Chapter 10 Flashcards Preview

AP Psych > Chapter 10 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (61):
1

__ psychologists study how we create concepts, solve problems, make decisions, and form judgements

Cognitive

2

To simplify things further, we organize concepts into category __

hierarchies

3

We form some concepts by __

definition

4

Matching new items to the prototypes provides a quick and easy method for including items in a __

category

5

The more closely something matches our __ of a concept, the more readily we recognize it as an example of the concept

prototype

6

Contrasts with the usually speedier - but also more error-prone - use of heuristics

algorithm

7

Two cognitive tendencies - __ and __ - often lead us astray

confirmation bias and fixation

8

Our __ __ based on what worked in the past precludes our finding a new solution to a new problem

mental set

9

We seldom take the time and effort to reason __; we just follow our __

systematically; intuition

10

To judge the likelihood of something, we intuitively compare it with our __ __ of that category; if the two match, the fact usually __ other consideration (stats or logic)

mental representation; overrides

11

Cognitively available events are more likely to __ - but not always

recur

12

An event’s availability to our memory need not indicate its __ in reality

likelihood

13

Warning people against __ doesn’t much reduce it

overconfidence

14

The wisdom to know when we know a thing and when we do not is born of __

experience

15

four influences on our intuitions about risk
1) We fear what our __ __ has prepared us to fear
2) We fear what we cannot __
3) We fear what is __
4) We fear what is most readily available in __

ancestral history
control
immediate
memory

16

Vivid events also distort our comprehension of __ and probable __

risks; outcomes

17

Dramatic __ capture our attention; probabilities we hardly __

outcomes; grasp

18

Our judgements and decisions may not be well __, and those who understand the power of __ can use it to influence important decisions

reasoned; framing

19

We more easily see the illogic of conclusions that run counter to __ __ than of those that agree with __ __

our beliefs; our beliefs

20

Once __ form and gets justified, it takes more compelling __ to change them than it did to create them

beliefs; evidence

21

__ reactions enable us to react quickly and usually adaptively

Intuitive

22

__ __ describes acquired, speedy expertise that feels like instant intuition

Immediate insight

23

__ enables us not only to communicate but to transmit civilization’s accumulated knowledge across generations

Language

24

Language is __ built of simplicity (phoneme, morpheme, word, sentence)

complexity

25

_ __: can read lips and discriminate speech sounds; beginning of the development of babies’ receptive language; babbles many speech sounds

4 months

26

__ language matures before their __ language

Receptive; productive

27

Before nurture molds our speech, nature enables a wide range of possible __

phonemes

28

_ __: phoneme sounds outside the infant’s native tongue begin to disappear; babbling resembles household language

10 months

29

_ __: Language develops rapidly into complete sentences

24+ months

30

Describe how Skinner described language development

Operant Learning with familiar learning principles: association, imitation, and reinforcement

31

What did Chomsky believe in?

An inborn universal grammar

32

Children begin using __ in a predictable order

morphemes

33

Chomsky viewed language will naturally occur, given adequate __; all languages have the same grammatical building blocks (__ __) that underlies all human language

nurture; universal grammar

34

All languages are __ of universal grammar for which our brains are __

dialects; prewired

35

We learn readily the __ of any language we experience, whether spoken or signed

grammar

36

We start speaking mostly in __ rather than __ and __

nouns; verbs and adjectives

37

Chomsky maintains our capacity for developing language is natural and quick b/c we come equipped with a __ __ __ already in place

language acquisition device

38

Chomsky: we are born with the hardware and an operating system for __, and our __ __ write the software

language; linguistic experiences

39

Before 1st birthday, brain discerned __ __ by statistically analyzing which syllables most often go together; babies come with a built-in readiness to learn __ rules

word breaks; grammatical

40

Once the grammar switches are thrown during a child’s developing years, mastering another grammar becomes more __

difficult

41

Before age _, learning language is wide open; after _, it gradually closes

7; 7

42

Late learners show less brain activity in __ __ regions active than native signers

right hemisphere

43

When a young brain doesn't learn language, language-learning capacity never __ __

fully develops

44

Many bilinguals say they have a different __ __ __ depending on the language spoken

sense of self

45

People’s language use seems to shape how people __ of themselves

think

46

You can better recall distinctions between 2 colors when we assign different __ to colors

names

47

To expand language is to expand the ability to __; it pays to increase your __ power

think; word

48

Sometimes you think with __ memory- a mental picture of how you do it

procedural

49

__ __ helps people improve in any activity they do (athletics, piano, academics)

Mental rehearsal

50

Thinking affects our __ which then affects our __

language; thought

51

Animals (especially apes) display remarkable capacities for __; can form __

thinking; concepts

52

What did Kohler find out about animals?

animals have cognition; in his experiment where a chimp used a small stick to get the long stick to reach the fruit the chimp wanted (problem solving shaped by reinforcement)

53

Chimps and orangutans invent __ and pass them on to their peers and offspring

customs

54

__ have capacity for reasoning, self-recognition, empathy, imitation, and understanding another's mind (have mental accomplishments of a _ year old)

Primates; 2

55

__ communicate and comprehend

Animals

56

Gardner taught a __ how to sign, and by age 32, the __ had a vocab of __ signs

chimp; chimp; 181

57

Prohibiting __ disrupts speech that has spatial content

gestures

58

Gesturing lightens the __ load carried by speech; __ entails gestures

cognitive; communication

59

Chimps do not develop __ and do not have our facility for __

language; language

60

__ alone possess language if by language we mean verbal or signed expression of complex grammar; if we mean the ability to communicate through a meaningful sequence of symbols, then __ are indeed capable of language

Humans; apes

61

__ exhibit insight, show family loyalty, communicate with one another, display altruism, transmit cultural patterns across generations, and comprehend the syntax of human speech

Primates