C40 - New Zealand Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in C40 - New Zealand Deck (90):
1

What and where is New Zealand's nearest land mass?

Australia - 1900km away

2

What is the overall climate of New Zealand?

Maritime

3

Describe the temperatures of New Zealand's islands

South Island is cool
North Island is warmer

4

The combination of ..., ... and ... allows grapes in New Zealand to...

Long sunshine hours, nights cooled by sea breezes and a long ripening period
reach high levels of sugar and flavour ripeness, while retaining acidity

5

Where do the vineyards of NZ's South Island tend to be located?

On the east side

6

What is the climatic advantage to NZ's South Island vineyards being mostly on the east side?

They are protected from rain-bearing westerly winds here, by mountains in the centre of the island

7

What is a potentially problematic major climatic feature on the South Island of New Zealand?

High rainfall, despite the presence of the mountains to the west

8

Why are the vineyards well adapted to cope with the high levels of rainfall in NZ South Island?

Soils here tend to be free draining and so do not experience waterlogging

9

Describe the poorer vineyard sites of South Island and the result on vines

The land is flat and and can be overly fertile, leading to excessive shoot and leaf growth

10

How have New Zealanders adapted to problems of vine vigour?

They have become experts in trellising and other canopy management techniques

11

What does the New Zealand wine industry commit to as a whole? How do they set out to achieve this?

Reducing the environmental impact of their vineyard management and winery practices
With the initiative 'Sustainable Winegrowing New Zealand'

12

What is New Zealand's flagship grape? Since when?

Sauvignon Blanc
Since the early 1990s

13

Which grape accounts for the majority of wine production in New Zealand?

Sauvignon Blanc

14

What are the benchmark features of Sauvignon Blanc in New Zealand?

Pungent aromas
Intense flavours of elderflower and passion fruit
High acidity

15

What are the differences between the Sauvignons of North Island and South?

The north produces more tropical flavours
The south produces more acidity and flavours of green pepper and gooseberry

16

How is NZ Sauvignon usually fermented? Why?

In inert vessels at cool temperatures to retain fruity flavours and aromas

17

What is the role of oak in making NZ Sauvignon?

Some producers mature SB in oak

18

What is NZ's second most planted white grape?

Chardonnay

19

What style of Chardonnay is made in New Zealand?

There is a variety of styles created using different techniques
The general style is led by concentrated citrus and tropical fruits with subtle hints of toast and sweet spice from new french oak

20

What have been the recent grape growing explorations in New Zealand?

For aromatic varieties Riesling and Gewurztraminer
Also for semi-aromatic Pinot Gris

21

Why is New Zealand well suited to aromatic varieties?

Dry night-times and cool night temperatures ensure aromatic compounds have plenty of time to develop before the grapes are harvested

22

Why style are aromatic grapes of New Zealand made into now?

From dry to sweet
Off-dry is the most prevalent style

23

What is New Zealand's second most planted variety after SB?

Pinot Noir

24

Where in NZ is PN grown?

Widely throughout the south island
In some parts of the north island

25

What is the overall profile of Pinot Noir in New Zealand?

Fine ripe tannins
Soft texture
Quite high levels of alcohol
Vibrant fruit

26

What are the exceptions to Pinot Noir's main style in New Zealand?

Some distinct regional styles have also emerged

27

What is the red variety with the second greatest volume in New Zealand?

Merlot

28

How is Merlot often used in New Zealand's wines?

Blended with Cabernet Sauvignon to add tannin and notes of cassis

29

Like all New Zealand wines, its Bordeaux-style blends are noted for...

The purity of their fruit flavours

30

Where is production of NZ's Bordeaux blends mostly concentrated?

In the North Island

31

Why is production of NZ's Bordeaux blends mostly concentrated in the North Island of New Zealand?

The warmer temperatures here help to ripen black grapes

32

What is another black grape which performs well in the warmer sites of New Zealand?

Syrah

33

What are the Syrahs like which are produced in New Zealand?

Elegant and closer in style to those made in the Rhône than those from hotter countries, such as Australia

34

What are plantings of Syrah like in New Zealand?

Small but increasing

35

Where in New Zealand did the wine industry begin?

Auckland

36

Where is Auckland?

In the north of the North Island of New Zealand

37

What is wine production like in Auckland?

There are many large wineries still there, processing grapes from all over the country

38

What is the climate like in Auckland?

It's warm and the wettest part of the country

39

What is a viticultural issue in Auckland?

Fungal diseases

40

What are Auckland's most planted varieties?

Chardonnay, Merlot and Syrah

41

Which island near Auckland has a particular reputation for top quality wines (particularly red) and where is it?

Waiheke Island, immediately to the east

42

Where are the vineyards of Gisborne?

On the east coast in the broad estuary plain close to the town of Gisborne itself

43

What is the climate like in Gisborne?

