C9 - Red and Rose Winemaking Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in C9 - Red and Rose Winemaking Deck (148):

The vast majority of fruit used in red winemaking is...and...



What do some red winemakers do after crushing?

Leave the grapes to macerate for a period of a low temperature


What is the name of the process of cool maceration of red grapes after crushing?

Cold maceration/cold soaking


What is the purpose of cold soaking?

To extract colour and flavour compounds as tannins are more soluble in alcohol, therefore not readily extracted during fermentation


Between what temperatures does red wine fermentation usually occur?

20C - 32C (depending on style)


Why are the temperatures of fermentation higher for red wine than for white?

It's necessary to aid extraction of colour, flavour and tannin


Beyond what temperature should red wine fermentation not go? Why?

This may kill the yeast


How may a red winemaker influence the amounts of colour, flavour and tannin extracted during fermentation?

By precisely controlling temperature


Describe how tannin levels may be reduced in red wines

By reducing the temperature near the end of fermentation


What will happen to a fermenting red wine if left to itself?

A thick mass of pulp and skins will form on its surface


What is the mass of pulp and skins called, that forms on a fermenting red wine?

The cap


What will be the result if the cap is left to float on a wine?

Little colour, flavour or tannin will be extracted from it


How may the problem of the cap be managed?

Using cap management techniques


How may cap management techniques be used to control levels of extraction?

By altering the duration of each technique
By altering the number of times they are practiced each day


What is the traditional method of punching down?

The cap would be punched down by hand with paddles on the end of sticks


What was the big problem with the traditional method of punching-down?

There was a danger for the workers of CO2 intoxication


Why is the danger of manual punching-down not really a problem anymore?

The same effect can now be achieved with mechanical paddles


Which cap management technique is particularly effective at extracting colour and tannin?

Punching down


What is the potential problem when punching down, mechanical or otherwise? When is it most important to consider this/why?

It can be too effective at extracting colour and tannin
At the end of fermentation
Tannins are more easily extracted at this point


What is pumping over?

It involved drawing off juice from the bottom of the vat and pumping it onto the top of the fermenting wine


What is pumping over particularly good at?

It is a good way of oxygenating the juice and dissipating heat


Describe Rack and Return

The fermenting juice is drained from the vessel into another one, leaving the cap behind
The juice is then pumped back over the cap


What is the big disadvantage of Rack and Return? How is this managed?

It can be very extractive
It is only performed once or twice during a fermentation


What is Rack and Return particularly good at?

Dissipating heat


Describe Rotary Fermentation

Fermentation takes place in rotating horizontal tanks


What is the intention of Rotary Fermentation?

To keep the juice in constant contact with the skins


What effect does cap management techniques have on the fermentation vessel that's chosen?

They are usually large and open-topped


What kind of vessel should NOT be used for fermenting red wines? Why?

It would be almost impossible to maintain sufficient contact between the skins and the juice


What is the main aim of post-fermentation maceration?

To extract further tannin


Some winemakers have found that...can create a smoother tannin structure

Extended periods of post-fermentation maceration


What happens to red wine immediately after fermentation/maceration?

The free run wine is drawn off the skins
The remaining mass is pressed


What is press wine?

The wine which is released from pressing the grape mass after fermentation (in the case of red wine)


Describe how press wine differs as it's being pressed

It is similar in composition to free-run wine at the beginning, but becomes deeper in colour and higher in tannin as pressing continues


How is press wine managed by red winemakers?

They will usually separate the wine at different stages of pressing


What is the name for the wines separated at different stages of pressing?

Press fractions


What may press fractions be used for later in the process of red winemaking?

To adjust colour and tannin in the final blend


What is the main consideration for a winemaker when they are using whole bunches? Why?

That the stems are ripe
The unripe stems of a whole bunch may give the finished wine an undesirable bitter taste


What is the main reason for using whole bunches during fermentation?

To create an oxygen free environment for the uncrushed grapes


What are the two main outcomes of creating an oxygen-free environment for fermenting grapes?

Intracellular fermentation
Distinctive aromas are created within the berry


Define intracellular fermentation

Berries create alcohol within their cells without the involvement of yeast


List the three forms of whole-bunch fermentation

Carbonic maceration
Semi-carbonic maceration
Whole bunches with crushed fruit


List the key stages of carbonic maceration

Whole uncrushed bunches are placed into vats which are filled with CO2 to remove all oxygen
Intercellular fermentation begins
At 2% alcohol, the grapes begin to split and they begin to release their juice
The grapes are pressed
Yeast completes the fermentation (off the skins)


What is the key structural difference in wines made using carbonic maceration?

