Flashcards in C40 - New Zealand Deck (90):
What and where is New Zealand's nearest land mass?
Australia - 1900km away
What is the overall climate of New Zealand?
Describe the temperatures of New Zealand's islands
South Island is cool
North Island is warmer
The combination of ..., ... and ... allows grapes in New Zealand to...
Long sunshine hours, nights cooled by sea breezes and a long ripening period
reach high levels of sugar and flavour ripeness, while retaining acidity
Where do the vineyards of NZ's South Island tend to be located?
On the east side
What is the climatic advantage to NZ's South Island vineyards being mostly on the east side?
They are protected from rain-bearing westerly winds here, by mountains in the centre of the island
What is a potentially problematic major climatic feature on the South Island of New Zealand?
High rainfall, despite the presence of the mountains to the west
Why are the vineyards well adapted to cope with the high levels of rainfall in NZ South Island?
Soils here tend to be free draining and so do not experience waterlogging
Describe the poorer vineyard sites of South Island and the result on vines
The land is flat and and can be overly fertile, leading to excessive shoot and leaf growth
How have New Zealanders adapted to problems of vine vigour?
They have become experts in trellising and other canopy management techniques
What does the New Zealand wine industry commit to as a whole? How do they set out to achieve this?
Reducing the environmental impact of their vineyard management and winery practices
With the initiative 'Sustainable Winegrowing New Zealand'
What is New Zealand's flagship grape? Since when?
Since the early 1990s
Which grape accounts for the majority of wine production in New Zealand?
What are the benchmark features of Sauvignon Blanc in New Zealand?
Intense flavours of elderflower and passion fruit
What are the differences between the Sauvignons of North Island and South?
The north produces more tropical flavours
The south produces more acidity and flavours of green pepper and gooseberry
How is NZ Sauvignon usually fermented? Why?
In inert vessels at cool temperatures to retain fruity flavours and aromas
What is the role of oak in making NZ Sauvignon?
Some producers mature SB in oak
What is NZ's second most planted white grape?
What style of Chardonnay is made in New Zealand?
There is a variety of styles created using different techniques
The general style is led by concentrated citrus and tropical fruits with subtle hints of toast and sweet spice from new french oak
What have been the recent grape growing explorations in New Zealand?
For aromatic varieties Riesling and Gewurztraminer
Also for semi-aromatic Pinot Gris
Why is New Zealand well suited to aromatic varieties?
Dry night-times and cool night temperatures ensure aromatic compounds have plenty of time to develop before the grapes are harvested
Why style are aromatic grapes of New Zealand made into now?
From dry to sweet
Off-dry is the most prevalent style
What is New Zealand's second most planted variety after SB?
Where in NZ is PN grown?
Widely throughout the south island
In some parts of the north island
What is the overall profile of Pinot Noir in New Zealand?
Fine ripe tannins
Quite high levels of alcohol
What are the exceptions to Pinot Noir's main style in New Zealand?
Some distinct regional styles have also emerged
What is the red variety with the second greatest volume in New Zealand?
How is Merlot often used in New Zealand's wines?
Blended with Cabernet Sauvignon to add tannin and notes of cassis
Like all New Zealand wines, its Bordeaux-style blends are noted for...
The purity of their fruit flavours
Where is production of NZ's Bordeaux blends mostly concentrated?
In the North Island
Why is production of NZ's Bordeaux blends mostly concentrated in the North Island of New Zealand?
The warmer temperatures here help to ripen black grapes
What is another black grape which performs well in the warmer sites of New Zealand?
What are the Syrahs like which are produced in New Zealand?
Elegant and closer in style to those made in the Rhône than those from hotter countries, such as Australia
What are plantings of Syrah like in New Zealand?
Small but increasing
Where in New Zealand did the wine industry begin?
Where is Auckland?
In the north of the North Island of New Zealand
What is wine production like in Auckland?
There are many large wineries still there, processing grapes from all over the country
What is the climate like in Auckland?
It's warm and the wettest part of the country
What is a viticultural issue in Auckland?
What are Auckland's most planted varieties?
Chardonnay, Merlot and Syrah
Which island near Auckland has a particular reputation for top quality wines (particularly red) and where is it?
Waiheke Island, immediately to the east
Where are the vineyards of Gisborne?
On the east coast in the broad estuary plain close to the town of Gisborne itself
What is the climate like in Gisborne?
