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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (64):

When learning a complex behavior, consciousness focuses on our __



Conscious awareness allows us to exert __ __ & to communicate our mental state. We register and react to stimuli we __ consciously perceive. Unconscious information processing occurs __ on many parallel tracks. Consciousness __ __ the brain events that evoke it. Conscious processing take place in __ (__)

voluntary controldon'tsimultaneouslylags behind sequence (serially)


Consciousness is relatively __ & has limited __ but is skilled at solving __ problems



__ consciousness: daydreaming, drowsiness, dreaming__ consciousness: hallucinations, orgasm, food or oxygen starvation__ consciousness: sensory deprivation, hypnosis, meditation



Body temp rises as __ comes, peaks in day, dips in afternoon, and drops at __. Thinking is sharpest and memory most accurate when at daily peak in __ arousal.Young: evening-energized “__” Old: morning-loving “__”.Transcontinental flights disrupt our circadian rhythm and we experience __ __. __ __ helps reset our biological clocks; __ activates sensitive retinal proteins that trigger

morningnightcircadianowlslarksjet lagBright light light


Brain’s __ gland decreases (morning) or increases (evening) production of sleep-inducing hormone, ___



Longer awake, more active brain produces and accumulates __, which inhibits certain neurons, making us sleepy (__ blocks __’s activity)Today’s young adults adopt a __-hour day by staying up too late; artificial __ delays sleep



Sleep is a state we don’t know we are in until we __ it; we don’t remember __ into sleep



Stage _ and Stage _ are slow-wave sleep stages in which you are hard to awaken. Stage 1: experience fantastic __ (__); Stage 2: clearly asleep, __ can occur here or later; Stage 3: brain starts emitting large slow __ waves; Stage 4: __ sleep stage with many __ waves

3 & 4images (hallucinations)sleeptalkingdeltadeepdelta


Brain processes certain __ even in deep sleep (baby cry, your name). We process most information __ of our conscious awareness. During REM sleep, heart rate __, breathing is __ and __, eyes __ around in burst of activity under eyelids; __ are aroused in REM sleep except in nightmares

stimulioutsiderisesrapid and irregulardartgenitals


__ blocks messages from brain’s motor cortex, so you are essentially paralyzed. Visual and auditory brain areas are __ during REM sleep and are __ in other stages



Sleep patterns are __ and __ influenced (newborns sleep __ of day, adults sleep __ of day; __ nations sleep less than before. Allowed to sleep unhindered, most humans will sleep at least _ hours a night. With _ hours of sleep, we awaken refreshed, have better moods, perform more efficient and accurate work than those who get less sleep; w/o sleep, you will be terribly __ at times. We accumulate a sleep __ that isn’t paid off by one long night of sleep

genetically and culturally⅔⅓industrialized99drowsydebt


Major effect of lessened sleep is __ and a general __. Teenagers average less than __ hours of sleep and function below their peak. To manage your life with enough sleep to awaken naturally and well rested is to be more __, __, __, and __

sleepinessmalaise7alert, productive, healthy, and happy


We live a __ than optimal life and perform at __ than optimal level, impaired by an amount of sleep __ that we’re not even aware of. With spring forward time, accidents __; with daylight savings time, accidents __.Sleep deprivation reveal __ reaction times and increased __ on visual tasks



Sleep deprivation suppresses __ cells that fight off viral infections and cancer, which helps explain why people who sleep __ hours tend to outlive those chronically sleep deprived. Chronic sleep debt alters __ and __ functioning in ways that mimic aging and are conducive to obesity, hypertension, and memory impairment

immune7-8metabolic and hormonal


Sleep __, suits our ecological niche; helps us __, helps restore and repair brain __; gives resting __ time to repair, while unused connections weaken; also for remembering, restores and rebuilds our fading __ of the day. Sleep plays a role in growth process; __ gland releases a growth hormone in deep sleep



Insomnia complainers get __ sleep than others; common quick fixes (sleeping pills and alcohol) can __ the problem because they __ REM sleep



Treatment for insomnia: __ before bed, use __ light, avoid __ after late afternoon, avoid __ foods before bed, drink glass of __ (helps manufacture __, facilitates sleep), sleep on a __ schedule, avoid __, __ regularly (not in late evening), hide clock, go to bed __ or __

relax, dim, caffeine, rich, milk, serotonin, regular, naps, exercise, later or earlier