It extracts a lot of colour, but little tannin


What are the tell-tale aromas/flavours of a wine made with carbonic maceration?

Kirsch, banana, bubblegum and cinnamon-like spice


Describe semi-carbonic maceration?

The vats are not filled with CO2
The vat is filled with whole bunches
The weight of the whole bunches crushes those at the bottom, releasing some juice
Ambient yeast begin to ferment the juice at the bottom, filling the tank with CO2 as a by-product
Remaining grapes undergo carbonic maceration as normal


Name a notable wine style which is made using semi-carbonic maceration. How is this process different?

Some premium Pinot Noirs
Alcoholic fermentation continues on the skins


How is the winemaking process different when semi-carbonic maceration is used for premium Pinot Noir?

Grape skins are progressively broken up during punching down
An ever-decreasing amount of carbonic maceration takes place until all grapes are broken up
Normal fermentation may continue on skins
Post-fermentation maceration may take place


What is the potential result of the premium pinot noir approach to semi-carbonic maceration?

It can result in a better integration of aromas from intracellular fermentation and the aromas from the grape variety
Wine have a fresher fruit character


How is intracellular fermentation encouraged when whole bunches are mixed with crushed fruit?

The whole grapes are usually submerged in the juice of the crushed ones, resulting in a lack of access to oxygen for the whole grapes


How are the more 'carbonic' characteristics created when using whole bunches with crushed fruit?

By raising the percentage of whole bunches used


What are thought to be the outcomes of using a greater percentage of whole bunches with crushed fruit?

Silkier texture
Brighter, fresher fruit characteristics


What is the most important decision when it comes to pre-bottling maturation when making red wines?

The option of whether or not to use oak


Virtually all red wines undergo...



The generally more robust flavours of red wines mean they benefit less from...than white wines

Extended time on lees


Which maturation trend is now declining in red winemaking?

Maturing premium red wines in small, new oak barrels


What is the style that red winemakers are aiming for now? How are they achieving this?

Subtlety and integration
By using oak vessels of different ages and larger sizes


A red winemaker's best wines will be still often be...and with more...

Aged for longer
New oak


How will a red winemaker's fruit usually reflect the quality of wine it's intended to produce? Why should it be like this?

The best wines will usually be made with a higher quality, more concentrated fruit
To support a greater level of new oak flavours


What is blending used for in the making of red wine? Give examples

To enhance or balance out certain aspects of the wine, such as colour, body, tannin, acidity and flavour


What is used in red winemaking to boost colour, flavour and tannin in the more delicate free-run wines?

The use of different press fractions


Which blending practice may help to enhance the complexity of a red wine?

The blending of wines matured in oak vessels of different ages, sizes and toasting levels


How may blending be used to achieve a more subtle oak influence on a red wine?

The winemaker may blend wines matured in oak with wines matured in stainless steel or concrete vessels


Why might a red winemaker avoid clarification and/or stabilisation?

Some winemakers believe that these processes may harm the wine's structure


How may clarity be achieved without filtration in a red wine?

By allowing gradual sedimentation through extended maturation


Describe the grape-growing areas responsible for high-volume, inexpensive red wines

They tend to be warm, sunny and dry


Which varieties tend to be used for high-volume, inexpensive red wines? Why?

Those that can thrive in warm, sunny and dry conditions (e.g. Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Grenache etc.)
Growing areas for this category of wine tend to be warm, sunny and dry


What is the additional benefit of growing grapes like Shiraz/Merlot etc. for high-volume, inexpensive wines?

They can produce fruity wines with adequate colour even at high yields
Due to the concentration of colours and flavours in their skins


How may the high-volume examples of red wine grapes compare with their premium counterparts?

They may display less colour, lighter tannins and less intense and complex aromas
Distinctive characteristics may diminish, resulting in more homogenous wines


Name a black grape which is rarely used in high-volume, inexpensive wines

Pinot Noir
It's hard to grow, prefers cooler climates and can be difficult to extract adequate colour and tannin at high yields


How may high-volume, inexpensive red wines be labelled? (give an example)

'Fruity Red'


What is the broad flavour style in which high-volume red wines are usually made?

Fruity and low-tannin


How are fresh, fruity aromas retained in high-volume red wines?

The juice is handled protectively with SO2 levels being monitored throughout


What will usually happen to harvested red grapes for inexpensive wine once they arrive at a winery?

They'll usually be destemmed and crushed


What adjustment will usually need to be made for inexpensive red wines?

Tartaric acid will usually be needed due to the warm growing climate usually experienced


Which process may or may not occur just before fermentation when making inexpensive red wine? Why may it not be used?