Temperature, sunshine hours and rain are high in the growing season
What is the most grown grape in Gisborne? How much is grown?
Over half the vineyards here are Chardonnay
What are the flavours of Chardonnay in Gisborne?
Displays distinct, ripe tropical fruit flavours
What else is made in Gisborne beside Chardonnay?
A small amount of high quality Gewurztraminer
Some full-bodied Pinot Gris
Where is Hawke's Bay?
Located close to the twin towns of Hastings and Napier
On the east coast of the North Island in an estuary plain
What is the warmest of NZ's main grape growing areas? What is the main contributing factor?
It has the longest sunshine hours
How does Hawke's Bay rate in terms of plantings in New Zealand?
Second only to Marlborough
Describe soils and topography of vineyards in Hawke's Bay
Highly diverse in soils, aspect and altitude
What is the result of Hawke's Bay's diversity of terroir?
A variability in wine styles
Where is Gimblett Gravels?
Describe growing conditions in Gimblett Gravels
A parcel of well-drained heat absorbing gravel soil on the valley floor
What is the reputation of Gimblett Gravels?
A high reputation for black grapes
What grapes did Gimblett Gravels build its reputation on?
Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon
Premium Syrah is also produced
Where is Wairarapa?
At the southern tip of NZ's North Island
How is Wairarapa organised?
It's made up of a number of small vineyards spread over a wide area
What is the most important area of Wairarapa?
Around the small town of Martinborough
What is the reputation of Martinborough?
A global reputation for Pinot Noir
What is the climate of Martinborough?
High summer temperatures, but wide diurnal range
Describe Pinot Noir wines of Martinborough
Medium to full bodied
Ripe with hints of dark plum and spice
What is the major centre for grape growing in New Zealand? Which grape makes up the majority of plantings here?
Where are most of the vineyards in Marlborough?
In two adjacent estuary valleys:
Wairau (by far the largest)
What is the climate of Wairau Valley?
Very similar to Martinborough with long sunny days
Describe the geography of Wairau Valley
Far from uniform
Number of valleys on the southern side of Wairau Valley
What is the benefit to producers of the side valleys available in Wairau Valley?
Gives producers a range of aspects and altitudes to work with
How does the Awatere Valley compare with the Wairau Valley?
It's drier, cooler and windier
What is the effect of Awatere's climate on wine in relation to that of Wairau?
The Sauvignon Blancs here have a higher acidity, with a pronounced herbaceous character
Lack the tropical fruit character found in some Wairau examples
Besides SB, what else is widely planted in Marlborough?
Chardonnay and Pinot Noir
What are Chardonnay and Pinot Noir used for in Marlborough?
Still and sparkling wines
Describe Pinot Noir from Marlborough
Flavours of cherry and cranberry
How is Pinot Noir developing in Marlborough?
Increasingly impressive wines are being produced from PN
Which whites other than SB and Chard perform well in Marlborough?
Riesling and Pinot Gris
Where is Nelson?
To the north-west of the Wairau Valley on the north coast of the South Island
How does Nelson compare with Marlborough?
Cooler and wetter than Marlborough
Which grapes dominate in Nelson?
SB, PN and Pinot Gris
How many centres of production are there in Canterbury? Where are they?
One in the plain immediately to the west of Christchurch
A larger one, Waipara Valley to the north
Describe climate in the plain area of Canterbury
Particularly exposed to the cooling influence of the Pacific
Slight warming effect from the north-westerly winds
Where in Canterbury is more affected by the warming north-westerly winds? Why?
It's less exposed to the ocean due to a range of hills
What are the most planted varieties in Canterbury?
Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir
What grape variety is Waipara specifically noted for?
Where is Central Otago?
Inland in the foothills of the Southern New Zealand Alps
Describe Central Otago
Spread over a wide area, incorporating a number of different valleys with different aspects, soils and altitudes
What is the climate in Central Otago?
What is the biggest climatic threat in Central Otago?
Spring and autumn frosts
What is diurnal range like in Central Otago?
What is relatively unique about wines in Central Otago and what has caused this?
High alcohol levels are often encountered here
Caused by high intensity of sunlight
What accounts for the majority of plantings in Central Otago?
Describe Pinot Noir of Central Otago
Full-bodied, juicy and vibrant with concentrated ripe red fruit flavours