Flashcards in C31 - Portugal Deck (63):
Describe the climate of Portugal
It has a range of different climates
Much of the country has a maritime climate
Many of the inland vineyards have a hot, dry and continental climate
How are high temperatures moderated in Portugal?
By the Atlantic
Give a climatic reason for the diversity of wine styles found in Portugal
There are large differences in annual temperature
Where is Vinho Verde?
In the north-west of Portugal
What is the climate of Vinho Verde? Why?
Because of its nearness to the Atlantic
What is the most significant feature of the climate in Vinho Verde?
High annual rainfall
What are the main two risks of the high rainfall in Vinho Verde?
Excessive canopy growth
It encourages disease
How may the associated risks of high rainfall be managed in Vinho Verde?
With effective canopy management
How have vineyards changed in Vinho Verde?
They have moved away from Pergola trellising due to modernisation
What technique/method is now used in Vinho Verde? What for?
To create airflow in the humid environment
To improve the health and quality of the grapes
To allow for mechanisation
Describe classic Vinho Verde wines
Pale lemon colour
High in acidity
Low in alcohol (8% to 11.5% abv)
Wines with low alcohol are usually off-dry
How may one identify a different style of Vinho Verde? What is different about the style?
If a grape-variety, sub-region or an authorised quality labelling term is mentioned on the label, the wine can have up to 14% alcohol
What grapes are usually used to make the white wines of Vinho Verde?
Local varieties such as Loureiro and Arinto
What is notable about the style of white Vinho Verdes?
They traditionally have a slight sparkling sensation that enhances their freshness
What is Vinho Verde Alvarinho made from?
Alvarinho grapes (Albariño in Spain) grown in the small designated sub-region of Monção e Melgaço
Describe Vinho Verde Alvarinho in relation to white Vinho Verde
It has a slightly higher alcohol level and riper, more tropical aromas
What other styles of wine are made in Vinho Verde?
Red and rosé wines
Describe the red and rosé wines of Vinho Verde
Reds are deeply coloured and tannic
Rosés are fresh and fruity
What is the oldest demarcated wine region in the world?
Where is the Douro?
80km east of Porto
From the Marão Mountains to the frontier with Spain
What dominates wine production in the Douro?
Both Port and unfortified wines of the Douro, rely on the same...varieties:...
Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo)
What is considered the highest quality variety of Douro's five varieties?
Describe Touriga Nacional's main winemaking characteristics
Its wines have intense colour, flavours and high levels of tannin
Describe the red wines of Douro
High levels of ripe tannins
Rich black fruit flavours
Best examples often show subtle toasty aromas from maturation in new oak
Describe the white wines of Douro
Particularly when from high altitude, they can show fresh varietal fruit and medium to high acidity
Where is Dão?
In a mountainous area 80km south of Douro
Where in Dão are vines mostly planted?
On the gentler hills and slopes, between 200m and 400m asl
Describe the climate in Dão
Cold, wet winters
Warm, dry summers
Significant diurnal temperature variation
The climate of Portugal's ... region, provide excellent conditions for high-quality grapes
Describe the typical red wines of Dão
Delicate red fruit aromas
Which grapes are relatively new to Dão? What prompted their introduction?
Jaen (Mencia in Spain)
Vineyard improvement schemes
Describe wines made from Alfrocheiro
Deep in colour
Intense aromas of blackberry and strawberry
From which variety are the best Dão whites made?
What is the style range for Encruzado whites of Dão?
Light and fresh, to richer, barrel fermented versions
Where is Bairrada?
In Portugal, between Dão and the Atlantic Ocean
What is the climate of Bairrada?
Maritime with rainy winters and warm summers
What is a viticultural problem in Bairrada?
Rainfall at harvest (especially for late-ripening varieties)
What is the dominant black variety of Bairrada?
Describe the key traits of Baga
Small, thick-skinned grapes
Deeply coloured wines
High tannin levels
If underripe, high acidity and stringent tannins
Later picking gives wines that are softer and display rich black-fruit aromas
How is a softer style of Baga wines achieved?
Gentler crushing and maceration techniques, as well as blending with other black varieties
Which other black varieties are important in Bairrada?
What are the whites of Bairrada made from?
Predominantly indigenous varieties like Bical and Maria Gomes
Where in Portugal is Alentejo?
Spread over eight sub-regions in the south-east of Portugal
What is the climate of Alentejo like?
It has a warm growing season
Small differences among the sub-regions
Cooler and wetter in the north
Hotter and drier in the south
Describe the difference of wine styles based on in area in Alentejo
More elegant wines in the north
Richer wines in the south
List grapes used in the typical Alentejo blend
Aragonês (Tempranillo), Trincadeira and Alicante Bouschet
What are typical traits of Trincadeira?
Spicy red berry flavours
High levels of tannin
Describe Alicante Bouschet
A Portuguese grape variety high in colour and tannins
The use of which grapes has been increasing in the last few years in Alentejo?
Touriga Nacional and Syrah
Describe the profile of Alentejo blends
Deep in colour
High, yet soft tannins
Expressive, ripe fruit flavours
Describe the 'other' wine style of Alentejo and what it's made from
Fruity and floral white wines with medium to high levels of acidity
Made from Arinto, Antão Vaz and Roupeiro
Describe the role of oak in Alentejo
Some whites are fermented or aged in oak to provide extra depth and complexity
What is the largest Vinho Regional region in terms of production?
Vinho Regional Alentejano
Where is Vinho Regional Alentejano?
Based around Alentejo DOC, but covers a far more extensive area
What are winemaking regulations like for the Vinho Regional wines?
Much more liberal
Wider range of grape varieties can be used, particularly international varieties
List other important Vinho Regional areas, other than Vinho Regional Alentejano and where they are
Lisboa (stretching north from Lisbon)
Peninsula de Setúbal (directly to the south)
Tejo (north-east of Lisbon)
What's the Portuguese for PDO?
Denominação Geográfica Protegida (DOP)
Other than DOP, which other Portuguese term can be used for PDO?
Denominação de Origem Controlada (DOC)
What is the Portuguese PGI?
Indicação Geográfica Protegida (IGP)
What is the other term used for IGP?
What does it mean when 'Vinho' is written on a Portuguese wine?
This is a table wine without geographical indication