It can tie-up vat space and so may not be feasible in a high throughput winery


What kind of yeast will usually be used for inexpensive red wines?

Commercial yeast


What temperature will fermentation usually be performed at when making inexpensive red wine? With what aim?

22 - 25C
To maximise fresh fruit aromas


Which fermentation vessels will be used for inexpensive red wines?

Variable (Static or rotary)


How often will cap-management take place in inexpensive red wines?

It varies dependant on style, but typically the cap will not be heavily worked


How typical is post-fermentation maceration in the production of high-volume, inexpensive red wine? Why?

It's not usually used
Constraints on vat space and time
This can extract additional tannins which are not usually desirable in this style of wine


How may a winemaker for inexpensive reds approach giving more structure to a wine?

They may macerate a small portion of the wine after fermentation and blend this as necessary later


Which other vinification techniques may be used to create inexpensive red wines? Which high-volume wines are most commonly made in this way?

Carbonic and semi-carbonic maceration
Grenache and basic Beaujolais


Which maturation options are available to a winemaker creating inexpensive red wines?

Stainless steel (pure fruit flavours)
Short oak ageing (smooth tannins and add oak characteristics)
Steel with oak staves/chips (for quick toasty flavours)


Describe oak barrels when used for maturation of inexpensive red wines
How long are they typically used for in this instance?

Often second or third fill
A matter of months


What is the role of stabilisation, clarification and fining in making inexpensive red wines?

These processes are almost always used to meet with customer expectations


What is the role of SO2 in inexpensive red wines prior to bottling?

SO2 levels are topped up to reduce chances of oxidation despite the short shelf-life


Describe the viticultural characteristics of the Cabernet Sauvignon grape

It is thick-skinned and late-ripening


What effect does Cabernet's thick skin have on it's resultant wines?

It has an abundance of colour, flavour and tannin


What is the effect on flavour of Cabernet Sauvignon not ripening properly?

Wines can be astringent and herbaceous


Of which area is Cabernet the classic grape?

Haut-Medoc in Bordeaux


Describe the range of flavours/styles that Cabernet gives in the Haut-Medoc

In youth: Grippy tannins. Cedar and Blackcurrant leaf.
With age: Softer tannins. More expression.


What is the effect of Merlot on Cabernet-based wines?

It gives juicy plum flavours and a smoother texture


Where else in Europe is Cabernet most notably found?

South of France, Italy and Spain


How are Cabernet-based wines usually made in non-Bordeaux areas of Europe?

It is usually blended with indigenous varieties


Name two european varieties other than Merlot with which Cabernet is often blended outside of France?



What style is Cabernet made into outside of Europe?

Blended and single-variety


What styles/flavours are achieved by Cabernet in the warmer non-european areas?

Full-bodies wines
Smooth tannins
Blackcurrant and black cherry


List some classic regions for the non-european production of Cabernet Sauvignon

California: Napa Valley
Australia: Coonawarra and Margaret River
New Zealand: Hawke's Bay
South Africa: Stellenbosch
Chile: Colchagua Valley


What usually happens with Cabernet grapes when they arrive at the winery?

They are destemmed and crushed


What is the typical range of fermentation temperatures for Cabernet Sauvignon? What is the aim of fermenting at these temperatures?

26C to 30C
High enough to achieve satisfactory levels of extraction
Cool enough to promote fresh fruit flavour


What approach is taken towards temperature and cap management when fermenting/vinifying Cabernet Sauvignon? Why? When is this especially important to consider?

High temperatures are avoided
Less extractive cap management is used
The grapes are high in tannin
If the tannins are unripe


How may more gentle tannin extraction and tannin-softening be achieved when vilifying Cabernet Sauvignon?

A period of post-fermentation maceration


How much new oak can be used when vinifying Cabernet? Why?

A high proportion of new oak can be used
Due to the grape's intense flavours, medium to full body and high tannins


What kind of oak is widely used for Cabernet wines?

French 225L barriques


How long can Cabernet mature in oak for? What's typical?

From six months to three/four years
12 to 18 months is typical


Which features of Cabernet make it less suitable for a single-varietal wine?

High tannins and sometimes light body


What often plays the role of Merlot in Australian Cabernet blends?



What is considered the 'other' great grape of Bordeaux?



How does Merlot compare with Cabernet in the vineyard?

It buds and ripens earlier than Cabernet


In which areas of Bordeaux is Merlot dominant?

