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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (54):
1

We are not born with a blueprint; much of what we do, we learn from __Humans __: capacity to learn new behavior enabling us to cope w/ changing circumstances

experienceadapt

2

We learn by __; naturally connect events that occur in sequenceSimple animal learn __ association; complex animal learn __ association

associationsimpleresponse-outcome

3

Describe Ivan Pavlov's Classical Conditioning Experiment

Saw when he put food in dog’s mouth, it would invariably salivate; dog started salivating to stimuli associated with food. Placed dog in harness, attached saliva holding device; paired various neutral stimuli with food in the dog’s mouth; dog associated neutral stimuli with the food (salivating w/ tone and food)

4

Conditioned = __; unconditioned = __;

learnedunlearned

5

5 major conditioning processes

acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination

6

Time elapsed between presenting neutral and unconditioned stimulus should be __

not long, ½ a second

7

Conditioning rarely occurs when __ follows __

CSUS

8

classical conditioning is __ __

biologically adaptive

9

Classical conditioning helps animals survive and reproduce by responding to different __

cues

10

Without conscious memory, participants form gut-level positive or negative __

attitudes

11

Stimuli similar to a disgusting or appealing thing, by __, will evoke disgust or liking

association

12

Pavlov Underestimated importance of __ __ and __ __ on an organism’s learning capacity

cognitive processes and biological constraints

13

2 significant events occur close in time, animal learns the __ of the second event. More the association = stronger the conditioned response. Animal learns an __: awareness of how likely it is that the US will occur

predictabilitypredictableexpectancy

14

__ prepare animals to learn the associations that enhance its survival. __ enables animals to adapt to their environments

PredispositionsLearning

15

Garcia and Koelling: gave rats water in radiation chambers; when rats grew sick later after tasting water, they avoided its flavor later (violates notion that __ must immediately follow __); sickened rats developed aversions to tastes but not to sights or sounds (contradicts any perceivable stimulus could serve as a __)

US CSCS

16

Conditioned stimuli have a natural __ with the unconditioned stimuli they predict

association

17

Associate CS with a US that follows predictably and immediately: __ often immediately __ effects

causeprecede

18

Who said human emotions and behaviors are mainly a bundle of conditioned responses?

Watson

19

Describe the Albert experiment

made loud noise whenever Albert reached for white rat; Albert cried whenever he saw the rat, and generalization made him fearful of similar objects (but not toys)

20

Psychologists use behavioral techniques to treat __ disorders

emotional

21

If a painful stimulus is sufficiently powerful, a __ __ is sometimes enough to traumatize the animal when it faces the situation again. Can be conditioned to a period of __; __ (CR) was most powerfully associated with particular locations and people (__), but it generalized to other places and people. Over time, conditioned fears mostly have __

single eventfearfearCSextinguished

22

Behaviors followed by __ increase; those followed by __ decrease

reinforcerspunishers

23

Classical conditioning forms associations b/w stimuli, __ & __, & involve respondent behavior

CS & US

24

Operant conditioning involves __ behavior, producing rewarding or punishing stimuli

operant

25

Operant conditioning experiments explore the precise conditions that foster efficient and enduring __

learning

26

By making rewards contingent on desired behaviors, can gradually shape __ behaviors

complex

27

__ __ greatly enhance our ability to influence one another

Secondary reinforcers

28

Lower level animals cannot have a __ delay over 30 seconds b/c will not learn. __ do respond to __ that are greatly delayed

reinforcerHumansreinforcers

29

postpone immediate rewards for greater long term rewards

Delay gratification

30

Small, but immediate consequences are sometimes more __ than delayed consequences

alluring

31

Under these conditions, learning occurs rapidly, but extinction also occurs rapidly

continuous reinforcement

32

Usually by administering an undesirable consequence or withdrawing a desirable one

punishment

33

__ punishment is followed by bad behavior and vice versa. Punished behavior is not forgotten, it is __; Physical punishment may increase __ by demonstrating that __ is a way to cope with problems

