C18 - The Loire Valley Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in C18 - The Loire Valley Deck (110):
1

What are the four sub-regions of the Loire from east to west?

Central vineyards

Touraine

Anjou Saumur

Nantais

2

What is the regional generic appellation covering the whole of the Loire?

There isn't one

3

What is the IGP that covers the Loire?

Val de Loire

4

Describe Val de Loire wines

Straightforward wines with freshness, light body and simple fruit flavours

5

What is the climate of the Loire?

Cool Continental inland Maritime in the Nantais

6

What's the climate like in Anjou? Why?

Slightly warmer and drier than might be expected Protected by Mauges hills Some vineyards are warmed by stony soils

7

What's the climate of Touraine?

Wetter and cooler than Anjou, with clay soils

8

Why is vintage important in Loire?

Weather varies wildly in the region

9

What is a particular issue related to the weather in Loire?

Fungal disease caused by rain

10

Describe the best vineyards in the Loire

They are south facing, mid-slope and often facing the river for reflected light and heat

11

How many grape varieties are permitted in the Loire?

Many

12

What are the main grape varieties of the Loire?

Sauvignon Blanc Chenin Blanc Melon Blanc Cabernet Franc

13

Where in the Loire is Sauvignon Blanc mostly grown?

Central Vineyards

Touraine

14

Which area of the Loire has the smallest production area?

Central Vineyards

15

What appellations are found within the Central Vineyards?

Sancerre Pouilly-Fumé

16

What are the soils of Sancerre and Pouilly Fumé like?

Chalky Well-drained Stony

17

What are the wines of Central Vineyards like?

Dry

High acidity

Hints of green apple and wet stone

Subtle smoky notes from Pouilly-Fumé

18

Name a village and a vineyard in Sancerre, noted for particularly expressive wines

Chavignol Les Monts Damnés

19

How long can wines from Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé be aged?

Generally they're not designed to be

20

How are fresh, fruity wines created in the Loire?

Gentle pneumatic pressing Temperature controlled, stainless steel vats

21

How are certain Loire wines given a broader texture?

Wines are fermented and matured in old oak vessels Wines are kept on their lees

22

Is new oak used in the Loire?

By some producers

23

Does MLF take place in the Loire?

Dependent on vintage (cooler weather produces a greater need due to higher acidity)

24

What is the most important appellation to the west and south of Sancerre?

Menetou-Salon

25

What is the grape used in Menetou-Salon?

Sauvignon Blanc

26

How are the vineyards to the south and east of Sancerre located?

On the tributaries of the Loire

27

What are the wines of Menetou-Salon like?

More moderately priced wines made in the same style as Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé

28

Where does the majority of Sauvignon Blanc come from in the Loire?

Touraine

29

What is the next region west of Menetou Salon? What is produced here?

Touraine Sauvignon Blanc Chenin Blanc

30

What is the generic appellation covering Touraine?

Touraine

31

How do the generic wines of Touraine often appear?

Under a varietal label such as Sauvignon de Touraine

32

Describe wines of Touraine

Made from Sauvignon Blanc Often less concentration than more prestigious appellation Made in a simple fruity style

33

Give a broad description of Chenin Blanc

High acid

Non-aromatic

34

Which grape is responsible for the greatest wines of Touraine and Anjou-Saumur?

Chenin Blanc

35

What is the key viticultural peculiarity with Chenin Blanc?

It is common for grapes to reach different levels of ripeness, even within one bunch

36

What can be the result if Chenin Blanc is not harvested carefully?

Green, herbaceous aromas

37

How may the problem of varying ripeness in Chenin Blanc grapes be tackled?

By harvesting in several passes to pick the grapes at a desired level of ripeness

38

What styles are Chenin grapes made into?

Dry, sweet, still or sparkling

39

What dictates the style into which Chenin is made?

The ripeness when it is picked

40

Barely ripe Chenin is used for what in Loire?

Sparkling wines

41

What is the ripest Chenin gets when it is picked in Loire?

Shrivelled by the sun or affected by noble rot

42

What has been the recent harvesting trend for Chenin Blanc in Loire?

To seek greater ripeness, even for dry wines

43

What has been the result of recent trends for riper Chenin in Loire?

Higher alcohol wines

44

Describe flavours of young Chenin Blanc wines in the Loire

They vary from fresh apple to tropical fruit depending on grape ripeness

45

Describe flavours that dry Chenin can show in the Loire

Steely, smoky character

46

Describe the flavours that sweet Chenin-based wines of the Loire can have

Apricot and citrus peel flavours of noble rot

47

Can dry/sweet Chenins age?

Yes, for decades

48

Describe aged Chenins in the Loire

Richer and rounder Aromas of honey, toast and hay High acidity

49

Why are Chenins different from region to region?

Soil and climate both have an important influence on the character of Chenin

50

Where in the Loire is Vouvray?

To the east of the city of Tours, in Touraine

51

What are the styles of wine made in Vouvray?

Sparkling and still Dry to lusciously sweet

52

What dictates the style in which Vouvray is vinified?

The vintage

53

What is the soil and weather like in Vouvray?

Clay soils Cool climate

54

How do the clay soils and cool climate of Vouvray affect the wine?

Light body Fresh, fruity and floral flavours

55

What is the role of new oak in Vouvray?

It is rarely used

56

Which villages lie to the west of Vouvray?

Anjou and Saumur

57

What is the climate of Anjou and Saumur?

Similar to that of Vouvray (cool climate and clay soils)

58

How is Saumur renowned?

