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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (41):
1

Must detect energy from environment (__) and encode it as neural signals (__); we must also select, organize, and interpret (__) our sensations (__)

bottom-upsensationtop-downperception

2

__ is divided at the level of conscious awareness

Attention

3

From an immense array of visual __ before us, we select just a few to __

stimuliprocess

4

__ reveal the ways we normally organize and interpret our sensations

Illusions

5

Must perceive objects as distinct from their __, having a meaningful and constant __, and discern their __ and __

surroundingsformdistance and motion

6

In perception, the __ may exceed the sum of its parts. Perceived __ differs from the sum of its parts

wholewhole

7

__ and __ are one continuous process progressing upward from specialized __ __ and downward from our __

Sensation and perceptiondetector cellsassumptions

8

First perceptual task: perceive an object (__) as distinct from its surroundings (__)

figureground

9

We now organize the __ into meaningful form; process basic features of a __ instantly and automatically (color, movement, light/dark contrast)

figure scene

10

__ and __ found 6-14 month old infants refused to pass over the dangerous drop off in a visual cliff, showing they could perceive __

Eleanor GibsonRichard Walkdepth

11

By __ __, infants use gestalt perception principles by looking at novel groupings of objects

3 months

12

__ __ predisposes our wariness of heights, but __ amplifies it

Biological maturationexperience

13

Since our eyes are about 2½ inches apart, our retinas receive __ __ images of world

slightly different

14

3-D movies simulate or exaggerate __ __ by photographing a scene with two cameras placed a few inches apart; 3-D effect mimics normal __ __

retinal disparityretinal disparity

15

Contribute to illusion that vertical dimensions are longer than identical horizontal dimensions

relative height

16

Objects beyond __ __ appear to move w/ you; farther away the objects are, __ they will move; brain uses the speed and direction to compare objects’ __ __

fixation pointfasterrelative distances

17

Normally, brain computes motion based partly on its assumption that __ objects are retreating (not getting smaller) and __ objects are approaching

shrinkingenlarging

18

We can identify things regardless of the __, __, and __ by which we view them

angle, distance, & illumination

19

Perceiving an object’s distance gives us cues to its __ and vice versa

size

20

Cues to objects’ distances at the horizon make the moon behind them seem __ __ than the moon high in the night sky, so the horizon moon seems __

farther awaylarger

21

Our experiences in __ __ help us construct our perception top down

rectangular contexts

22

Perceived lightness stays __ given an unchanging context, but it __ with context

constantchanges

23

When patients cataracts were surgically removed, they could distinguish __ from __ and could sense __, suggesting these aspects of perception are __

figure from groundcolorinnate

24

Former blind patients could not recognize by sight objects that were familiar by __

touch

25

Vision is partly an __ sense; there is a __ __ for normal sensory and perceptual development; __ guides, sustains, and maintains the brain’s neural organization

acquiredcritical periodexperience

26

Humans __ adapt to distorting lenses quickly, even ones that flip the world upside down

can

27

Once we have formed a __ __ about reality, we have more difficulty seeing the truthWe form __ (__) that organize and interpret unfamiliar information

wrong ideaconcepts (schemas)

28

In young children, the __ has greater importance than the __ in schemas of essential human characteristics

facebody

29

When shown 3 familiar faces (actual face, caricature that accentuated differences b/w the face and the average face, anticaricature that muted distinctive features), they recognized the __ __ more accurately than the __ ones

caricatured facesactual

30

The brain can work __ __ __ to allow a later stimulus to determine how we perceive an earlier one; context creates an __ that, top-down, influences our __ as we match our bottom-up signal against it

backward in timeexpectationperception

31

Skilled directors evoke emotion in an audience by defining a __ in which viewers interpret an actor’s __

contextexpressions

32

Perception is fed by two streams: __ and __

sensation and cognition

33

By exploiting "__ __", simple design changes could reduce some of our frustrations

“natural mapping”

34

Technology developers have a hard time seeing that what’s __ to them is __ __ to others

clearnot clear

35

Engineers should design things to __ __ , being mindful of the curse of __, and __ __ their inventions before production and distribution

fit peopleknowledgeuser testing

36

Psychics __ see into the future and __ predict surprising events

cannotcannot

37

Vague predictions can later be __ to match events that provide a perceptual set

interpreted

38

Our __ do not predict the future; with enough time and people the improbable becomes __; some stunning __ are going to occur

dreamsinevitablecoincidences

39

Experimenters control what the psychic __ and __; a psychic controls what the audience __ and __

sees and hearssees and hears

40

To believe in ESP, you must believe the brain is capable of perceiving without __ __

sensory input

41

No person has emerged yet that could demonstrate a single, reproducible __ __

ESP phenomenon