Chapter 2 Key Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Key Terms Deck (96)
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1

Ill fated theory created by Franz Gall that claimed bumps on skull could reveal mental abilities and character traits

phrenology

2

a branch of psychology concerned with the links b/w biology and behavior

biological psychology

3

a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system. consists of a cell body and its branching fibers

neuron

4

bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages & conduct impulses toward the cell body

dendrite

5

the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands

axon

6

__ speak, __ listen

axondendrites

7

layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next

myelin sheath

8

disorder where myelin sheath degenerates

multiple sclerosis

9

a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane

action potential

10

electrically charged atoms

ions

11

positive-outside/negative-inside

resting potential

12

selective about what it allows in

selectively permeable

13

positive ions flood through membrane to negative inside of axon

depolarizes

14

resting pause where neuron pumps positively charge ions back outside

refractory period

15

pushing a neuron's accelerator

excitatory signal

16

pushing a neuron's brake

inhibitory signal

17

level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

threshold

18

neurons fire or they don't

all-or-none response

19

the junction b/w the axon tip of the sending neuron & the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

synapse

20

tiny gap at the synapse junction

synaptic gap (cleft)

21

chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps b/w neurons. when released by sending neuron, they travel across the synapse & bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse

neurotransmitters

22

sending neuron normally reabsorbs excess neurotransmitter molecules

reuptake

23

neurotransmitter that enables learning & memory and also triggers muscle contraction

Acetylcholine (ACh)

24

disease where ACh producing neurons deteriorate

Alzheimer's disease

25

neurotransmitter that influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion

dopamine

26

neurotransmitter that affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal

serotonin

27

neurotransmitter that helps control alertness and arousal

norepinephrine

28

major inhibitory neurotransmitter

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

29

major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in memory

glutamate

30

excess dopamine linked to __, starved of dopamine linked to ___ ___

schizophreniaParkinson's disease