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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (61)
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1

__ psychologists study how we create concepts, solve problems, make decisions, and form judgements

Cognitive

2

To simplify things further, we organize concepts into category __

hierarchies

3

We form some concepts by __

definition

4

Matching new items to the prototypes provides a quick and easy method for including items in a __

category

5

The more closely something matches our __ of a concept, the more readily we recognize it as an example of the concept

prototype

6

Contrasts with the usually speedier - but also more error-prone - use of heuristics

algorithm

7

Two cognitive tendencies - __ and __ - often lead us astray

confirmation bias and fixation

8

Our __ __ based on what worked in the past precludes our finding a new solution to a new problem

mental set

9

We seldom take the time and effort to reason __; we just follow our __

systematically; intuition

10

To judge the likelihood of something, we intuitively compare it with our __ __ of that category; if the two match, the fact usually __ other consideration (stats or logic)

mental representation; overrides

11

Cognitively available events are more likely to __ - but not always

recur

12

An event’s availability to our memory need not indicate its __ in reality

likelihood

13

Warning people against __ doesn’t much reduce it

overconfidence

14

The wisdom to know when we know a thing and when we do not is born of __

experience

15

four influences on our intuitions about risk
1) We fear what our __ __ has prepared us to fear
2) We fear what we cannot __
3) We fear what is __
4) We fear what is most readily available in __

ancestral history
control
immediate
memory

16

Vivid events also distort our comprehension of __ and probable __

risks; outcomes

17

Dramatic __ capture our attention; probabilities we hardly __

outcomes; grasp

18

Our judgements and decisions may not be well __, and those who understand the power of __ can use it to influence important decisions

reasoned; framing

19

We more easily see the illogic of conclusions that run counter to __ __ than of those that agree with __ __

our beliefs; our beliefs

20

Once __ form and gets justified, it takes more compelling __ to change them than it did to create them

beliefs; evidence

21

__ reactions enable us to react quickly and usually adaptively

Intuitive

22

__ __ describes acquired, speedy expertise that feels like instant intuition

Immediate insight

23

__ enables us not only to communicate but to transmit civilization’s accumulated knowledge across generations

Language

24

Language is __ built of simplicity (phoneme, morpheme, word, sentence)

complexity

25

_ __: can read lips and discriminate speech sounds; beginning of the development of babies’ receptive language; babbles many speech sounds

4 months

26

__ language matures before their __ language

Receptive; productive

27

Before nurture molds our speech, nature enables a wide range of possible __

phonemes

28

_ __: phoneme sounds outside the infant’s native tongue begin to disappear; babbling resembles household language

10 months

29

_ __: Language develops rapidly into complete sentences

24+ months

30

Describe how Skinner described language development

Operant Learning with familiar learning principles: association, imitation, and reinforcement