Chapter 11 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (82):
1

__ is a socially constructed concept and not a “thing”

Intelligence

2

When referring to IQ we commit a reasoning error called __

reification

3

__ __Mostly affects males, who also may have autism

Savant Syndrome

4

__ __ scores predict performance on various complex tasks, jobs & longevity

General intelligence

5

All forms of intelligence have __ value; __ places greater values on some capacities

intrinsic
culture

6

__ intelligent people are self-aware; enjoy higher-quality __ with friends; can __ __ in pursuit of long-range rewards; are __ smart

Emotionally
interactions
delay gratification
emotionally

7

__ in everyday living requires much that traditional intelligence tests don’t measure

Competence

8

Brain areas supporting __ thinking tested by intelligence tests differ from those supporting the __ thinking that imagines multiple possible answers to a problem

convergent
divergent

9

Five components of creativity beyond a minimal level of aptitude

expertise, imaginative thinking skills, a venturesome personality, Intrinsic motivation, and a creative environment

10

Creative environments free people from concern about __ __

social approval

11

MRI scans do reveal correlation of +.40 between brain size and __ __

intelligence score

12

Intelligence is due to the development of __ __ in response to the environment

neural connections

13

Highly educated people die with more __ than less educated people

synapses

14

Highly intelligent people have more __ __ (ability to develop new neural connections)

neural plasticity

15

Different __ __ compete for the brain’s real estate

mental functions

16

__ __ just above outer edge of eyebrows is a spot where info from various brain areas seem to converge and is very active

Frontal lobe area

17

Verbal intelligence scores are predictable from the __ with which people retrieve info from memory

speed

18

Correlation between intelligence score and __ of taking in perceptual info is +.4 to +.5

speed

19

Those who __ quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests

perceive

20

Highly intelligent people’s brain waves register a simple __ more quickly and with greater complexity; evoked brain response is slightly __ when they perform a simple task

stimulus
faster

21

People who more quickly __ __ accumulate more info

process info

22

Binet assumed all children follow the same course of __ development but some develop more rapidly

intellectual

23

To measure __ __, Binet developed varied reasoning and problem solving questions that might predict school achievement using mental __

mental age
aptitude

24

Binet said the only purpose of the test was to identify schoolchildren needing __ __

special attention

25

To raise low scoring children’s capacities, Binet recommended __ __, which would train them to develop their attention span and self discipline

mental orthopedics

26

Today’s intelligence tests produce a __ __ score based on the test-taker’s performance relative to the average performance of others the same age

mental ability

27

Terman’s motive was to take account the inequalities of children in original endowment by assessing their __ __

vocational fitness

28

Achieved vocab influences __ test scores; aptitudes for learning and test-taking influence __ test scores

aptitude
achievement

29

Both aptitude and achievement test asses both __ and its __

ability
development

30

__ test predict future performance; __ tests assess current performance

Aptitude
achievement

31

What does the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) yield?

Yields an overall intelligence score, as well as separate scores for verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory, and processing speed

32

Psychological tests must be __, __, and __

standardized, reliable, and valid

33

College entrance aptitude scores have been __

decreasing

34

The higher the correlation b/w test-retest or split-half scores, the higher the test’s __

reliability

35

The predictive power of aptitude scores __ as students move up the education ladder

diminishes

36

When we validate a test using a wide range of people but then use it with a restricted range of people, it loses much of its __ __

predictive validity

37

No measures on __ provide any useful prediction of intelligence scores at much later ages

infants

38

By age 4, children’s performance on intelligence tests begins to __ their adolescent and adult scores

predict

39

high-scoring adolescents tend to have been __ __

early readers

40

At age 5, intelligence tests begin to predict __ __

school achievement

41

After age 7, intelligence test scores __; __ of scores increases with child’s age

stabilize
consistency

42

__ outnumber __ by 50% for mental retardation; many can, with support, live in __ society

Males
females
mainstream

43

Children with __ retardation are educated in less restrictive environments and many are integrated (mainstreamed) into regular classrooms

mild

44

Level: Mild
Intelligence score:
Adaptation to Demands of Life:

