Chapter 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (74):
1

In forming ___, you must select, process, store, and retrieve information

memories

2

Complex thinking: __ lobe active; Working memory: __ and __ lobe active

frontalparietal and temporal

3

Automatic processing: (incidental information)__: visualize location where certain material appears__: unintentionally note the sequence of the day’s events, and retrace your steps__: effortlessly keep track of how many times things happen

SpaceTimeFrequency

4

Brains’ __ processing helps processing go on without our need to pay attention to it

parallel

5

The amount remembered depends on the __ spent learning

time

6

After we learn material, additional rehearsal (overlearning) __ retention

increases

7

Information presented in the __ before sleep is well remembered

hour

8

Restudying material for comprehensive final exams will enhance __ retention

lifelong

9

Our memory system processes information by __ its significant features

encoding

10

Process info in three key ways: __ its meaning, its __, and by mentally __ it

encodingimageorganizing

11

We tend not to remember things exactly as they were; we remember what we __

encoded

12

Processing a word __ produces better recognition of it at a later time than __

semanticallyvisually

13

Learning meaningful material required __ of the effort as nonsense material

one-tenth

14

Information deemed relevant to me is processed more __ and remains more __

deeplyaccessible

15

Remember __ words lend themselves to imagery more than __, no imagery words

concreteabstract

16

Memory for concrete nouns is aided by encoding them both __ and __

semantically and visually

17

Remember info best when we can organize it into __ meaningful arrangements

personally

18

People develop an expertise in an area, they process info in __ but also in __ composed of few broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts

chunkshierarchies

19

We retrieve info efficiently by organizing knowledge in __

hierarchies

20

Without active processing, __ memories have a limited life

short-term

21

Short-term memory stores __ or so bits of info

seven

22

Short-term recall is slightly better for random __ than random __

digitsletters

23

At any given moment, we can __ process only a very limited amount of information

consciously

24

Our capacity for storing __ memories is essentially limitless

long-term

25

Our whole past is in complete detail, just waiting to be relived in the brain’s __

memory

26

We do not seem to store most information with the __ of a tape recorder

exactness

27

Given increased activity in a particular pathway, neural interconnections __ or __

form or strengthen

28

Increased __ efficiency makes for more efficient neural circuits

synaptic

29

Drugs that block __ interfere with learning; Developing drugs that boost production of the protein __, which can switch genes on and off (genes code production of proteins)

LTPCREB

30

With repeated neural firing, a nerve cell’s genes produce ___ proteins, enabling long-term memories to form

synapse-strengthening

31

Develop drugs to boost __, neurotransmitter that enhances synaptic communication

glutamate

32

Passing an electric current through the brain won’t disrupt __ memories, but will wipe out very __ memories

oldrecent

33

Stress hormones make more __ available to fuel brain activity

glucose

34

__ boost activity in the brain’s memory forming areas

Amygdala

35

__ can sear certain events into the brain, while disrupting memory for neutral events

Arousal

36

Stronger emotional experiences make for __, more __ memories

strongerreliable

37

When prolonged, __ can corrode neural connections and shrink the __, that is vital for laying down memories

stresshippocampus

38

Although incapable of recalling new facts or anything they have done recently, people with amnesia can __.They do all these things with no awareness of having __ them

learnlearned

39

People with amnesia show __ memory but not __ memory

implicitexplicit

40

People with __ hippocampus damage have trouble remembering verbal information while those with __ side damage have trouble recalling visual designs and locations

leftright

41

__ memories remain intact even if people lose their hippocampus to surgery or disease

Older

42

The longer the hippocampus and its pathway to the cortex are left intact after training, the __ the memory deficit

smaller

43

The __ acts as a loading dock to register and temporarily store explicit memories

hippocampus

44

__ memories require fewer connections among cortical storage areas; people can still lay down memories for skills and conditioned associations if __ is damaged

Implicithippocampus

45

__ plays a key role in forming and storing implicit memories created by classical conditioning

Cerebellum

46

We remember more than we can __; __ memory is impressively quick and fast

recallrecognition

47

Memories are held in storage by a web of associations, each piece of info is __

interconnected

48

When you encode into memory a target piece of info, you __ it with other bits of info

associate

49

More retrieval cues you have, __ chance of finding a route to the suspended memory

better

50

Best retrieval cues come from __ formed at the time we encode a memory

associations

51

You can recall information better when you are in the same __ you encoded the thought in

context

52

Past events may arouse specific emotions that later can __ us to recall its associated event

prime

53

We associate good or bad events with accompanying emotions, which become __ __

retrieval cues

54

Three sins of forgetting__: inattention to details produces encoding failure__: storage decay over time__: inaccessibility of stored information

Absent-mindednessTransienceBlocking

55

Three sins of distortion__: confusing the source of information__: the lingering effects of misinformation__: belief-colored recollections

MisattributionSuggestibilityBias

56

One sin of intrusion __: unwanted memories

Persistence

57

We cannot remember what we fail to encode b/c the info never enters __ memory

long-term

58

We encode some info automatically while other info require __ processing

effortful

59

What we learn, we may quickly __; course of forgetting is initially __, then __ __ w/ time

forgetrapidlevels off

60

Memories fade because of the __ of other learning that disrupts our retrieval

accumulation

61

We sometimes __ the info needed to look up a memory and retrieve it

lack

62

People unknowingly __ their own histories

revise

63

We infer our past from __ __ plus what we now __

stored infoassume

64

As memory fades with time following an event, injection of __ becomes easier

misinformation

65

As we recount an experience, we fill in memory gaps with plausible __ and __

guesses and assumptions

66

People’s initial interpretations influence their __ memories

perceptual

67

Memories we derive from experience have more __ than those derived from imagination

detail

68

We more easily remember the __ than the words themselves

gist

69

Most confident and consistent eyewitnesses are the most __, but not most __

persuasiveaccurate

70

To activate retrieval cues, detective first asks witnesses to visualize __; 50% more accurate

scene

71

If questioned about experiences in neutral words, kids often __ recall what happened

accurately

72

Memories “recovered” under __ or the influence of __ are especially unreliable

hypnosisdrugs

73

The most common response to a traumatic experience is not banishment of the experience into the __; such experiences are etched on the mind as __ memories

unconsciousnessvivid

74

Describe the Atkinson-Shriffrin Model

1) stimuli are recorded by our senses and held briefly in sensory memory2) some of this info is processed into short-term memory and encoded through rehearsal3) info then moves into long-term memory where it can be retrieved later