Chapter 2 Key Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Key Terms Deck (96):
1

Ill fated theory created by Franz Gall that claimed bumps on skull could reveal mental abilities and character traits

phrenology

2

a branch of psychology concerned with the links b/w biology and behavior

biological psychology

3

a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system. consists of a cell body and its branching fibers

neuron

4

bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages & conduct impulses toward the cell body

dendrite

5

the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands

axon

6

__ speak, __ listen

axondendrites

7

layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next

myelin sheath

8

disorder where myelin sheath degenerates

multiple sclerosis

9

a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane

action potential

10

electrically charged atoms

ions

11

positive-outside/negative-inside

resting potential

12

selective about what it allows in

selectively permeable

13

positive ions flood through membrane to negative inside of axon

depolarizes

14

resting pause where neuron pumps positively charge ions back outside

refractory period

15

pushing a neuron's accelerator

excitatory signal

16

pushing a neuron's brake

inhibitory signal

17

level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

threshold

18

neurons fire or they don't

all-or-none response

19

the junction b/w the axon tip of the sending neuron & the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

synapse

20

tiny gap at the synapse junction

synaptic gap (cleft)

21

chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps b/w neurons. when released by sending neuron, they travel across the synapse & bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse

neurotransmitters

22

sending neuron normally reabsorbs excess neurotransmitter molecules

reuptake

23

neurotransmitter that enables learning & memory and also triggers muscle contraction

Acetylcholine (ACh)

24

disease where ACh producing neurons deteriorate

Alzheimer's disease

25

neurotransmitter that influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion

dopamine

26

neurotransmitter that affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal

serotonin

27

neurotransmitter that helps control alertness and arousal

norepinephrine

28

major inhibitory neurotransmitter

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

29

major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in memory

glutamate

30

excess dopamine linked to __, starved of dopamine linked to ___ ___

schizophreniaParkinson's disease

31

"morphine-within" natural opiate like neurotransmitter linked to pain control and to pleasure

endorphins

32

excite; can mimic neurotransmitter's effects or block its reuptake

agonists

33

inhibit neurotransmitter's release, or occupy its receptor site & block its effect, but not similar enough to stimulate the receptor

antagonists

34

enables brain to fence out unwanted chemicals circulating in the blood

blood-brain barrier

35

poison that occupies & blocks ACh receptor sites involved in muscle movement

curare

36

the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral & central nervous systems

nervous system

37

the brain and spinal cord

central nervous system (CNS)

38

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

39

neural "cables" containing many axons; these bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system. connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

nerves

40

neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system

sensory neurons

41

neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands

motor neurons

42

central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene b/w the sensory inputs and motor outputs

interneurons

43

the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles

somatic nervous system

44

the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs

autonomic nervous system

45

the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

sympathetic nervous system

46

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

parasympathetic nervous system

47

a simple, autonomic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus

reflex

48

interconnected neural cells. w/ experience, can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results

neural network

49

the body's slow chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

endocrine system

50

chemical messengers, mostly those manufactures by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue & affect another

hormones

51

affects metabolism, among other things

thyroid gland

52

helps regulate the level of calcium in the blood

parathyroids

53

regulates the level of sugar in the blood

pancreas

54

secretes female sex hormones

ovary

55

secretes male sex hormones

testis

56

a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys; secrete the hormones epinephrine (___) and norepinephrine (___), which help to arouse the body in times of stress

adrenal glandsadrenalinenoradrenaline

57

the endocrine system's most influential gland. under the influence of the hypothalamus, it regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands

pituitary gland

58

a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue

lesion

59

an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface; these waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

60

visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

PET (position emission tomography) scan

61

technique that uses magnetic fields & radiowaves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

62

a technique for revealing blood flow & therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans

fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging)

63

oldest part & central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; responsible for automatic survival functions

brainstem

64

the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat & breathing

medulla

65

just above the medulla which helps coordinate movements

pons

66

a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal

reticular formation

67

brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex & transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

thalamus

68

the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing sensory input & coordinating movement output & balance

cerebellum

69

a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem & cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear & aggression, & drives such as those for food & sex. includes the hippocampus (process memory), amygdala, and hypothalamus

limbic system

70

two lima bean sized neural clusters that are components of the limbic system & are linked to emotion (rage & fear)

amygdala

71

a neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland & is linked to emotion

hypothalamus

72

the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; body's ultimate control & information processing center

cerebral cortex

73

cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, & protect neurons; may also play a role in learning and thinking

glial cells

74

geographic subdivisons of the brain

lobes

75

folds on the brain

fissures

76

the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking & muscle movements & in making plans & judgements

frontal lobes

77

the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head & toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position

parietal lobes

78

the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field

occipital lobe

79

the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear

temporal lobes

80

brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) & in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development

plasticity

81

large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres & carrying messages b/w them

corpus callosum

82

condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) b/w them

split brain

83

hemispheric specialization

lateralization

84

who found in 1993 that as age increases, lefthanders decrease?

Coren

85

in the 1960s, the left hemisphere was described as __ and the right hemisphere as __

dominant (major)subordinate (minor)

86

most severed neurons will not regenerate, but some neural tissue can __ in response to __

reorganizedamage

87

an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

motor cortex

88

the area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers & processes body touch & movement sensations

sensory cortex

89

areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they're involved in higher mental functions such as learning, thinking, and speaking

association areas

90

impairment of language, usually created by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area or to Wernicke's area

aphasia

91

controls language expression- an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech

Broca's area

92

controls language reception- a brain area involved in language comprehension & expression; usually in the left temporal lobe

Wernicke's area

93

transforms visual representations into an auditory code

angular gyrus

94

more sensitive body regions have __ area of the sensory cortex devoted to it

larger

95

genetically disposed deficiency in the natural brain systems for pleasure & well-being that leads people to crave whatever provides that missing pleasure or relieves negative feelings

reward deficiency syndrome

96

part of brain with increased activity associated with lying

anterior cingulate cortex