C36 - Chile Flashcards Preview

Rick's WSET3 > C36 - Chile > Flashcards

Flashcards in C36 - Chile Deck (119):
1

What is the approximate total geographical range of Chile's vineyards?

900km from north to south Rarely more than 100km east to west

2

How is Chile's vineyard area geographically defined?

By four broad areas: The Pacific Ocean to the west The coastal mountain ranges just inland The Andes to the east A large depression south of Santiago where the two mountain ranges separate, known as Central Valley

 

3

What fills the gaps in the coastal mountains?

River valleys that drain the water from the Andes

4

What is the general climate of Chile?

Warm mediterranean

5

What does the mediterranean climate mean about the Chilean weather and conditions for growing grapes?

Summers are warm and dry Fungal disease is kept to a minimum

6

How is the shortfall in rainwater in Chile generally dealt with?

Irrigation

7

What is the difficulty with irrigation in Chile, particularly in the north?

Water for irrigation is in increasingly short supply

8

How are conditions different in the southern part of Chile?

They are cooler and wetter here

9

What can affect Chile's weather pattern some years?

El Niño and La Niña

10

What are the comparative impacts of El Niño and La Niña respectively on Chile?

Rainfall levels can dramatically increase during El Niño years Drought may occur during La Niña years

11

Where are El Niño and La Niña experienced?

Throughout the Pacific

12

Describe the major climatic influence which applies to all parts of coastal Chile , and how it affects Chile

The cold Humboldt Current flows up from Antarctica along the Chilean coast and prevailing winds blow cool air inland along the river valleys

13

What can be a secondary effect of the Humboldt Current in coastal areas of Chile?

It can create fogs

14

Where is the cooling effect of prevailing Humboldt winds most evident in Chile?

Where coastal mountains are at their lowest and in parts of the valleys that are closest to the Pacific

15

What is another cooling effect felt in Chilean foothills specifically?

Cold air which descends from the mountains overnight can cause a large diurnal range

16

Describe weather between the two mountain ranges in Chile

It is much more shielded here and the large expanses of flat land are easier to cultivate

17

What has been the result of the two major cooling influences in Chile?

New labelling laws introduced in 2012, using the terms; Costa Entre Cordilleras Andes

18

What alternative winemaking practices are widespread in Chile?

Sustainable and organic grape growing and winemaking are widely practiced by a number of small and large winemaking estates

19

Why are sustainable and organic winemaking practices widely practiced in Chile?

A number of well respected winemakers as well as the authorities have done a lot to promote this

20

What is the most planted grape variety in Chile?

Cabernet Sauvignon

21

What style is Cabernet made into in Chile?

A variety from simple and fruity to full-bodied premium examples

22

Describe premium Cabernet wines of Chile

Usually with very ripe black fruit aromas and flavours, often with a herbaceous character

23

What is the role of blending for Chilean Cabernet?

It is frequently blended with Merlot, Carmenère or Syrah

24

Describe styles of Merlot in Chile

Inexpensive, medium-bodied and fruity (has been very successful on export markets) Fuller-bodied and complex is also found

25

What are the most important viticultural characteristics of Carmenère?

Late ripening and most successful in warm, sunny conditions

26

Describe Carmenère wines

Full-bodied High levels of tannin Overtly herbaceous when not fully ripe Good examples achieve a balance between black fruit and herbal aromas

27

What is thought of as Chile's signature variety?

Carmenère

28

What style is Syrah made into in Chile?

It can be made into a wide variety of styles in a wide variety of sites

29

Describe Syrah from cooler coastal sites or northerly regions such as Elqui Valley

Lighter in body with peppery notes

30

Describe Syrah wines from hotter regions in Chile

Give an example of such a region

Greater intensity of black fruit flavours

Fuller body

Colchagua Valley

31

Which grape variety is showing particular promise in cooler locations such as San Antonio and Casablanca Valleys?

Pinot Noir

32

Which two white varieties dominate white plantings Chile?

Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay

33

Where in Chile does Sauvignon Blanc perform best?

In cooler vineyard sites, such as those of Casablanca and San Antonio Valleys

34

Describe the wines of Casablanca and San Antonio Valleys

Excellent wines with high acidity and intense fruity flavours Occasional herbaceous notes Some have additional richness and texture from lees-stirring and oak

35

How are most Chardonnays made in Chile?

In a modern international style with ripe fruit and oak flavours

36

Describe the quality and range of styles of Chardonnay which is produced

It is constantly growing

37

Which region in Chile in particular produces Chardonnays of structure, elegance and restraint?

Limari Valley

38

Which regions other than Limari, produce fine Chardonnays?

Aconcagua Valley and Casablanca Valley

39

What is the third most planted white variety of Chile?

