C38 - South Africa Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in C38 - South Africa Deck (128):
1

Where are most of South Africa's wine regions found?

On the coast

2

Why can South Africa produce a broad range of styles?

Proximity to the coast and the mountainous backdrop

3

What is the latitude range within which South Africa lies?

27° - 34˚ south of the equator

4

What should be the result of the latitude range of South Africa? Why does this not necessarily apply?

It should be hot Vineyards here are subject to cooling influences

5

Where does South Africa's most important cooling influence come from?

The Southern Ocean

6

Describe the Benguela Current and its effects

It is cold It flows up from the Antarctic, past the tip and up the west coast of Africa, cooling coastal areas

7

How is the cooling effect of the Benguela Current magnified?

By the Cape Doctor

8

Describe the Cape Doctor

A regular, strong, south-easterly summer wind Brings air cooled b the ocean further inland and can reduce temperatures by an additional couple of degrees in some areas

9

What is South Africa's second cooling influence?

The mountain ranges that run through the wine regions

10

What do the mountain ranges of South Africa offer producers?

A dramatic range of different altitudes and aspects

A multitude of different soils

11

What is the influence of altitude on winemaking in South Africa?

It has a marked impact on vineyard climate

Higher altitudes are cooler

Lower altitudes are warmer

12

What kind of aspect may be seen as preferable in South Africa? Why?

Southern aspects To benefit from cooler temperatures

13

Other than aspect and altitude, how else may mountains affect cooling in South Africa?

They may cast shadows over vineyards at certain times of the day

14

What secondary effect may mountain ranges have on cooling in South Africa nearer the coast?

They can help channel the winds through the vineyards

15

What is the most widely planted black variety in South Africa?

Cabernet Sauvignon

16

How may Cabernet Sauvignon be used in wines in South Africa?

Either as a varietal wine or in a blend with Merlot and Cabernet Franc for Bordeaux-style blends

17

What style of wine can Merlot produce in South Africa?

Full-bodied, plummy wines

18

What are the main black varieties of South Africa?

Cabernet Sauvignon

Merlot

Syrah

Pinot Noir

Pinotage

19

Beside the Bordeaux varieties, what is the next most planted black variety in South Africa?

Syrah

20

Describe Syrah wines from hot climates in South Africa

Rich and full-bodied High alcohol Ripe black fruit flavours Sometimes earthy or meaty character

21

How does Syrah from cooler areas of South Africa differ from those of the warmer climes?

Less full-bodied Peppery

22

Describe Pinot Noir's role in South Africa

Less tolerant of the hot South African climate Planted in small amounts in the coolest coastal areas

23

What is the role of oak in the vinification of South African reds?

The vast majority of premium reds are matured in oak At least a proportion of new barrels used for toasty aromas

24

Which varieties were crossed to make Pinotage?

Pinot Noir x Cinsault

25

Where was Pinotage developed?

South Africa

26

What is notable about the role of Pinotage in South Africa?

It's hardly grown anywhere else in the world

27

What style is Pinotage made into?

It's made in a range of styles

28

What is a 'Cape blend'?

Where Pinotage is blended with international varieties

29

What are the three most popular styles of Pinotage, single-varietal wine?

Light, fruity style with red berry flavours

Full-bodied from old bush vines, with rich, spiced berry fruit

Intense coffee and chocolate aromas when fermented and/or stored with heavily toasted oak staves

30

How is Pinotage often marketed?

Often to highlight its unique style (dependent on what style its been vinified to)

31

What is the most widely planted variety in South Africa?

Chenin Blanc

32

Describe the importance of Chenin Blanc as a variety in South Africa

It's the most widely planted grape, but in decline

33

What style is Chenin Blanc made into in South Africa

Dry and sweet styles

34

Describe basic wines from Chenin Blanc in South Africa

Easy drinking with simple stone-fruit flavours

35

What is the increasing trend when making Chenin Blanc wine in South Africa?

An increasing number of producers are using Chenin from old bush vines

36

What can be the effect on wine of making Chenin Blanc from old bush vines?

It can offer more concentrated and complex flavours and a fuller texture

37

What may barrel fermentation and barrel ageing contribute to a Chenin Blanc in South Africa?

Extra body and toasty oak flavours

38

What is the second most widely planted white variety in South Africa? What is it used for?

Colombard

A significant portion is used in the production of brandy

39

What is a consistent feature between wines made from Sauvignon Blanc in South Africa?

