using whole bunches during fermentation?
To create an oxygen free environment for the uncrushed grapes
What are the two main outcomes of creating an oxygen-free environment for fermenting grapes?
Distinctive aromas are created within the berry
Define intracellular fermentation
Berries create alcohol within their cells without the involvement of yeast
List the three forms of whole-bunch fermentation
Whole bunches with crushed fruit
List the key stages of carbonic maceration
Whole uncrushed bunches are placed into vats which are filled with CO2 to remove all oxygen
Intercellular fermentation begins
At 2% alcohol, the grapes begin to split and they begin to release their juice
The grapes are pressed
Yeast completes the fermentation (off the skins)
What is the key structural difference in wines made using carbonic maceration?
It extracts a lot of colour, but little tannin
What are the tell-tale aromas/flavours of a wine made with carbonic maceration?
Kirsch, banana, bubblegum and cinnamon-like spice
Describe semi-carbonic maceration?
The vats are not filled with CO2
The vat is filled with whole bunches
The weight of the whole bunches crushes those at the bottom, releasing some juice
Ambient yeast begin to ferment the juice at the bottom, filling the tank with CO2 as a by-product
Remaining grapes undergo carbonic maceration as normal
Name a notable wine style which is made using semi-carbonic maceration. How is this process different?
Some premium Pinot Noirs
Alcoholic fermentation continues on the skins
How is the winemaking process different when semi-carbonic maceration is used for premium Pinot Noir?
Grape skins are progressively broken up during punching down
An ever-decreasing amount of carbonic maceration takes place until all grapes are broken up
Normal fermentation may continue on skins
Post-fermentation maceration may take place
What is the potential result of the premium pinot noir approach to semi-carbonic maceration?
It can result in a better integration of aromas from intracellular fermentation and the aromas from the grape variety
Wine have a fresher fruit character
How is intracellular fermentation encouraged when whole bunches are mixed with crushed fruit?
The whole grapes are usually submerged in the juice of the crushed ones, resulting in a lack of access to oxygen for the whole grapes
How are the more 'carbonic' characteristics created when using whole bunches with crushed fruit?
By raising the percentage of whole bunches used
What are thought to be the outcomes of using a greater percentage of whole bunches with crushed fruit?
Brighter, fresher fruit characteristics
What is the most important decision when it comes to pre-bottling maturation when making red wines?
The option of whether or not to use oak
Virtually all red wines undergo...
The generally more robust flavours of red wines mean they benefit less from...than white wines
Extended time on lees
Which maturation trend is now declining in red winemaking?
Maturing premium red wines in small, new oak barrels
What is the style that red winemakers are aiming for now? How are they achieving this?
Subtlety and integration
By using oak vessels of different ages and larger sizes
A red winemaker's best wines will be still often be...and with more...
Aged for longer
How will a red winemaker's fruit usually reflect the quality of wine it's intended to produce? Why should it be like this?
The best wines will usually be made with a higher quality, more concentrated fruit
To support a greater level of new oak flavours
What is blending used for in the making of red wine? Give examples
To enhance or balance out certain aspects of the wine, such as colour, body, tannin, acidity and flavour
What is used in red winemaking to boost colour, flavour and tannin in the more delicate free-run wines?
The use of different press fractions
Which blending practice may help to enhance the complexity of a red wine?
The blending of wines matured in oak vessels of different ages, sizes and toasting levels
How may blending be used to achieve a more subtle oak influence on a red wine?
The winemaker may blend wines matured in oak with wines matured in stainless steel or concrete vessels
Why might a red winemaker avoid clarification and/or stabilisation?
Some winemakers believe that these processes may harm the wine's structure
How may clarity be achieved without filtration in a red wine?
By allowing gradual sedimentation through extended maturation
Describe the grape-growing areas responsible for high-volume, inexpensive red wines
They tend to be warm, sunny and dry
Which varieties tend to be used for high-volume, inexpensive red wines? Why?
Those that can thrive in warm, sunny and dry conditions (e.g. Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Grenache etc.)
Growing areas for this category of wine tend to be warm, sunny and dry
What is the additional benefit of growing grapes like Shiraz/Merlot etc. for high-volume, inexpensive wines?
They can produce fruity wines with adequate colour even at high yields
Due to the concentration of colours and flavours in their skins
How may the high-volume examples of red wine grapes compare with their premium counterparts?
They may display less colour, lighter tannins and less intense and complex aromas
Distinctive characteristics may diminish, resulting in more homogenous wines
Name a black grape which is rarely used in high-volume, inexpensive wines
It's hard to grow, prefers cooler climates and can be difficult to extract adequate colour and tannin at high yields
How may high-volume, inexpensive red wines be labelled? (give an example)
What is the broad flavour style in which high-volume red wines are usually made?
