Chapter 1 Key Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Key Terms Deck (35):
1

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have forseen it

hindsight bias(i knew it all along phenomenon)

2

thinking we know more than we do

overconfidence

3

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. rather it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assess conclusions

critical thinking

4

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events

theory

5

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory

hypothesis

6

a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables

operational definition

7

repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

replication

8

an observation technique in which on person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

case study

9

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them

survey

10

the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors

false consensus effect

11

all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study

population

12

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

random sample

13

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

naturalistic observation

14

a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other

correlation

15

the mathematical expression of the correlation relationship, ranging from -1 to +1

correlation coefficient

16

a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. the slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation

scatterplot

17

the perception of a relationship where none exists

illusory correlation

18

a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process

experiment

19

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo

double-blind procedure

20

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent

placebo effect

21

the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment

experimental condition

22

the condition of an experiment that serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment

control condition

23

assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to different groups

random assignment

24

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

independent variable

25

the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the other variable

dependent variable

26

3 measures of central tendency

mode, mean, median

27

the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

mode

28

the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores

mean

29

the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it

median

30

2 measures of variation

range, standard deviation

31

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

range

32

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

standard deviation

33

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

statistical significance

34

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

culture

35

3 parts of the scientific attitude

curiosity, skepticism, humility