Chapter 8 Key Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Key Terms Deck (42):
1

a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience

learning

2

learning that certain events occur together; the event may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)

Associative learning

3

the process of learning associations

conditioning

4

a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli; a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus; AKA: Pavlovian or respondent conditioning

classical conditioning

5

the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes; most research psychologists agree with __ but not with __

Behaviorism12

6

in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth

Unconditioned response (UR)

7

in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally (naturally and automatically) triggers a response

Unconditioned stimulus (US)

8

in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS)

Conditioned response (CR)

9

in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response

Conditioned stimulus (CS)

10

the initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response; in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response

acquisition

11

the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced

extinction

12

the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response

spontaneous recovery

13

the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses

generalization

14

in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus

discrimination

15

a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher

Operant conditioning

16

behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner’s term for behavior learned through classical conditioning

Respondent behavior:

17

behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences

Operant behavior

18

Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

Law of effect

19

a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking; used in operant conditioning research

Operant chamber (Skinner’s box)

20

an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior

shaping

21

in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

reinforcer

22

increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food

Positive reinforcement

23

any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response

positive reinforcer

24

increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock; is not punishment

Negative reinforcement

25

any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response

negative reinforcer

26

an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need

Primary reinforcer

27

a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer

Conditioned (secondary) reinforcer

28

reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs

Continuous reinforcement

29

reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement

Partial (intermittent) reinforcement

30

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses

Fixed-ratio schedule

31

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses

Variable-ratio schedule

32

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed

Fixed-interval schedule

33

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals

Variable-interval schedule

34

an event that decreases the behavior that it follows

punishment

35

a mental representation of the layout of one’s environment; for example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned one of it

Cognitive map

36

learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

Latent learning

37

a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake

Intrinsic motivation

38

a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment

Extrinsic motivation

39

learning by observing others

Observational learning

40

the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

modeling

41

frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so; the brain’s mirroring of another’s action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy

Mirror neurons

42

positive, constructive, helpful behavior; the opposite of antisocial behavior

Prosocial behavior