Saint-Emilion and Pomerol


List the key points of the 'International Style' of Merlot

Grapes harvested as late as possible
Intense purple colour
Concentrated blackberry and plum fruit
Soft, velvety tannins
Matured in new oak for toasty flavours


Where is the international style of Merlot often made?

Many new world countries
South of France
Some Bordeaux estates


Describe the Bordeaux style of Merlot

Harvested earlier
Medium body and alcohol
Higher acidity
Fresh red fruit character
Some vegetal, leafy aromas


Where is the traditional style of Merlot often found?

Rarely outside of Bordeaux


How is Merlot usually treated at the winery?

Similarly to Cabernet
Destemmed and crushed
Pre-fermentation extraction sometimes used for additional extraction of colour and flavour
Less rigorous extraction needed during fermentation (suppler skins than Cabernet)
New oak used for flavours and complexity
12 - 18 months in oak is common


Describe the key viticultural characteristics of Pinot Noir

Early budding
Early ripening


What is the consequence of Pinot Noir being such an old variety?

There are many clones with varying characteristics


List two styles into which Pinot Noir can be made

Light and fruity with red cherry notes
Complex and earthy with flavours of spice and forest floor


What is the big challenge of vinifying Pinot Noir in the winery?

Extracting maximum colour and tannin without overworking the juice


Why is it important not to overwork the juice of Pinot Noir?

The elegance of the primary aromas can be lost or overwhelmed


Why is maximum extraction a key aim of the winemaker when dealing with Pinot Noir?

Colour and tannin can be tricky to extract from its skins


Which climates is Pinot Noir best grown in? Why?

Cool to moderate climates
It is an early ripening variety


Describe entry-level red Burgundy wines

Very light with marked acidity and a hint of oak for structure


Describe red wines from the better sites in the Cote d'Or

Greater intensity and complexity than cheaper alternatives with flavours ranging from delicate and floral, to spicy and more tannic


What is the risk of Pinot Noir being grown in cooler environments/years?

They may not ripen fully, leading to vegetal notes like cabbage and wet leaves


Where else in Europe is well known for high-quality Pinot Noir?

Baden in Germany


List some regions in the new world which produce high quality Pinot Noir

California: Los Carneros and Sonoma
New Zealand: Martinborough, Marlborough and Central Otago
Australia: Yarra Valley, Mornington Peninsula and Tasmania
South Africa: Walker Bay
Chile: Casablanca Valley


What happens to the flavours of Pinot Noir if its climate is too hot?

Flavours become jammy and unattractive


Is Pinot Noir destemmed and crushed at the winery?



What will typically happen to Pinot Noir before fermentation?

Pre fermentation maceration to maximise colour and flavour extraction


What is becoming increasingly popular when fermenting Pinot Noir? What does this achieve?

Using whole bunches
It generally enhances red fruit and floral characters


How does fermentation occur when whole bunches are used?

The bunches are gradually crushed in a series of punch-down operations
Fermentation continues on skins once they are all broken up


What fermentation temperature is common for Pinot Noir?

Upwards of 30C


Why is Pinot Noir often fermented at such high temperatures?

To extract more colour, flavour and tannin for longer aged wines


When may Pinot Noir be fermented at cooler temperatures?

For lighter, fresher styles


Which post fermentation practice in the winery is not widely used for Pinot Noir?

Post-fermentation maceration


Describe oak usage when making Pinot Noir wines

It is common, with premium examples spending 12 - 24 months in oak
Delicate flavours can be overpowered by oak, so 2nd and 3rd fill barrels are often used and only a small proportion of new oak


With which varieties is Pinot Noir usually blended?

It's not usually blended


Why may a winemaker blend Pinot Noir with other Pinot Noir?

The components of the blend may come from different vineyard plots or undergone different treatments the winery


What is the aim of blending different treatments/plots of Pinot Noir?

To increase complexity or improve consistency


Describe the best Pinot Noir wines?

They can develop in bottle for many years
Gain flavours of forest floor and mushroom


What is the role of oak in Rose winemaking?

It's rarely used


What are the three main methods of Rose wine production?

Direct Pressing
Short Maceration


Briefly describe the 'direct pressing' method of Rose wine production

Black grapes are crushed and pressed in the same way as for white wine, extracting a little colour


What style of Rose does direct pressing create?

The most delicately coloured


What is the danger when using the direct pressing method of creating Rose?

That too much tannin will be extracted


Describe short maceration as a process of creating Rose wines

Black grapes are allowed to macerate for a short time to extract colour and flavour
Maceration may or may not continue into fermentation
Free run juice is drained off
Fermentation continues at a cool temperature


Where in the EU is blending permitted as a means of creating Rose?

For Rose Champagne