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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Key Terms Deck (68):
1

the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment

sensation

2

the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events

perception

3

analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of sensory information

bottom-up processing

4

information processing guided by the higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our own experiences and expectations

top-down processing

5

have complete sensation, but incomplete perception;Sense visual info, but can’t recognize it; cannot process top-down (cannot relate stored knowledge to sensory input)

prosopagnosia

6

the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them

psychophysics

7

the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time

absolute threshold

8

a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background stimulation ; assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person’s experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue

signal detection theory

9

faint stimulus

signal

10

background stimulation

noise

11

below one’s absolute threshold for conscious awareness

subliminal

12

the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one’s perception, memory, or response

priming

13

the minimum difference between 2 stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time; we experience it as a just noticeable difference

difference threshold

14

the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)

Weber's Law

15

diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

sensory adaptation

16

conversion of one form to another; in sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret

transduction

17

the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next; vary from short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission

wavelength

18

the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, etc

hue

19

the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave’s amplitude

intensity

20

height of wave

amplitude

21

light enters the eye through it, protects the eye and bends light to provide focus

cornea

22

the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters

pupil

23

a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening

iris

24

the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina

lens

25

the process by which the eye’s lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina

accommodation

26

the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information

retina

27

sharpness of vision (affected by small distortions in the eye’s shape)

acuity

28

a condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because distant objects focus in front of the retina

nearsightedness

29

a condition in which far away objects are seen more clearly than near objects because the image of near objects is focused behind the retina

farsightedness

30

retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don’t respond

rods

31

retinal receptors that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions; they detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations

cones

32

the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain

optic nerve

33

point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, no receptor cells are located there

blind spot

34

the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye’s cones cluster

fovea

35

nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement

feature detectors

36

step by step processing computers do

serial processing

37

the processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision; contrasts with step by step serial processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving

parallel processing

38

blindness in part of their field of vision, there’s a parallel processing system operating unseen

blindsight

39

theory that the retina contains 3 different color receptors - one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue - which when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color

Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-color) theory

40

subtracts wavelengths from the reflected light

Subtractive color mixing

41

adds wavelengths and increases the light

Additive color mixing

42

when you stare at one color for a long time and then look at a white paper, you will see its opponent color

afterimages

43

theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision; some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red, others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green

opponent-process theory

44

perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object

color constancy

45

the sense or act of hearing (highly adaptive)

audition

46

the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time

frequency

47

a tone’s experienced highness or lowness; depend on the frequency

pitch

48

measuring unit for sound energy

decibels

49

channels sound waves through the auditory canal

outer ear

50

tight membrane that vibrates with the waves

eardrum

51

chamber b/w the eardrum and cochlea containing 3 tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window

middle ear

52

coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses

cochlea

53

the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs

inner ear

54

in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea’s membrane is stimulated

place theory

55

in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch

frequency theory

56

neural cells can alternate firing

volley principle

57

hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea (Ability to conduct vibrations diminishes)

conduction hearing loss

58

hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea’s receptor cells or to the auditory nerves

Sensorineural hearing loss (nerve deafness)

59

device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea

Cochlear implant

60

extreme sensitivity to pain, makes life miserable

Hyperalgesia

61

perceive sensations in nonexisting limbs; misinterpret CNS activity

phantom sensations

62

phantom sounds, ringing in the ears, for people with hearing loss

tinnitus

63

theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological “gate” that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain; the “gate” is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain

Gate-control theory

64

the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste

sensory interaction

65

seeing a speaker say one syllable and hearing another, we may perceive a third syllable that blends both inputs

McGurk effect

66

one sort of sensation produces another

Synaesthesia

67

system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts

kinesthesis

68

sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance

vestibular sense