Physicalsuppressedaggressivenessaggression

34

Punishment can create __; when punishments are unpredictable and inescapable, people may develop sense that events are __ their control leading to feel helpless and depressed

fearbeyond

35

Punishment suppresses __ behavior, but doesn’t guide one towards __ behavior. __ tells you what not to do; __ tells you what to do

unwanteddesirablePunishmentreinforcement

36

__ __: administer an aversive stimulus__ __: withdraw a desirable stimulus

Positive punishmentNegative punishment

37

__ rewards sometimes carry hidden costs (less likely to do same thing in future)

Unnecessary

38

Person’s interest survives when reward is not used to __/__, but to show job well done

bribe/control

39

An animal’s natural predispositions constrain its capacity for __ conditioningBiological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally __

operantadaptive

40

Insisted external influences shape __ and urged use of operant principles. Administer __ in ways that promote more desirable behavior

behaviorrewards

41

Shape learning in __ steps, provide __ reinforcement for correct responses. Students must be told __ if what they do is right or wrong

smallimmediateimmediately

42

Shape behavior by reinforcing small __ and then gradually increasing the challenge. Trained by this method shows __ improvement in their skill

successesfaster

43

Immediate reinforcement for a job well done is effective in boosting __ when the desired performance is well-defined and achievable

productivity

44

People’s spending behavior is controlled by its __ (its costs and benefits). Give children attention and __ when behaving well (target behavior, reward it). Ignore __; if not reinforced over time, it will diminish. When children misbehave, __ yell at or hit them; explain the misbehavior and give a time-out for a specific time remove them from any reinforcing surroundings

consequencesreinforcerswhiningdon’t

45

When disciplining children do these 4 steps:1) State your __ 2) __ how often you engage in the behavior you wish to promote 3) __ the desired behaviors 4) Reduce the __ gradually

goalMonitorReinforceincentives

46

What are the similarities of both conditioning types?

forms of associative learning; involve acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination; cognitive processes and biological predispositions influence

47

What are the differences between classical and operant conditioning?

Classical: organism associates different stimuli it does not control and responds automaticallyOperant: organism associates its behaviors that act on its environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli with their consequences

48

For higher animals, learning does not need to occur through __ __

direct experience

49

Describe Bandura's Bobo doll experiment

1) Child draws, adult in room plays with tinker toys, adult gets up and for nearly 10 minutes he pounds, kicks, and throws a large inflated bobo doll around the room while yelling remarks like “sock him in the nose, hit him down, kick him”2) After outburst, child is taken to another room full of toys; experimenter interrupts child’s play and explains she saved these good toys for other children3) Frustrated child is taken to adjacent room containing a few toys, including a bobo doll

50

Describe results of Bandura's experiment

Children who observed the aggressive adult were much more likely to lash out at the dollObserving the adult model beating up the doll lowered their inhibitionsChildren imitated the same acts and same words they had observed by the adultReinforcements and punishments determine whether we will imitate a model

51

Lessons learned as children are not easily __, and are visited on future generations. Intergenerational transmission of abuse could be __; with monkeys, its __

unlearnedgeneticenvironmental

52

Observational learning of __ begins early; toddlers who imitate parents have strong internalized __. Models are more effective when their actions and words are __; (may say one thing and do another, which may lead children to imitate this __)

moralityconsciencesconsistenthypocrisy

53

Correlational studies __ link violence viewing with violent behavior. More hours engaged in media violence = more often they get into __ in future. More hours spent watching violent programs = more risk for __ and __. In USA and Canada, homicide rates __ when the TV was introduced and spread. Correlational studies __ prove watching violence causes aggressionViolent programs simply __, rather than affect, violent trends

dofightsaggression and crimedoubleddo notreflect

54

Does viewing cruelty prepare people, when irritated, to react more cruelly? __. Prolonged exposure to violence also __ viewers; become more indifferent to it. Watching cruelty fosters __

Yes to an extentdesensitizesindifference