Discovered a gene causing __ in dogs; Discovered absence of a hypothalamic neural center that produces __, an alerting neurotransmitter



After an airless minute, decreased blood oxygen arouses the sleeper to __ and __ in air for a few seconds; process can repeat __ times, depriving the person of __-__ sleep

awaken and snort400slow-wave


Sleep apnea mostly affects __ __; increased rate of traffic __; loud __. Sleep apnea sufferers are often __ of their disorder. Treatment: mask device with an air pump that keeps the __ open and breathing __

overweight menaccidentssnoringunawareairway, regular


__ __ target mostly children, who may sit up or walk, talk incoherently, double heart and breathing rates, and appeared terrified; seldom wake up __ during an episode

night terrorsfully


__ is usually harmless and unrecalled next morning; usually return to bed on own



Awaken people during or within __ minutes after REM sleep and hear a vivid dream account



Dreams are notable for their __ imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer’s __ acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it



Commonly dream of events in our __ __ and relatives or friends. Women dream of males and females __ often while men’s dreams usually involve only __

daily livesequallymales


Even in REM sleep, focused on internal stimuli, we maintain some awareness of changes in our __ __

external environment


Why do we dream? (5)

1) To satisfy our own wishes2) To file away memories3) To develop and preserve neural pathways4) To make sense of neural static5) To reflect cognitive development


Critical Considerations: Lacks scientific support; dreams may be interrupted in many different ways

Freud's wish fulfillment theory


Critical Considerations: Why do we dream of things we haven’t experienced?

Information processing theory


Critical Considerations: Doesn’t explain why we experience meaningful dreams

physiological function theory


Critical Considerations: Individual’s brain is weaving the stories, which still tells us something about dreams

activation-synthesis theory


Critical Considerations: Does not address the neuroscience of dreams

Cognitive theory


Strength, stamina, learning, and perceptual abilities of those under hypnosis are like those of motivated __ people; engage people’s ability to __ on certain images or behavior



To some extent, nearly everyone is suggestible to __. Those who are highly hypnotizable frequently are deeply absorbed in __ activities. Hypnotic “susceptibility” is hypnotic __, the ability to focus attention __ on a task



Age regressed people act as they __ children would, but __ children of this age. "Hypnotically refreshed” memories combine __ with __

believeoutperformfact with fiction


People can be induced to perform a __ act, but behaviors are within normal __. Unhypnotized participants performed the __ acts as hypnotized people



Hypnosis can relieve __; hypnotized patients require less , recover and leave __



Hypnosis __ sensation of pain stimulus from the emotional suffering defining pain. Pain relief results from __ __; stimuli of pain is registered in __ system. Hypnosis doesn’t block sensory input, but it may block our __ to those stimuli

dissociatesselective attentionsensoryattention


Hypnotic phenomena may reflect working of normal __ & power of __ influence. The more motivated to demonstrate hypnotic behavior, the more they __ that person to direct their attentions and fantasies



Hypnotized subjects sometimes carry out __ behaviors on cue. An imagination in the __ __ is a compelling hallucination to the hypnotized brain

suggestedunhypnotized state


We process much information __ conscious awareness. Information processing is divided into simultaneous __ and __ realms. Is an extension of social influence and everyday dissociations b/w __ awareness

withoutconscious and subconsciousconscious


There are many controlled, occasional users than __ of drugs like alcohol and marijuana. People typically don’t become addicted when using drugs __. Some addicts benefit from __ programs, but people often recover on their __. Addiction-as-disease-needing-treatment idea shouldn’t be used to explain behavior as __



Three categories of psychoactive drugs: __, __, and __; all do work on brain’s __

depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogenssynapses


__: Depressant that slows brain activity that controls judgment and inhibitions. When provoked, people behave more __ under alcohol and respond more __. Alcohol slows the __ nervous system, reactions slow, speech slurs, skilled performance deteriorates, lowered inhibitions, moral judgments become less __. Blackouts after drinking occur from alcohol suppressing __ sleep. Excessive drinking can __ brain, especially in women



Alcohol reduces __-__; focuses attention on immediate situation and away from __ consequences to oneself, which facilitates urges a person might otherwise resist. People who believe that alcohol affects social behavior in certain ways will __ accordingly. A drug’s overall effect depends not only on its __ effects, but also on the __ of the user’s expectations, which vary with culture