Fruity and low-tannin
How are fresh, fruity aromas retained in high-volume red wines?
The juice is handled protectively with SO2 levels being monitored throughout
What will usually happen to harvested red grapes for inexpensive wine once they arrive at a winery?
They'll usually be destemmed and crushed
What adjustment will usually need to be made for inexpensive red wines?
Tartaric acid will usually be needed due to the warm growing climate usually experienced
Which process may or may not occur just before fermentation when making inexpensive red wine? Why may it not be used?
It can tie-up vat space and so may not be feasible in a high throughput winery
What kind of yeast will usually be used for inexpensive red wines?
What temperature will fermentation usually be performed at when making inexpensive red wine? With what aim?
22 - 25C
To maximise fresh fruit aromas
Which fermentation vessels will be used for inexpensive red wines?
Variable (Static or rotary)
How often will cap-management take place in inexpensive red wines?
It varies dependant on style, but typically the cap will not be heavily worked
How typical is post-fermentation maceration in the production of high-volume, inexpensive red wine? Why?
It's not usually used
Constraints on vat space and time
This can extract additional tannins which are not usually desirable in this style of wine
How may a winemaker for inexpensive reds approach giving more structure to a wine?
They may macerate a small portion of the wine after fermentation and blend this as necessary later
Which other vinification techniques may be used to create inexpensive red wines? Which high-volume wines are most commonly made in this way?
Carbonic and semi-carbonic maceration
Grenache and basic Beaujolais
Which maturation options are available to a winemaker creating inexpensive red wines?
Stainless steel (pure fruit flavours)
Short oak ageing (smooth tannins and add oak characteristics)
Steel with oak staves/chips (for quick toasty flavours)
Describe oak barrels when used for maturation of inexpensive red wines
How long are they typically used for in this instance?
Often second or third fill
A matter of months
What is the role of stabilisation, clarification and fining in making inexpensive red wines?
These processes are almost always used to meet with customer expectations
What is the role of SO2 in inexpensive red wines prior to bottling?
SO2 levels are topped up to reduce chances of oxidation despite the short shelf-life
Describe the viticultural characteristics of the Cabernet Sauvignon grape
It is thick-skinned and late-ripening
What effect does Cabernet's thick skin have on it's resultant wines?
It has an abundance of colour, flavour and tannin
What is the effect on flavour of Cabernet Sauvignon not ripening properly?
Wines can be astringent and herbaceous
Of which area is Cabernet the classic grape?
Haut-Medoc in Bordeaux
Describe the range of flavours/styles that Cabernet gives in the Haut-Medoc
In youth: Grippy tannins. Cedar and Blackcurrant leaf.
With age: Softer tannins. More expression.
What is the effect of Merlot on Cabernet-based wines?
It gives juicy plum flavours and a smoother texture
Where else in Europe is Cabernet most notably found?
South of France, Italy and Spain
How are Cabernet-based wines usually made in non-Bordeaux areas of Europe?
It is usually blended with indigenous varieties
Name two european varieties other than Merlot with which Cabernet is often blended outside of France?
What style is Cabernet made into outside of Europe?
Blended and single-variety
What styles/flavours are achieved by Cabernet in the warmer non-european areas?
Blackcurrant and black cherry
List some classic regions for the non-european production of Cabernet Sauvignon
California: Napa Valley
Australia: Coonawarra and Margaret River
New Zealand: Hawke's Bay
South Africa: Stellenbosch
Chile: Colchagua Valley
What usually happens with Cabernet grapes when they arrive at the winery?
They are destemmed and crushed
What is the typical range of fermentation temperatures for Cabernet Sauvignon? What is the aim of fermenting at these temperatures?
26C to 30C
High enough to achieve satisfactory levels of extraction
Cool enough to promote fresh fruit flavour
What approach is taken towards temperature and cap management when fermenting/vinifying Cabernet Sauvignon? Why? When is this especially important to consider?
High temperatures are avoided
Less extractive cap management is used
The grapes are high in tannin
If the tannins are unripe
How may more gentle tannin extraction and tannin-softening be achieved when vilifying Cabernet Sauvignon?
A period of post-fermentation maceration
How much new oak can be used when vinifying Cabernet? Why?
A high proportion of new oak can be used
Due to the grape's intense flavours, medium to full body and high tannins
What kind of oak is widely used for Cabernet wines?
French 225L barriques
How long can Cabernet mature in oak for? What's typical?
From six months to three/four years
12 to 18 months is typical
Which features of Cabernet make it less suitable for a single-varietal wine?
High tannins and sometimes light body
What often plays the role of Merlot in Australian Cabernet blends?
