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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (64)
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When learning a complex behavior, consciousness focuses on our __



Conscious awareness allows us to exert __ __ & to communicate our mental state. We register and react to stimuli we __ consciously perceive. Unconscious information processing occurs __ on many parallel tracks. Consciousness __ __ the brain events that evoke it. Conscious processing take place in __ (__)

voluntary controldon'tsimultaneouslylags behind sequence (serially)


Consciousness is relatively __ & has limited __ but is skilled at solving __ problems



__ consciousness: daydreaming, drowsiness, dreaming__ consciousness: hallucinations, orgasm, food or oxygen starvation__ consciousness: sensory deprivation, hypnosis, meditation



Body temp rises as __ comes, peaks in day, dips in afternoon, and drops at __. Thinking is sharpest and memory most accurate when at daily peak in __ arousal.Young: evening-energized “__” Old: morning-loving “__”.Transcontinental flights disrupt our circadian rhythm and we experience __ __. __ __ helps reset our biological clocks; __ activates sensitive retinal proteins that trigger

morningnightcircadianowlslarksjet lagBright light light


Brain’s __ gland decreases (morning) or increases (evening) production of sleep-inducing hormone, ___



Longer awake, more active brain produces and accumulates __, which inhibits certain neurons, making us sleepy (__ blocks __’s activity)Today’s young adults adopt a __-hour day by staying up too late; artificial __ delays sleep



Sleep is a state we don’t know we are in until we __ it; we don’t remember __ into sleep



Stage _ and Stage _ are slow-wave sleep stages in which you are hard to awaken. Stage 1: experience fantastic __ (__); Stage 2: clearly asleep, __ can occur here or later; Stage 3: brain starts emitting large slow __ waves; Stage 4: __ sleep stage with many __ waves

3 & 4images (hallucinations)sleeptalkingdeltadeepdelta


Brain processes certain __ even in deep sleep (baby cry, your name). We process most information __ of our conscious awareness. During REM sleep, heart rate __, breathing is __ and __, eyes __ around in burst of activity under eyelids; __ are aroused in REM sleep except in nightmares

stimulioutsiderisesrapid and irregulardartgenitals


__ blocks messages from brain’s motor cortex, so you are essentially paralyzed. Visual and auditory brain areas are __ during REM sleep and are __ in other stages



Sleep patterns are __ and __ influenced (newborns sleep __ of day, adults sleep __ of day; __ nations sleep less than before. Allowed to sleep unhindered, most humans will sleep at least _ hours a night. With _ hours of sleep, we awaken refreshed, have better moods, perform more efficient and accurate work than those who get less sleep; w/o sleep, you will be terribly __ at times. We accumulate a sleep __ that isn’t paid off by one long night of sleep

genetically and culturally⅔⅓industrialized99drowsydebt


Major effect of lessened sleep is __ and a general __. Teenagers average less than __ hours of sleep and function below their peak. To manage your life with enough sleep to awaken naturally and well rested is to be more __, __, __, and __

sleepinessmalaise7alert, productive, healthy, and happy


We live a __ than optimal life and perform at __ than optimal level, impaired by an amount of sleep __ that we’re not even aware of. With spring forward time, accidents __; with daylight savings time, accidents __.Sleep deprivation reveal __ reaction times and increased __ on visual tasks



Sleep deprivation suppresses __ cells that fight off viral infections and cancer, which helps explain why people who sleep __ hours tend to outlive those chronically sleep deprived. Chronic sleep debt alters __ and __ functioning in ways that mimic aging and are conducive to obesity, hypertension, and memory impairment

immune7-8metabolic and hormonal


Sleep __, suits our ecological niche; helps us __, helps restore and repair brain __; gives resting __ time to repair, while unused connections weaken; also for remembering, restores and rebuilds our fading __ of the day. Sleep plays a role in growth process; __ gland releases a growth hormone in deep sleep



Insomnia complainers get __ sleep than others; common quick fixes (sleeping pills and alcohol) can __ the problem because they __ REM sleep



Treatment for insomnia: __ before bed, use __ light, avoid __ after late afternoon, avoid __ foods before bed, drink glass of __ (helps manufacture __, facilitates sleep), sleep on a __ schedule, avoid __, __ regularly (not in late evening), hide clock, go to bed __ or __

relax, dim, caffeine, rich, milk, serotonin, regular, naps, exercise, later or earlier


Discovered a gene causing __ in dogs; Discovered absence of a hypothalamic neural center that produces __, an alerting neurotransmitter



After an airless minute, decreased blood oxygen arouses the sleeper to __ and __ in air for a few seconds; process can repeat __ times, depriving the person of __-__ sleep

awaken and snort400slow-wave


Sleep apnea mostly affects __ __; increased rate of traffic __; loud __. Sleep apnea sufferers are often __ of their disorder. Treatment: mask device with an air pump that keeps the __ open and breathing __

overweight menaccidentssnoringunawareairway, regular


__ __ target mostly children, who may sit up or walk, talk incoherently, double heart and breathing rates, and appeared terrified; seldom wake up __ during an episode

night terrorsfully


__ is usually harmless and unrecalled next morning; usually return to bed on own



Awaken people during or within __ minutes after REM sleep and hear a vivid dream account



Dreams are notable for their __ imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer’s __ acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it



Commonly dream of events in our __ __ and relatives or friends. Women dream of males and females __ often while men’s dreams usually involve only __

daily livesequallymales


Even in REM sleep, focused on internal stimuli, we maintain some awareness of changes in our __ __

external environment


Why do we dream? (5)

1) To satisfy our own wishes2) To file away memories3) To develop and preserve neural pathways4) To make sense of neural static5) To reflect cognitive development


Critical Considerations: Lacks scientific support; dreams may be interrupted in many different ways

Freud's wish fulfillment theory


Critical Considerations: Why do we dream of things we haven’t experienced?

Information processing theory