50-70
May learn academic skills up to 6th grade level; adults may, with assistance, achieve self-supporting social and vocational skills

45

Level: Moderate
Intelligence score:
Adaptation to Demands of Life:

35-50
May progress to 2nd grade level academically; adults may contribute to their own support by laboring in sheltered workshops

46

Level: Severe
Intelligence score:
Adaptation to Demands of Life:

20-35
May learn to talk and to perform simple work tasks under close supervision but are generally unable to profit from vocational training

47

Level: Profound
Intelligence score:
Adaptation to Demands of Life:

Below 20
Require constant aid and supervision

48

__ __ scoring children were unusually successful academically, healthy, and well adjusted

High IQ

49

Children with __ __ __ are sometimes more isolated, introverted, and in their own worlds, but most thrive

extraordinary academic gifts

50

Tracking by aptitude sometimes creates a __-__ prophecy: those implicitly labeled “ungifted” can be influenced to become so

self-fulfilling

51

__ runs in families

Intelligence

52

About 50%-75% of intelligence score variation can be attributed to __ __

genetic variation

53

__ __ have very similar gray matter volume, and their brains are virtually the same in areas associated with verbal and spatial reasoning

Identical twins

54

Gene in mouse helped create a neural __ involved in memory

receptor

55

As we accumulate life experience, __ influences - not __ ones, become apparent

genetic
environmental

56

We can attribute to __ 50% of the variation in intelligence

heredity

57

If environments become more equal, the __ of intelligence would increase

heritability

58

Our __ shape the experiences that shape us

genes

59

__ __ bludgeons native intelligence; infants in a program of “__ __ __” showed dramatic improvement from their deprived condition

Extreme deprivation
tutored human enrichment

60

Schools with poverty-level children had less qualified __, and lower __ scores

teachers
achievement

61

__ affects cognitive development; improving __ increases intelligence scores

Malnutrition
nutrition

62

No __ recipe for superbabies, just normal exposure to sights, sounds, and speech

environmental

63

Quality programs, offering individual attention, __ children’s school readiness

increase

64

__ and __ contribute to each other and that both enhance later income

Schooling and intelligence

65

__ intelligence is conducive to prolonged schooling; __ scores drop over summer

High
intelligence

66

__ groups differ in their average scores on intelligence tests

Racial

67

__-__ people (and groups) are more likely to attain high levels of education and income

High-scoring

68

Group differences in a heritable trait may be entirely __

environmental

69

__ are remarkably alike, and __ is not a neatly defined biological category

Races
race

70

Race is primarily a __ __ without well-defined physical boundaries

social construction

71

Asian students outperform North American students on __ achievement and aptitude tests

math

72

__ rise and fall over centuries; it’s difficult to attribute a natural __ to any race

Cultures
superiority

73

__ __ see a dramatic increase in average aptitude scores in college because they receive a comparable quality of education

African Americans

74

better spellers, more verbally fluent, more capable of remembering words, better memory for locating objects, more sensitive, better at math computation, and better emotion detectors

girls

75

more likely to be underachievers, score higher in math problem solving tests, and have better spatial ability

boys

76

There is __ and __ influences on gender differences in life priorities, and risk taking

biological and social

77

Defenders of aptitude testing do not believe in blaming the test for a group’s __ __

low scores

78

They believe the aptitude test will detect __ with past experiences and future achievements

inequalities

79

Scientific meaning of bias hinges on whether a test is less __ for some groups than others and whether it __ __ behavior only for some groups of test-takers

valid
predicts future

80

If you tell students they probably won’t succeed, this __ will eventually erode their performance both on aptitude tests and in school

stereotype

81

Aptitude tests are __ in the sense that sensitivity to performance differences is caused by cultural experience

biased

82

Intelligence test scores reflect only one aspect of __ __

personal competence