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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Key Terms Deck (68)
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1

the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment

sensation

2

the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events

perception

3

analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of sensory information

bottom-up processing

4

information processing guided by the higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our own experiences and expectations

top-down processing

5

have complete sensation, but incomplete perception;Sense visual info, but can’t recognize it; cannot process top-down (cannot relate stored knowledge to sensory input)

prosopagnosia

6

the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them

psychophysics

7

the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time

absolute threshold

8

a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background stimulation ; assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person’s experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue

signal detection theory

9

faint stimulus

signal

10

background stimulation

noise

11

below one’s absolute threshold for conscious awareness

subliminal

12

the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one’s perception, memory, or response

priming

13

the minimum difference between 2 stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time; we experience it as a just noticeable difference

difference threshold

14

the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)

Weber's Law

15

diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

sensory adaptation

16

conversion of one form to another; in sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret

transduction

17

the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next; vary from short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission

wavelength

18

the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, etc

hue

19

the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave’s amplitude

intensity

20

height of wave

amplitude

21

light enters the eye through it, protects the eye and bends light to provide focus

cornea

22

the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters

pupil

23

a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening

iris

24

the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina

lens

25

the process by which the eye’s lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina

accommodation

26

the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information

retina

27

sharpness of vision (affected by small distortions in the eye’s shape)

acuity

28

a condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because distant objects focus in front of the retina

nearsightedness

29

a condition in which far away objects are seen more clearly than near objects because the image of near objects is focused behind the retina

farsightedness

30

retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don’t respond

rods