As a source of sparkling Chenin, made in the traditional method

59

How is Anjou best known?

For dry wines often matured in new oak

60

Which areas are just to the west part of Anjou-Saumur?

Savennières and Coteaux du Layon

61

What is the climate like in Savennières and Coteaux du Layon?

Warmer than Touraine

62

What is the effect that the warmer climate of Savennières and Coteaux du Layon has on its wines?

Medium to full-bodied

Less floral

63

Describe wines of Savennières

Full bodied Chenin Dry Can be complex and age worthy

64

Is noble rot used in Savennières? Explain

No The vineyards are well exposed, so circulation of air impedes the development of noble rot

65

Describe wines of Coteaux du Layon

Some of the most renowned sweet wines of the region

66

How is the Coteaux du Layon situated?

It's located in the sheltered valley of the river Layon to the south of the Loire

67

What is the viticultural effect of the sheltered valley of the river Layon?

It encourages noble rot to develop

68

What are the most favoured sites/appellations of the Coteaux du Layon?

Bonnezeaux Quarts de Chaume

69

What du Quarts du Chaumes and Bonnezeaux produce?

Among the world's greatest sweet wines

70

How else is Melon Blanc known?

Muscadet Melon de Bourgogne

71

What are Melon's key viticultural characteristics? Why is this beneficial in the Nantais?

It ripens early and is frost-resistant It's suited to the cool climate

72

Where is the Nantais?

To the far west of the Loire region and mostly south of the river

73

How are the wines of Nantais generally known?

As Muscadet

74

Which appellation of Nantais covers the widest area?

Muscadet

75

Where does the greatest wine production of Nantais come from?

Muscadet Sèvre et Maine appellation

76

Describe wines from Muscadet appellations

Dry

Medium alcohol

High acidity

Light body

Subtle green fruit flavours

77

What is the maximum permitted alcohol for Muscadet wines?

12% abv

78

Describe maturation of Muscadet

Traditionally in large, old oak vessels Now more commonly in stainless steel or concrete

79

How long may Muscadet wines be aged?

They should be drunk young

80

What is the speciality wine from the Nantais area?

Muscadet (Sèvre et Maine) Sur Lie

81

When is 'Sur Lie' wine from Nantais bottled?

The Spring following the vintage

82

How long does Sur Lie Muscadet spend on its Lees?

Winter

83

What is the effect of Muscadet being on its Lees?

It gives the wines a richer texture

84

How is Muscadet Sèvre et Maine Sur Lie vinified to retain delicacy and freshness?

By being handled very little

85

Why is Cabernet Franc well suited to the Loire?

It flowers and ripens early

86

What dictates the style in which Cabernet Franc is vinified into in the Loire?

Site climate

Soil

Winemaking techniques

87

Where is Chinon? What is grown there?

To the south of the Loire in Touraine, just east of Saumur

Cabernet Franc

88

Where else in Touraine is Cab Franc grown? Where is this?

Bourgueil Saint-Nicolas-de-Bourgueil North of the Loire in Touraine

89

Describe how Cab Franc wines vary within Touraine

Sandy soils: Light, fruity wines for early drinking

Limestone/clay soils (south facing slopes): Fuller bodied, more tannic

90

What is the approach to oak ageing in Touraine for Cab Franc?

Some producers age in oak

91

Can Touraine reds age?

The best can evolve in bottle over many years

92

What are the relevant red wine appellations to the west of Touraine?

Saumur

Saumur-Champigny

93

Describe the wines of Saumur and Saumur-Champigny

Lighter in body and tannin than those of Touraine

Juicy berry fruit and floral notes

Young drinking

Can be served chilled

Some producers making fuller-bodied, age worthy reds

94

What is the second most planted black variety in the Loire?

Gamay

95

Where is Gamay mainly planted in the Loire? In what style?

Touraine and Anjou

Fruity, early drinking wines

96

What is the third red grape planted in the Loire?

Pinot Noir

97

Where is Pinot Noir grown in the Loire?

Central Vineyards

98

Why is Pinot Noir so rare in Loire?

The best sites are usually reserved for Sauvignon Blanc

99

Broadly speaking, what style is Pinot Noir made into in the Loire?

Light in style

100

Where is Rosé produced in the Loire?

Mainly Anjou-Saumur

Significant amounts in Touraine and Sancerre

101

Where is Rosé de Loire produced?

Anjou Saumur and Touraine

102

Where is the majority of Rosé de Loire produced?

Anjou-Saumur

103

Where is sweet Anjou-Saumur produced?

It is only dry

104

How must Anjou-Saumur be blended?

it must be a minimum of 30% Cabernet Franc and/or Cabernet Sauvignon

105

Which are the two additional appellations within Anjou-Saumur which produce Rosé?

Cabernet d'Anjou

Rosé d'Anjou

106

Which is the highest quality of Anjou-Saumur's Rosé appellations? Describe it

Cabernet d'Anjou

Always medium sweet

Made from a blend of Cab Franc and Cab Sauvignon

107

Describe Rosé d'Anjou

Less sweet than Cabernet d'Anjou

Made predominantly from Grolleau

Blended with Cab Franc and other local varieties

108

Describe the Rosé wines of Touraine

Can be made from a wide array of black grape varieties

Usually dry, fresh and fruity

109

Describe Sancerre Rose

Must be made from Pinot Noir

Usually pale in colour and light in body

Dry, with delicate fruit flavours

110

How may Loire Rosés be vinified?

Direct pressing or short maceration on the skins

Fermented in inert, temperature controlled vessels to retain fruit flavours