Muscat of Alexandria

40

What is the chief use of the grape, Muscat of Alexandria?

For the production of the grape brandy Pisco

41

Of which white grapes are there small plantings in Chile?

Aromatic varieties such as Viognier, Riesling and Gewurztraminer making fresh fruity wines from cool regions such as the Bío Bío and Itata Valleys

42

Where in Chile is Coquimbo?

It borders onto the Atacama Desert The most northerly of Chile's principal wine regions

43

How many winemaking subregions are there in Coquimbo? What are they?

Three

Elqui Valley

Limarí Valley

Choapa Valley

44

Describe vineyard plantings in Coquimbo

Relatively small Quality tends to be high

45

How do the three valleys of Coquimbo compare?

They all have slightly different features, but they all benefit from brilliant sunshine and marked cooling influences

46

What are the main cooling influences of the valleys of Coquimbo?

Sea breezes Mountain air

47

What is the role of altitude in Coquimbo?

Some vineyards are being planted at very high altitudes

48

What is the biggest viticultural challenge in Coquimbo?

Lack of water

49

Describe the role of irrigation in Coquimbo

Vital due to lack of water, but expensive because water is less plentiful here compared with some other regions

50

What is the wine reputation of Elqui Valley in Coquimbo?

For Syrah and Sauvignon Blanc

51

For what kind of wine is Limari Valley in Coquimbo best known?

Chardonnay

52

What is the second smallest region in Chile?

The Aconcagua Region

53

How many sub-regions constitute Aconcagua? What are they?

Three Aconcagua Valley Casablanca Valley San Antonio Valley

54

Describe the Aconcagua Valley

It's a steep sided, narrow valley

55

What is the climate in Aconcagua Valley?

Some of the warmest growing conditions in Chile on the fertile valley floor between the coastal range and the Andes Some cooling influences from the ocean and the Andes

56

What style of wine is Aconcagua Valley best for?

Red wines

57

What is the classic grape of Aconcagua Valley?

Cabernet Sauvignon

58

What is Aconcagua Valley's 'second' grape? Describe its role here

Syrah

It was pioneered in Chile in this valley

59

Which grape has become increasingly important in Aconcagua Valley besides Syrah?

Carmenère

60

Describe the profile of wines in Aconcagua Valley

Reds traditionally had rich, ripe fruit flavours

High alcohol

High tannins

61

How have wine styles changed in Aconcagua Valley in recent years?

Producers have been looking to reduce alcohol levels and find more freshness and complex fruit flavours

62

What has been the result on viticulture of the recent shift in desired wine style in Aconcagua Valley?

Plantings are less focused on the fertile valley floor and have spread either onto the slopes or towards the coast

63

Name the two neighbouring regions in Aconcagua and their characteristics

Casablanca Valley

San Antonio Valley

Similar characteristics to Aconcagua Valley

64

Describe the general geography of Casablanca Valley and San Antonio Valley

Where are they in relation to Chile's geographical features?

Very varied soils and aspects

Both lie between the coastal mountains and the Pacific

65

What's the result of the locations of Casablanca Valley and San Antonio Valley on climate? What climatic phenomena are experienced here? 

The climate is noticeably cooler in these locations due to morning fogs and and afternoon winds that blow off the ocean

66

Which variety has the highest reputation in San Antonio Valley? Where specifically is the reputation greatest?

Sauvignon Blanc The particularly cool Leyda Valley zone

67

What else is widely planted in San Antonio Valley and to what level of quality?

Chardonnay It's capable of making fine wines here

68

What is the most planted variety of San Antonio Valley?

Pinot Noir

69

Describe Pinot Noir in the coolest sites of San Antonio Valley

It can produce wine with red berry fruit and herbal notes

70

Which red grape is particularly successful in the warmer vineyard sites to the east of Casablanca Valley? Describe its wines

Syrah Well-structured wines with a peppery edge

71

Where is the Central Valley Region?

South from Santiago to the sub-region of Itata Valley

72

Loosely describe the region of Central Valley

A vast, warm, flat region

73

What is the significance of Central Valley for Chilean winemaking?

It is where the majority of Chilean Vineyards have always been found

74

Describe grape-ripening in Central Valley, Chile

Grapes ripen easily here

75

What is a lot of production in Central Valley focused on?

Inexpensive, fruity wines, often made from Merlot and Chardonnay

76

How many sub-regions is Central Valley divided into? What are they?

Four

Maipo Valley

Rapel Valley

Curicó Valley

Maule Valley

77

How is Rapel Valley divided?

Into two sub-regions

78

What are the two sub-regions of Rapel Valley?

Cachapoal Valley Colchagua Valley

79

What is the role of Maipo Valley in Chilean winemaking?

