Chapter 11 Key Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Key Terms Deck (41):
1

viewing an abstract, immaterial concept as if it were a concrete thing

reifaction

2

mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

Intelligence

3

a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total score

Factor analysis

4

clusters of related items

factors

5

intelligence factor that according to Spearman and others underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test

General intelligence (g)

6

a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing

Savant Syndrome

7

A basic intelligence predicts our abilities in varied academic areas

Spearman’s general intelligence (g) theory

8

Intelligence broken down into 7 factors: Word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, and memory

Thurstone’s primary mental abilities theory

9

Our abilities are best classified into 8 independent intelligences, which include a broad range of skills beyond traditional school smarts

Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory

10

Our intelligence is best classified into 3 areas that predict our real-world success: analytical, creative, and practical

Sternberg’s triarchic theory

11

assessed by intelligence tests, which present well-defined problems having a single right answer

Analytical (academic problem-solving) intelligence

12

demonstrated in reacting adaptively to novel situations and generating novel ideas

Creative intelligence

13

often required for everyday tasks, which are frequently ill defined, with multiple solutions

Practical intelligence

14

the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully

Social intelligence

15

the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions

Emotional intelligence

16

the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

creativity

17

well-developed base of knowledge

expertise

18

ability to see things in novel ways, to recognize patterns, and to make connections

imaginative thinking skills

19

tolerates ambiguity and risk, perseveres in overcoming obstacles, and seeks new experiences rather than following the pack

A venturesome personality

20

motivated by interest, enjoyment, satisfaction, and challenge of the work

Intrinsic motivation

21

sparks, supports, and refines creative ideas

A creative environment

22

a method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores

Intelligence test

23

a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance

Mental age

24

the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet’s original intelligence test

Stanford-Binet

25

defined originally as the ration of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100; on contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100

Intelligence quotient (IQ)

26

a test designed to predict a person’s future performance (ex: SAT)

Aptitude test

27

the capacity to learn

aptitude

28

a test designed to assess and reflect on what a person has learned

Achievement test

29

most widely used intelligence test; contains 11 verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

30

defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group

standardization

31

the symmetrical bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes; most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes

Normal curve (normal distribution)

32

intelligence test performance has been improving in the 20th century

Flynn effect

33

the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting

reliability

34

the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to

validity

35

the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest (such as a driving test that samples driving tasks)

Content validity

36

the behavior (such as future college grades that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict

criterion

37

the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior

Predictive validity (criterion-related validity)

38

a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound

Mental retardation

39

a condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one’s genetic makeup

Down syndrome

40

the extent to which differences among people are attributable to genes

heritabilty

41

a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype

Stereotype threat