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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (54)
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1

We are not born with a blueprint; much of what we do, we learn from __Humans __: capacity to learn new behavior enabling us to cope w/ changing circumstances

experienceadapt

2

We learn by __; naturally connect events that occur in sequenceSimple animal learn __ association; complex animal learn __ association

associationsimpleresponse-outcome

3

Describe Ivan Pavlov's Classical Conditioning Experiment

Saw when he put food in dog’s mouth, it would invariably salivate; dog started salivating to stimuli associated with food. Placed dog in harness, attached saliva holding device; paired various neutral stimuli with food in the dog’s mouth; dog associated neutral stimuli with the food (salivating w/ tone and food)

4

Conditioned = __; unconditioned = __;

learnedunlearned

5

5 major conditioning processes

acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination

6

Time elapsed between presenting neutral and unconditioned stimulus should be __

not long, ½ a second

7

Conditioning rarely occurs when __ follows __

CSUS

8

classical conditioning is __ __

biologically adaptive

9

Classical conditioning helps animals survive and reproduce by responding to different __

cues

10

Without conscious memory, participants form gut-level positive or negative __

attitudes

11

Stimuli similar to a disgusting or appealing thing, by __, will evoke disgust or liking

association

12

Pavlov Underestimated importance of __ __ and __ __ on an organism’s learning capacity

cognitive processes and biological constraints

13

2 significant events occur close in time, animal learns the __ of the second event. More the association = stronger the conditioned response. Animal learns an __: awareness of how likely it is that the US will occur

predictabilitypredictableexpectancy

14

__ prepare animals to learn the associations that enhance its survival. __ enables animals to adapt to their environments

PredispositionsLearning

15

Garcia and Koelling: gave rats water in radiation chambers; when rats grew sick later after tasting water, they avoided its flavor later (violates notion that __ must immediately follow __); sickened rats developed aversions to tastes but not to sights or sounds (contradicts any perceivable stimulus could serve as a __)

US CSCS

16

Conditioned stimuli have a natural __ with the unconditioned stimuli they predict

association

17

Associate CS with a US that follows predictably and immediately: __ often immediately __ effects

causeprecede

18

Who said human emotions and behaviors are mainly a bundle of conditioned responses?

Watson

19

Describe the Albert experiment

made loud noise whenever Albert reached for white rat; Albert cried whenever he saw the rat, and generalization made him fearful of similar objects (but not toys)

20

Psychologists use behavioral techniques to treat __ disorders

emotional

21

If a painful stimulus is sufficiently powerful, a __ __ is sometimes enough to traumatize the animal when it faces the situation again. Can be conditioned to a period of __; __ (CR) was most powerfully associated with particular locations and people (__), but it generalized to other places and people. Over time, conditioned fears mostly have __

single eventfearfearCSextinguished

22

Behaviors followed by __ increase; those followed by __ decrease

reinforcerspunishers

23

Classical conditioning forms associations b/w stimuli, __ & __, & involve respondent behavior

CS & US

24

Operant conditioning involves __ behavior, producing rewarding or punishing stimuli

operant

25

Operant conditioning experiments explore the precise conditions that foster efficient and enduring __

learning

26

By making rewards contingent on desired behaviors, can gradually shape __ behaviors

complex

27

__ __ greatly enhance our ability to influence one another

Secondary reinforcers

28

Lower level animals cannot have a __ delay over 30 seconds b/c will not learn. __ do respond to __ that are greatly delayed

reinforcerHumansreinforcers

29

postpone immediate rewards for greater long term rewards

Delay gratification

30

Small, but immediate consequences are sometimes more __ than delayed consequences

alluring