It is the heartland of Chilean winemaking, due to its proximity to Santiago

80

Describe the geographical identity of Maipo Valley and how this affects its climate

It is almost completely surrounded by mountains Very little coastal influence reaches the grape-growing area to the south of the capital

81

Where are the more premium sites of the Maipo Valley?

Many of them are located in the Andean foothills

82

Describe why the location of Maipo's more premium sites , IS more premium

The Andean foothills are cooled by the descending air, lending elegance and structure to the red wines

83

Which specific wine is most associated with Maipo Valley?

Cabernet Sauvignon with a particularly minty character

84

Loosely describe the Rapel sub-region of Central Valley

It is a large and varied area

85

What is the more northerly zone of the Rapel sub-region?

Cachapoal Valley

86

Describe the Cachapoal Valley

It's a warm area cut off from the ocean breezes

87

Which grapes do best in Cachapoal Valley and where?

Carmenère ripens well on the valley floors

Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah perform well in the cooler eastern end of the valley

88

How does Colchagua Valley compare with Cachapoal Valley?

It is a larger and more varied area

The centre is warm and open to some ocean influence

89

What is the chief wine-style in Colchagua Valley?

It is known for full-bodied reds

90

What grapes is Colchagua Valley best known for?

Particularly Cabernet Sauvignon

Also Syrah and Carmenère

91

How have vineyard plantings been affected by the expansion of Colchagua Valley?

They have spread to the valley slopes

92

Name a new area on the slopes of Colchagua Valley which has gained a premium reputation

Apalta

93

How does climate and wine style change further to the west of Colchagua Valley?

The cooling Pacific influence is greater here and some high quality white wines are produced

94

Which sub-regions form the southern end of the Central Valley?

Curicó Valley Maule Valley

95

What is the role of Curicó Valley and Maule Valley for Chilean wine? Explain

The most important source of fruit for inexpensive, blended red and white wines

The warmth and fertile soils make this possible

96

Which of the southern Central Valley sub-regions is cooler? What is the effect on its wines?

Maule Valley Its wines retain a higher acidity (useful for blending)

97

What is the new trend in winemaking in Maule Valley?

Increasing efforts are being made to exploit the wealth of dry-farmed, old vines that exist within the western hills here

98

What has been the resulting star-variety in Maule Valley as a consequence of the new winemaking trends? What style of wine is made from this?

Carignan

Full-bodied, intensely concentrated wines from the low-yielding bush vines

99

What is the name of the southernmost region of Chile?

Southern Regions

100

What are the sub-regions of Southern Region?

Itata Valley Bío Bío Valley Malleco Valley

101

What is the climate in the Southern Region of Chile/how does it change?

It is noticeably cooler and wetter the further south the sub-regions go in Southern Region

102

What dominates plantings in Itata Valley and Bío Bío Valley?

País

Muscat of Alexandria

103

What is the main market for most wines of Itata Valley and Bío Bío Valley?

Local

104

Bío Bío Valley has started to show great promise for...

Pinot Noir, Chardonnay and aromatic varieties

105

There is an increasing interest in Bío Bío Valley for...owing to...

Fruit from high quality varieties

Their acidity and aromatic qualities

106

The full potential of which regions in Chile has yet to be explored?

Itata Valley and Bío Bío Valley

107

What is the most southerly sub-region of Southern Region? What is its other feature?

Malleco

It is also the smallest of the Southern Regions

108

What is made in Malleco?

A small quantity of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir (though it is increasingly attracting interest from premium producers)

109

Describe Chile's GI scheme

It is divided into several Denominaciones de Origen (DOs)

110

How many principal regions of Chile are there? What are they?

Four

Coquimbo

Aconcagua

Central Valley

Southern Region

111

How many sub-regions are there amongst the main wine-regions of Chile?

Thirteen

112

What is geographically common between the sub-regions of Chile?

They generally follow the valleys running west from the Andes to the Pacific Ocean

113

What is Chile's GI system generally based on?

Administrative regions

114

What is the result of Chile's wine regions being based on administrative regions?

They are very broad based and cover very large tracts of land

115

When was Chile's most recent regional classification announced? What was the result?

2012 It further divided Chile's wine regions, categorising vineyard sites according to their distance from the coast rather than their latitude

116

What are the three new terms from the 2012 classification in Chilean law? What do they mean?

Costa (coastal areas) Entre Cordilleras (the areas between the mountain ranges) Andes (mountain areas)

117

What are the regulations regarding Chile's 2012 GI terms?

The terms are optional

118

How has the 2012 labelling law been adopted in Chile?

It is new and remains to be seen whether the terms will be widespread

119

Which other terms may be recognised in Chilean labelling law? What do they mean?

Reserva

Reserva Especial

Reserva Privada

Gran Reserva

They have very little meaning, but may be used by winemakers to distinguish their quality levels