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Flashcards in C31 - Portugal Deck (63):
1

Describe the climate of Portugal

It has a range of different climates
Much of the country has a maritime climate
Many of the inland vineyards have a hot, dry and continental climate

2

How are high temperatures moderated in Portugal?

By the Atlantic
By altitude

3

Give a climatic reason for the diversity of wine styles found in Portugal

There are large differences in annual temperature

4

Where is Vinho Verde?

In the north-west of Portugal

5

What is the climate of Vinho Verde? Why?

Moderate maritime
Because of its nearness to the Atlantic

6

What is the most significant feature of the climate in Vinho Verde?

High annual rainfall

7

What are the main two risks of the high rainfall in Vinho Verde?

Excessive canopy growth
It encourages disease

8

How may the associated risks of high rainfall be managed in Vinho Verde?

With effective canopy management

9

How have vineyards changed in Vinho Verde?

They have moved away from Pergola trellising due to modernisation

10

What technique/method is now used in Vinho Verde? What for?

Spur-pruned VSP
To create airflow in the humid environment
To improve the health and quality of the grapes
To allow for mechanisation

11

Describe classic Vinho Verde wines

Pale lemon colour
High in acidity
Low in alcohol (8% to 11.5% abv)
Wines with low alcohol are usually off-dry

12

How may one identify a different style of Vinho Verde? What is different about the style?

If a grape-variety, sub-region or an authorised quality labelling term is mentioned on the label, the wine can have up to 14% alcohol

13

What grapes are usually used to make the white wines of Vinho Verde?

Local varieties such as Loureiro and Arinto

14

What is notable about the style of white Vinho Verdes?

They traditionally have a slight sparkling sensation that enhances their freshness

15

What is Vinho Verde Alvarinho made from?

Alvarinho grapes (Albariño in Spain) grown in the small designated sub-region of Monção e Melgaço

16

Describe Vinho Verde Alvarinho in relation to white Vinho Verde

It has a slightly higher alcohol level and riper, more tropical aromas

17

What other styles of wine are made in Vinho Verde?

Red and rosé wines

18

Describe the red and rosé wines of Vinho Verde

Reds are deeply coloured and tannic
Rosés are fresh and fruity

19

What is the oldest demarcated wine region in the world?

The Douro

20

Where is the Douro?

80km east of Porto
From the Marão Mountains to the frontier with Spain

21

What dominates wine production in the Douro?

Port

22

Both Port and unfortified wines of the Douro, rely on the same...varieties:...

Five
Touriga Nacional
Touriga Franca
Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo)
Tinta Barroca
Tinta Cão

23

What is considered the highest quality variety of Douro's five varieties?

Touriga Nacional

24

Describe Touriga Nacional's main winemaking characteristics

It's low-yielding
Its wines have intense colour, flavours and high levels of tannin

25

Describe the red wines of Douro

Deeply coloured
Full-bodied
High levels of ripe tannins
Rich black fruit flavours
Best examples often show subtle toasty aromas from maturation in new oak

26

Describe the white wines of Douro

Particularly when from high altitude, they can show fresh varietal fruit and medium to high acidity

27

Where is Dão?

In a mountainous area 80km south of Douro

28

Where in Dão are vines mostly planted?

On the gentler hills and slopes, between 200m and 400m asl

29

Describe the climate in Dão

Cold, wet winters
Warm, dry summers
Significant diurnal temperature variation

30

The climate of Portugal's ... region, provide excellent conditions for high-quality grapes

Dão

31

Describe the typical red wines of Dão

Soft tannins
High acidity
Delicate red fruit aromas

32

Which grapes are relatively new to Dão? What prompted their introduction?

Touriga Nacional
Tinta Roriz
Jaen (Mencia in Spain)
Alfrocheiro
Vineyard improvement schemes

33

Describe wines made from Alfrocheiro

Deep in colour
Intense aromas of blackberry and strawberry

34

From which variety are the best Dão whites made?

Encruzado

35

What is the style range for Encruzado whites of Dão?

Light and fresh, to richer, barrel fermented versions

36

Where is Bairrada?

In Portugal, between Dão and the Atlantic Ocean

37

What is the climate of Bairrada?

Maritime with rainy winters and warm summers

38

What is a viticultural problem in Bairrada?

Rainfall at harvest (especially for late-ripening varieties)

39

What is the dominant black variety of Bairrada?

Baga

40

Describe the key traits of Baga

Late-ripening
Small, thick-skinned grapes
Deeply coloured wines
High tannin levels
If underripe, high acidity and stringent tannins
Later picking gives wines that are softer and display rich black-fruit aromas

41

How is a softer style of Baga wines achieved?

Gentler crushing and maceration techniques, as well as blending with other black varieties

42

Which other black varieties are important in Bairrada?

Touriga Nacional
Alfrocheiro
Cabernet Sauvignon
Merlot
Syrah

43

What are the whites of Bairrada made from?

Predominantly indigenous varieties like Bical and Maria Gomes

44

Where in Portugal is Alentejo?

Spread over eight sub-regions in the south-east of Portugal

45

What is the climate of Alentejo like?

It has a warm growing season
Small differences among the sub-regions
Cooler and wetter in the north
Hotter and drier in the south

46

Describe the difference of wine styles based on in area in Alentejo

More elegant wines in the north
Richer wines in the south

47

List grapes used in the typical Alentejo blend

Aragonês (Tempranillo), Trincadeira and Alicante Bouschet

48

What are typical traits of Trincadeira?

Drought tolerant
Spicy red berry flavours
High levels of tannin

49

Describe Alicante Bouschet

A Portuguese grape variety high in colour and tannins

50

The use of which grapes has been increasing in the last few years in Alentejo?

Touriga Nacional and Syrah

51

Describe the profile of Alentejo blends

Deep in colour
Full body
High, yet soft tannins
Expressive, ripe fruit flavours

52

Describe the 'other' wine style of Alentejo and what it's made from

Fruity and floral white wines with medium to high levels of acidity
Made from Arinto, Antão Vaz and Roupeiro

53

Describe the role of oak in Alentejo

Some whites are fermented or aged in oak to provide extra depth and complexity

54

What is the largest Vinho Regional region in terms of production?

Vinho Regional Alentejano

55

Where is Vinho Regional Alentejano?

Based around Alentejo DOC, but covers a far more extensive area

56

What are winemaking regulations like for the Vinho Regional wines?

Much more liberal
Wider range of grape varieties can be used, particularly international varieties

57

List other important Vinho Regional areas, other than Vinho Regional Alentejano and where they are

Lisboa (stretching north from Lisbon)
Peninsula de Setúbal (directly to the south)
Tejo (north-east of Lisbon)

58

What's the Portuguese for PDO?

Denominação Geográfica Protegida (DOP)

59

Other than DOP, which other Portuguese term can be used for PDO?

Denominação de Origem Controlada (DOC)

60

What is the Portuguese PGI?

Indicação Geográfica Protegida (IGP)

61

What is the other term used for IGP?

Vinho Regional

62

What does it mean when 'Vinho' is written on a Portuguese wine?

This is a table wine without geographical indication

63

What has been a successful example of a 'Vinho' wine in Portugal?

Simple, fruity, off-dry rosé wines