The brain eventually stops producing its own opiates, the __ with continued drug use



Strong stimulants __ heart and breathing rates, cause pupils to __, appetite to __ (blood sugar increases), and energy and self confidence __. Aftermath may induce fatigue, irritability, violent behavior, depression, and low __ level



__: Enters bloodstream quickly; result: “rush” of __ that last 15-30 minutes. Rush depletes brain’s supply of __, __, and __ result in a crash. __ works faster, produces briefer but more intense high, and a more intense crash

cocaineeuphoriadopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrineCrack


__: Experience emotional elevation and given a social context, feelings of connectedness. Effects: __ which leads to overheating, and __ blood pressure; interferes with __’s control of the circadian clock, suppresses __ system, memory impaired



__: Chemically similar to serotonin; emotions vary from euphoria to detachment to panic. Experience begins with simple __ forms, then more meaningful images, may harm self



__: Relaxes, disinhibits, may produce a euphoric high; mild hallucinogen by amplifying sensitivity. More use increases anxiety, depression, or schizophrenia. May spell relief, medical use delivered using an __; Effects: impair __ coordination, perceptual skills, reaction time; THC and its by-products linger in the body for a __ or __; may achieve high with __ amounts of drug

marijuanainhalermotormonth or morelower


All psychoactive drugs trigger __ aftereffects that offset their immediate __ effectsEmotions tend to produce __ emotions, which linger after original emotions disappear



Drug: AlcoholType: Pleasurable Effects: Adverse Effects:

Type: DepressantPleasurable Effects: Initial high followed by relaxation and disinhibitionAdverse Effects: Depression, memory loss, organ damage, impaired reactions


Drug: HeroinType: Pleasurable Effects: Adverse Effects:

Type: DepressantPleasurable Effects: Rush of euphoria, relief from painAdverse Effects: Depressed physiology, agonizing withdrawal


Drug: CaffeineType: Pleasurable Effects: Adverse Effects:

Type: StimulantPleasurable Effects: Increased alertness and wakefulnessAdverse Effects: Anxiety, restlessness, and insomnia in high doses; uncomfortable withdrawal


Drug: MethamphetamineType: Pleasurable Effects: Adverse Effects:

Type: StimulantPleasurable Effects: Euphoria, alertness, energyAdverse Effects: Irritability, insomnia, hypertensions, seizures


Drug: CocaineType: Pleasurable Effects: Adverse Effects:

Type: StimulantPleasurable Effects: Rush of Euphoria, confidence, energyAdverse Effects: Cardiovascular stress, suspiciousness, depressive crash


Drug: NicotineType: Pleasurable Effects: Adverse Effects:

Type: StimulantPleasurable Effects: Arousal and relaxation, sense of well-beingAdverse Effects: Heart disease, cancer (from tars)


Drug: Ecstasy (MDMA)Type: Pleasurable Effects: Adverse Effects:

Type: Stimulant; mild hallucinogenPleasurable Effects: Emotional elevation, disinhibitionAdverse Effects: Dehydration, overheating, and depressed mood, cognitive, and immune functioning


Drug: MarijuanaType: Pleasurable Effects: Adverse Effects:

Type: Mild hallucinogenPleasurable Effects: Enhanced sensation, relief of pain, distortion of time, relaxationAdverse Effects: Impaired learning and memory, increased risk of psychological disorders, lung damage from smoke


__ influences some aspects of alcohol abuse problems, especially those appearing by early adult. Excitable, impulsive, and fearless __ __ are more likely as teens to smoke, drink, and use drugs. Certain __ are more common among people and animals predisposed to alcoholism

Heredityyoung boysgenes


__ offer more opportunities and less supervision; increased drug use among __ __ adults. Take drugs because feel one’s life is __ and __; experience significant stress or failure and are __; drug rates differ across __ and __ groups; __ influence drug use. People are more likely to stop using drugs if their beginning use was influenced by their __

Citiesunmarried youngmeaningless and directionlessdepressedcultural and ethnicpeerspeers


Influence for drug prevention: 1) __ about long term costs of drug’s temporary pleasures 2) efforts to __ people’s self esteem and purpose in life 3) attempts to modify peer associations by training them in __ skills