They often have a herbaceous character

40

Where in South Africa do the best examples of Sauvignon Blanc come from?

The coolest sites

41

What kind of flavours/aromas might the best examples of Sauvignon Blanc display?

Very pure flavours of citrus and green fruit

42

How is the necessary acidity and flavours achieved in Sauvignon Blanc's warmer sites in South Africa achieved?

By picking earlier

43

Describe Chardonnay quality in South Africa

It can be exceptional

44

Which sites in South Africa produce the best examples of Chardonnay?

The cooler sites

45

Describe big contributing factors in the character of South Africa's best Chardonnays

The use of Burgundian techniques such as lees-stirring and barrel fermentation

46

What is Muscat of Alexandria called in South Africa?

Hanepoot

47

What is Hanepoot used for in South Africa?

Late-harvest dessert wines

48

Besides late-harvesting, how may South African dessert wines be sweetened?

Noble rot can have an influence

49

Plantings of which white grape have increased dramatically in South Africa over the last couple of decades?

Viognier

50

What is the usual style of Viognier wines from South Africa?

Rich, perfumed whites with a hint of toasty oak

51

Which style of wine has recently emerged in South Africa, particularly in Swartland?

High quality blends, often made from Chenin Blanc with Rhône varieties such as Marsanne, Rousanne, Grenache Blanc and Viognier

52

Where does well over 90% of wine made in South Africa come from?

The Western Cape

53

What are the most important regions of the Western Cape?

Coastal Region Breede River Valley Cape South Coast

54

Where does the majority of wine NOT from the Western Cape come from in South Africa?

Orange River in the Northern Cape

55

Briefly describe conditions in Orange River

Very hot and irrigated

56

What is wine from Orange River mostly known for?

Mostly inexpensive whites the are rarely seen on export markets

57

In South Africa, some wineries located in certain districts or wards may source their fruit from... How may these wines be labelled?

A wider area than the GI in which they're located With a region or a geographical unit e.g. Coastal Region or Western Cape

58

Where is the Stellenbosch region?

From just inland of the coast at Somerset West right up into the mountains that surround the town of Stellenbosch itself

59

What is the long-time hub of fine wine in South Africa?

Stellenbosch

60

Describe the climate of Stellenbosch

Moderate to warm depending on location

Sufficient rain in winter

Summers rarely too hot

61

Why are summers rarely too hot in Stellenbosch?

Thanks to cool winds from False Bay that are funnelled by the mountains into the valleys

62

What is largely credited for the success of Stellenbosch as a wine growing district?

The variety of altitude, aspect and soil that's available in such a relatively small area

63

What has Stellenbosch built a reputation for in recent years?

Top class reds

64

What reds in particular has Stellenbosch built a reputation for?

Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot (often made into Bordeaux-style blends)

Syrah

Cape red blends

65

What can the cooler sites in Stellenbosch produce?

High quality Sauvignon Blanc

Chardonnay

66

Describe the Paarl district

A large district to the north of Stellenbosch

67

Describe the climate in Paarl

Less exposed to the cooling influences of the sea, being further inland

Temperatures hotter in summer

Cooler night-time temperatures

68

Describe the vineyards of Paarl

Variety of altitudes, aspects and soils offered by mountainous terrain

69

What are the most important reds of Paarl?

Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Pinotage

70

What are the most planted whites of Paarl?

Chenin Blanc and Chardonnay

71

What is noteworthy about the Constantia ward?

It has some of the oldest vineyards in the Cape

72

Where is the Constantia ward?

In the Cape Peninsula

73

How are the vineyards of Constantia Ward located?

On the eastern flanks of Table Mountain

74

How is temperature moderated in the vineyards of Constantia?

By the Cape Doctor

75

What do the producers of Cape Doctor have a particular reputation for?

Sauvignon Blanc

76

What is the name of the sweet wine produced from late-harvested Muscat in Constantia?

Vin de Constance

77

Describe the vineyards south of Table Mountain and the grapes they're famous for

Closer to Cape Point

Well exposed to the cooling influence of the ocean

Made a speciality of Sauvignon Blanc and Semillon

78

What is planted in the warmer sites south of Table Mountain in Constantia?

Some Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon

79

Which district lies to the north of Cape Town?

Swartland

80

What is Swartland's formative reputation?

As a source of inexpensive grapes and wine

81

What is the new reputation of Swartland?

As a centre of innovation and premium wine production

82

Swartland is recognised particularly as a source of ...and...