Temperature, sunshine hours and rain are high in the growing season

44

What is the most grown grape in Gisborne? How much is grown?

Chardonnay
Over half the vineyards here are Chardonnay

45

What are the flavours of Chardonnay in Gisborne?

Displays distinct, ripe tropical fruit flavours

46

What else is made in Gisborne beside Chardonnay?

A small amount of high quality Gewurztraminer
Some full-bodied Pinot Gris

47

Where is Hawke's Bay?

Located close to the twin towns of Hastings and Napier
On the east coast of the North Island in an estuary plain

48

What is the warmest of NZ's main grape growing areas? What is the main contributing factor?

Hawke's Bay
It has the longest sunshine hours

49

How does Hawke's Bay rate in terms of plantings in New Zealand?

Second only to Marlborough

50

Describe soils and topography of vineyards in Hawke's Bay

Highly diverse in soils, aspect and altitude

51

What is the result of Hawke's Bay's diversity of terroir?

A variability in wine styles

52

Where is Gimblett Gravels?

Hawke's Bay

53

Describe growing conditions in Gimblett Gravels

A parcel of well-drained heat absorbing gravel soil on the valley floor

54

What is the reputation of Gimblett Gravels?

A high reputation for black grapes

55

What grapes did Gimblett Gravels build its reputation on?

Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon
Premium Syrah is also produced

56

Where is Wairarapa?

At the southern tip of NZ's North Island

57

How is Wairarapa organised?

It's made up of a number of small vineyards spread over a wide area

58

What is the most important area of Wairarapa?

Around the small town of Martinborough

59

What is the reputation of Martinborough?

A global reputation for Pinot Noir

60

What is the climate of Martinborough?

High summer temperatures, but wide diurnal range

61

Describe Pinot Noir wines of Martinborough

Medium to full bodied
Ripe with hints of dark plum and spice

62

What is the major centre for grape growing in New Zealand? Which grape makes up the majority of plantings here?

Marlborough
Sauvignon Blanc

63

Where are most of the vineyards in Marlborough?

In two adjacent estuary valleys:
Wairau (by far the largest)
Awatere

64

What is the climate of Wairau Valley?

Very similar to Martinborough with long sunny days

65

Describe the geography of Wairau Valley

Far from uniform
Number of valleys on the southern side of Wairau Valley

66

What is the benefit to producers of the side valleys available in Wairau Valley?

Gives producers a range of aspects and altitudes to work with

67

How does the Awatere Valley compare with the Wairau Valley?

It's drier, cooler and windier

68

What is the effect of Awatere's climate on wine in relation to that of Wairau?

The Sauvignon Blancs here have a higher acidity, with a pronounced herbaceous character
Lack the tropical fruit character found in some Wairau examples

69

Besides SB, what else is widely planted in Marlborough?

Chardonnay and Pinot Noir

70

What are Chardonnay and Pinot Noir used for in Marlborough?

Still and sparkling wines

71

Describe Pinot Noir from Marlborough

Medium-bodied
Fine tannins
Flavours of cherry and cranberry

72

How is Pinot Noir developing in Marlborough?

Increasingly impressive wines are being produced from PN

73

Which whites other than SB and Chard perform well in Marlborough?

Riesling and Pinot Gris

74

Where is Nelson?

To the north-west of the Wairau Valley on the north coast of the South Island

75

How does Nelson compare with Marlborough?

Cooler and wetter than Marlborough

76

Which grapes dominate in Nelson?

SB, PN and Pinot Gris

77

How many centres of production are there in Canterbury? Where are they?

Two
One in the plain immediately to the west of Christchurch
A larger one, Waipara Valley to the north

78

Describe climate in the plain area of Canterbury

Particularly exposed to the cooling influence of the Pacific
Slight warming effect from the north-westerly winds

79

Where in Canterbury is more affected by the warming north-westerly winds? Why?

Waipara
It's less exposed to the ocean due to a range of hills

80

What are the most planted varieties in Canterbury?

Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir

81

What grape variety is Waipara specifically noted for?

Riesling

82

Where is Central Otago?

Inland in the foothills of the Southern New Zealand Alps

83

Describe Central Otago

Spread over a wide area, incorporating a number of different valleys with different aspects, soils and altitudes

84

What is the climate in Central Otago?

Continental

85

What is the biggest climatic threat in Central Otago?

Spring and autumn frosts

86

What is diurnal range like in Central Otago?

Large

87

What is relatively unique about wines in Central Otago and what has caused this?

High alcohol levels are often encountered here
Caused by high intensity of sunlight

88

What accounts for the majority of plantings in Central Otago?

Pinot Noir

89

Describe Pinot Noir of Central Otago

Full-bodied, juicy and vibrant with concentrated ripe red fruit flavours

90

What are the other important varieties of Central Otago?

Pinot Gris, Riesling and Chardonnay