What is considered the 'other' great grape of Bordeaux?
How does Merlot compare with Cabernet in the vineyard?
It buds and ripens earlier than Cabernet
In which areas of Bordeaux is Merlot dominant?
Saint-Emilion and Pomerol
List the key points of the 'International Style' of Merlot
Grapes harvested as late as possible
Intense purple colour
Concentrated blackberry and plum fruit
Soft, velvety tannins
Matured in new oak for toasty flavours
Where is the international style of Merlot often made?
Many new world countries
South of France
Some Bordeaux estates
Describe the Bordeaux style of Merlot
Medium body and alcohol
Fresh red fruit character
Some vegetal, leafy aromas
Where is the traditional style of Merlot often found?
Rarely outside of Bordeaux
How is Merlot usually treated at the winery?
Similarly to Cabernet
Destemmed and crushed
Pre-fermentation extraction sometimes used for additional extraction of colour and flavour
Less rigorous extraction needed during fermentation (suppler skins than Cabernet)
New oak used for flavours and complexity
12 - 18 months in oak is common
Describe the key viticultural characteristics of Pinot Noir
What is the consequence of Pinot Noir being such an old variety?
There are many clones with varying characteristics
List two styles into which Pinot Noir can be made
Light and fruity with red cherry notes
Complex and earthy with flavours of spice and forest floor
What is the big challenge of vinifying Pinot Noir in the winery?
Extracting maximum colour and tannin without overworking the juice
Why is it important not to overwork the juice of Pinot Noir?
The elegance of the primary aromas can be lost or overwhelmed
Why is maximum extraction a key aim of the winemaker when dealing with Pinot Noir?
Colour and tannin can be tricky to extract from its skins
Which climates is Pinot Noir best grown in? Why?
Cool to moderate climates
It is an early ripening variety
Describe entry-level red Burgundy wines
Very light with marked acidity and a hint of oak for structure
Describe red wines from the better sites in the Cote d'Or
Greater intensity and complexity than cheaper alternatives with flavours ranging from delicate and floral, to spicy and more tannic
What is the risk of Pinot Noir being grown in cooler environments/years?
They may not ripen fully, leading to vegetal notes like cabbage and wet leaves
Where else in Europe is well known for high-quality Pinot Noir?
Baden in Germany
List some regions in the new world which produce high quality Pinot Noir
California: Los Carneros and Sonoma
New Zealand: Martinborough, Marlborough and Central Otago
Australia: Yarra Valley, Mornington Peninsula and Tasmania
South Africa: Walker Bay
Chile: Casablanca Valley
What happens to the flavours of Pinot Noir if its climate is too hot?
Flavours become jammy and unattractive
Is Pinot Noir destemmed and crushed at the winery?
What will typically happen to Pinot Noir before fermentation?
Pre fermentation maceration to maximise colour and flavour extraction
What is becoming increasingly popular when fermenting Pinot Noir? What does this achieve?
Using whole bunches
It generally enhances red fruit and floral characters
How does fermentation occur when whole bunches are used?
The bunches are gradually crushed in a series of punch-down operations
Fermentation continues on skins once they are all broken up
What fermentation temperature is common for Pinot Noir?
Upwards of 30C
Why is Pinot Noir often fermented at such high temperatures?
To extract more colour, flavour and tannin for longer aged wines
When may Pinot Noir be fermented at cooler temperatures?
For lighter, fresher styles
Which post fermentation practice in the winery is not widely used for Pinot Noir?
Describe oak usage when making Pinot Noir wines
It is common, with premium examples spending 12 - 24 months in oak
Delicate flavours can be overpowered by oak, so 2nd and 3rd fill barrels are often used and only a small proportion of new oak
With which varieties is Pinot Noir usually blended?
It's not usually blended
Why may a winemaker blend Pinot Noir with other Pinot Noir?
The components of the blend may come from different vineyard plots or undergone different treatments the winery
What is the aim of blending different treatments/plots of Pinot Noir?
To increase complexity or improve consistency
Describe the best Pinot Noir wines?
They can develop in bottle for many years
Gain flavours of forest floor and mushroom
What is the role of oak in Rose winemaking?
It's rarely used
What are the three main methods of Rose wine production?
Briefly describe the 'direct pressing' method of Rose wine production
Black grapes are crushed and pressed in the same way as for white wine, extracting a little colour
What style of Rose does direct pressing create?
The most delicately coloured
What is the danger when using the direct pressing method of creating Rose?
That too much tannin will be extracted
Describe short maceration as a process of creating Rose wines
Black grapes are allowed to macerate for a short time to extract colour and flavour
Maceration may or may not continue into fermentation
Free run juice is drained off
Fermentation continues at a cool temperature