Old-vine Chenin Blanc

High-quality Syrah

83

What does 'dry-farming' mean?

Growing without irrigation

84

What is the effect of dry-farming Chenin Blanc and  Syrah (as in Swartland)?

It lowers yields but enhances fruit concentration

85

Besides Chenin and Syrah, what else also comes from Swartland district?

A number of premium Cape blends (red and white)

86

What is to the south-west of Swartland?

The Darling district

87

Describe the climate in the Darling district

Its position near the coast means it receives cooling sea breezes

88

For what does the Darling district have its reputation?

Sauvignon Blanc

89

What is Darling's similarity with Swartland?

It is a source of old vines

90

What/where is Durbanville?

A ward in the Tygerberg district

91

What are sites like in Durbanville?

Offers hillside sites north of Cape Town

Cooled by sea breezes that also blow through the Cape Point

92

Durbanville has built a reputation for...

Sauvignon Blanc

93

What are the most important districts of Breede River Valley?

Worcester District

Robertson District

94

Where in Breede River Valley is Worcester district?

At the western end of Breede River Valley

95

Describe the climate in the Worcester district

Hot and dry

96

What is the result of the climate in the Worcester district?

Irrigation from the river is essential

97

What are the soils like in Breede River Valley?

Fertile

98

What is the role of the Worcester district in South Africa's wine production?

It can produce a significant proportion of South Africa's annual production

99

What is the majority of Worcester district wine made from?

Chenin Blanc and Colombard

100

Much of wine from Worcester district is used for...

Distillation

101

Other than wine for distillation, what else is Worcester district reputable for?

Red and white, high-volume, branded wines

102

Where is the Robertson district?

To the east of Worcester

103

What is the climate of Robertson district?

Similar but slightly cooler climate than Worcester district

104

Why is it cooler in Robertson district than Worcester district?

Thanks to south-easterly winds that are drawn into the valley

105

Of what is Robertson district a reliable source?

Well-made wines for high-volume brands

106

Besides high-volume wines, what else can be made in Robertson district?

Excellent Syrahs and full-bodied Chardonnays

107

What is the most southerly region of South Africa?

Cape South Coast

108

What is the reputation of the Cape South Coast area?

It is a regular source of some of the best fruit and wines in South Africa

109

What is the best-established vineyard area of Cape South Coast area?

Walker Bay district

110

What is contained within Walker Bay district?

The various wards of Hemel-en-Aarde

111

What is home to some of South Africa's best Chardonnays and Pinot Noirs?

Hemel-en-Aarde

112

What is also grown in Hemel-en-Aarde with great success (besides Pinot Noir and Chardonnay)?

Sauvignon Blanc

Merlot

Syrah

113

What is to the north-west of Walker Bay?

The Elgin district

114

What is the important cooling influence in Elgin district?

Altitude

115

For what does Elgin district have a particular reputation?

Intense, fresh Sauvignon Blancs

116

Besides SB, which varieties are showing promise in Elgin district?

Pinot Noir

Chardonnay

Syrah

117

What is to the south-east of Walker Bay?

The Elim ward (in the Cape Agulhas district)

118

For what does the Elim ward have a particular reputation?

Pungent, herbaceous Sauvignon Blanc

Syrah is also showing promise

119

What is the name of South Africa's GI system?

The Wine of Origin Scheme (W.O.)

120

What will wines stating Wine of Origin (W.O.) also carry?

A certification seal

121

How many different sizes of production area does South African law recognise? What are they?

Four

Geographical Unit

Regions

Districts 

Wards

 

122

What is the only geographical unit in South Africa of any importance to wine?

Western Cape

123

What is the advantage of the Western Cape appellation?

It allows producers to blend the best parcels of fruit from different areas 

124

What is the tendency as to how regions are defined in South Africa?

They follow dominant geological features

125

What are the most important regions for wine grape-growing in South Africa?

Coastal Region

Breede River Valley

Cape South Coast

126

What are the rules behind labelling wines as Estate Wines in South Africa?

Must come from a single estate

All grapes must come from estate vineyards that cover a single geographical area

Estate must have facilities on their land allowing them to process the grapes and the wine up to and including bottling

 

127

What does Estate Wine law allow in South Africa?

It allows top producers to release Estate Wines AND other W.O. wines under their brand name

128

What does IPW stand for in South Africa and what does it mean?

Integrated Production of Wine (IPW)

It's a voluntary sustainable agriculture scheme