Flashcards in Chapter 1 Key Terms Deck (35):

1

## the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have forseen it

### hindsight bias(i knew it all along phenomenon)

2

## thinking we know more than we do

### overconfidence

3

## thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. rather it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assess conclusions

### critical thinking

4

## an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events

### theory

5

## a testable prediction, often implied by a theory

### hypothesis

6

## a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables

### operational definition

7

## repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

### replication

8

## an observation technique in which on person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

### case study

9

## a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them

### survey

10

## the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors

### false consensus effect

11

## all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study

### population

12

## a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

### random sample

13

## observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

### naturalistic observation

14

## a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other

### correlation

15

## the mathematical expression of the correlation relationship, ranging from -1 to +1

### correlation coefficient

16

## a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. the slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation

### scatterplot

17

## the perception of a relationship where none exists

### illusory correlation

18

## a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process

### experiment

19

## an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo

### double-blind procedure

20

## experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent

### placebo effect

21

## the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment

### experimental condition

22

## the condition of an experiment that serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment

### control condition

23

## assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to different groups

### random assignment

24

## the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

### independent variable

25

## the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the other variable

### dependent variable

26

## 3 measures of central tendency

### mode, mean, median

27

## the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

### mode

28

## the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores

### mean

29

## the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it

### median

30

## 2 measures of variation

### range, standard deviation

31

## the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

### range

32

## a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

### standard deviation

33

## a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

### statistical significance

34

## the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

### culture

35