Chapter 4 Key Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Key Terms Deck (53):
1

branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifespan

developmental psychology

2

fertilized egg; enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

zygote

3

developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the 2nd month

embryo

4

the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

fetus

5

agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

teratogens

6

physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking; in severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

7

a baby’s tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple

rooting reflex

8

decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation; as infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner

habituation

9

biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience

maturation

10

Earliest memories seldom predate 3rd birthday

infantile amnesia

11

a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

schema

12

interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas

assimilation

13

adapting one’s current understanding (schemas) to incorporate new information

accomodation

14

all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

cognition

15

the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

sensorimotor stage

16

the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

object permanence

17

the stage (from about 2 to 6-7 years old) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic

preoperational stage

18

the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

conservation

19

the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view

egocentrism

20

people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states – about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict

theory of mind

21

disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others’ states of mind

autism

22

normal intelligence, exceptional skill in one area, deficient social skills

Asperger syndrome

23

stage of cognitive development (from 6-7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

concrete operational stage

24

stage of cognitive development (beginning at age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

formal operational stage

25

fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months old

stranger anxiety

26

emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation

attachment

27

optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development

critical period

28

process which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life

imprinting

29

to Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers

basic trust

30

a sense of one’s identity and personal worth

self-concept

31

impose rules and expect obedience; kids have less social skill and self esteem

authoritarian parents

32

submit to children’s desires w/ few demands and few punishments; kids become immature and aggressive

permissive parents

33

demanding and responsive; kids high self-esteem, self-reliance, competence

authoritative parents

34

transition period from childhood to adulthood, extends from puberty to independence

adolescence

35

period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

puberty

36

body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible

primary sex characteristics

37

nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as females breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair

secondary sex characteristics

38

first menstrual period

menarche

39

first ejaculation, usually is a nocturnal emission

Spermarche

40

thinking that occurs as we consider right and wrong

moral reasoning

41

Before age 9, obey either to avoid punishment or to gain rewards

preconventional morality

42

Early adolescence, care for others and upholds law and social rules

conventional morality

43

affirms people’s agreed upon rights or follows what one sees as basic ethical principles (some don’t ever reach this stage)

postconventional morality

44

one’s sense of self; adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles

identity

45

the ability to form close, loving relationships; primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood

intimacy

46

the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines (around age 50, reduces estrogen)

menopause

47

progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and, finally, physical functioning

Alzheimer's disease

48

study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

cross-sectional study

49

research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period

longitudinal study

50

one’s accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age

crystallized intelligence

51

one’s ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease in late adulthood

fluid intelligence

52

culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, & retirement

social clock

53

feeling that one’s life has been meaningful and worthwhile

integrity