Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

AP Psych > Chapter 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (61):
1

Three major issues developmental psychology is centered on

1) nature/nurture2) continuity/stages3) stability/change

2

sperm that reach egg release __ __ that eat the egg's __ covering

digestive enzymesprotective

3

once sperm enters egg, egg __ other sperm from entering

blocks

4

10 days: cells attach to uterine wall forming the __

placenta

5

milestone of zygote stage

cells differentiate into specialized locations and structures

6

milestone of embryo stage

differentiated cells develop into organs and bones

7

can respond to, recognize, and adapt to sounds

fetuses

8

babies gaze more at __ and objects that are __ - __ inches away from face

faces8-12

9

to recognize a new stimulus as different, the infant must remember the __ stimulus

initial

10

__ __ are last to develop that are pathways supporting language and agility

association areas

11

__ __ helps our motor development, __ has limited effects

biological maturationexperience

12

as the brain cortex matures, toddlers gain a sense of __, __ __ storage increases

selflong term

13

__ are systemizers__ are empathizers

boysgirls

14

arithmetic transformations, includes analogies

concrete operations

15

allegorical thinking, includes algebra

formal operations

16

Body contact provides a safe __ and secure __

havenbase

17

less likely to explore surroundings, cling to mom; insensitive, unresponsive

insecure attachment

18

explore environment with mom; sensitive, responsive

secure attachment

19

most abusive parents were __ as kids

abused

20

deprivation of attachment decreases amount of __ which calms aggressive impulses

serotonin

21

all children need is a __, __ relationship with people whom they can __

consistent, warmtrust

22

teens are able to detect __ in others' reasoning and spot __

inconsistencieshypocrisy

23

What are the 3 stages of Kohlberg's moral reasoning?

preconventional moralityconventional moralityPostconventional morality

24

moral __ precede moral __.moral __ is more than thinking

feelingsreasoningjudgement

25

morality involves doing the __ __. those who learn __ __ are more successful. moral __ feeds moral __.

right thingdelay gratificationaction, attitudes

26

Erikson's stages of development: Infancy Issue- __ vs __needs are dependably met, develop sense of basic trust

Trust vs Mistrust

27

Erikson's stages of development: toddlerhood Issue- __ vs __. exercise will and do things for themselves or doubt their abilities

Autonomy vs shame & doubt

28

Erikson's stages of development: Preschooler Issue- __ vs __. initiate tasks and carry out plans or feel guilty about efforts to be independent

initiative vs guilt

29

Erikson's stages of development: elementary school Issue- __ vs __. pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or feel inferior

competence vs inferiority

30

Erikson's stages of development: adolescence Issue- __ vs __. work at refining sense of self by testing roles to form a single identity, or confused about who they are

identity vs. role confusion

31

Erikson's stages of development: young adulthood Issue- __ vs __. struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or feel socially isolated

intimacy vs isolation

32

Erikson's stages of development: middle adulthood Issue- __ vs __. discover sense of contribution to the world, through family and work or feel lack of purpose

generativity vs. stagnation

33

Erikson's stages of development: late adulthood Issue- __ vs __. reflecting on life and feel sense of satisfaction or failure

integrity vs despair

34

time of diminishing parental influence and growing peer influence

adolescence

35

physical vigor has less to do with __ than with a person's __ and __ habits

agehealthexercise

36

Life expectancy:1950 - __2004 - __, some beyond __

4967, 80

37

__ becoming a larger population, __ are more prone to dying than __

elderlymalesfemales

38

as you get older, the elderly less suffer __ __ ailments, but disease fighting __ __ weakens

short termimmune system

39

brain regions important to __ decrease during aging; __ helps brain cell development

memoryexercise

40

progressive damage to the brain causing mental erosion

dementia

41

elderly people's ability to remember things depends on if their told to __ (minimal decline) or __ w/o clues (greater decline)

recognizerecall

42

emotional instability does not peak during __ __

midlife crisis

43

What 2 things dominate life?

intimacy: form close relationshipsgenerativity: productive and supportive

44

cohabiting before marriage results in __ divorce and marital __ in the future

higherdysfunction

45

__ look at things one failed to do than mistakes made

regrets

46

elderly report __ amount of happiness and satisfaction with life as younger people do

equal

47

grieving short lived when it comes __ in lifegrieving is severe when death comes __

latersuddenly

48

first __ years of life provide a poor basis for predicting a person's eventual traits

2

49

__ is more stable than social attitudes; social attitudes become more stable with __

temperamentage

50

1) enables us to depend on others, provide an identity, motivate our concerns2) motivates our concerns about present influences, sustain hope for the future, and lets us adapt and grow with experience

1) stability2) change

51

brain forms memories so differently from episodic memory of adulthood that most people can't recall memories from the first 3 years of life

infantile amnesia

52

Describe the origins of attachment

physical affection and comfortable body contact not based on being rewarded with food

53

Describe Mary Ainsworth "strange situation"

Mom an infant placed in unfamiliar room. Child explores room as mom sits. Stranger enters room, talks to mom, stranger approaches child, and mom leaves. After a few moments, mom returns.

54

Ainsworth experiment:felt distress when mom leaves, seek contact with her when she returns

secure attachment

55

Ainsworth experiment:cling to mom, less likely to explore environment, may get loudly upset with mother's departure and remain upset when she returns

insecure attachment (anxious style)

56

Ainsworth experiment:seeming indifferent to mother's departure and return

insecure attachment (avoidant style)

57

What did Erik Erikson believe basic trust is established by?

relationships with early caregivers

58

__ may understand risks and consequences, but give more weight to potential __ & __

adolescentsrisks and consequences

59

Teens have developed a __ __, but are not in the habit of using the brakes

mental accelerator

60

tips at end of chromosomes that wear down with every generation of cell duplication

telomeres

61

When do humans reach a peak in the natural physical abilities?

mid 20s