Chapter 7 Key Terms Flashcards Preview

AP Psych > Chapter 7 Key Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 7 Key Terms Deck (65):
1

our awareness of ourselves and our environment

consciousness

2

our minds take deliberate actions we know we are doing

conscious "high" track

3

our minds perform automatic actions, often w/o being aware of them

unconscious "low" track

4

info about yourself and environment of which you are currently aware

conscious level

5

body processes controlled by your mind that we are not aware of

non-conscious level

6

info about yourself and environment that you’re not currently thinking about, but could be

preconscious level

7

info that we are not consciously aware of, but we know must exist due to behavior

subconscious level

8

houses events/feelings unacceptable to the conscious mind and are repressed, yet still influence behavior or make its presence known in dreams

unconscious level

9

periodic physiological fluctuations

biological rhythms

10

experience seasonal variations in appetite, sleep length, and moods

annual cycles

11

depressed mood during winter dark months (especially far north)

seasonal affective disorder

12

fluctuating moods during female menstrual cycle

28-day cycles

13

varying alertness, body temperatures, and growth hormone secretion

24-hour cycles

14

moving through various stages of sleep

90-minute cycles

15

the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (ex: temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle

circadian rhythm

16

pair of pinhead-sized 20000 cell clusters controlling circadian clock

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

17

a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur; AKA paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active

REM (rapid eye movement) sleep

18

the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state

alpha waves

19

periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness- as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation

sleep

20

false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus

hallucinations

21

sensation of falling where your body will suddenly jerk, or floating

hypnagogic sensations

22

bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain wave activity

sleep spindles

23

the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep

delta waves

24

impotence; having morning erections

erectile dysfunction

25

recurring problems in falling or staying asleep

insomnia

26

a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks; the sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times

narcolepsy

27

a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings

sleep apnea

28

a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, they occur during Stage 4 sleep, within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered

night terrors

29

Stage 4 sleep disorders most prone to children

sleepwalking and sleeptalking

30

sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through sleeping person’s mind

dream

31

sufficiently aware during a dream to wonder whether you are dreaming

lucid dreams

32

according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content)

manifest content

33

according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content); believed it functions as a safety valve

latent content

34

the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)

REM rebound

35

Explanation: provides a psychic safety valve- expressing otherwise unacceptable feelings; contain manifest content and a deeper layer of latent content

Freud's Wish fulfillment theory

36

Explanation: Dreams help us sort out the day’s events and consolidate our memories

Information processing theory

37

Explanation: Regular brain stimulation from REM sleep may help develop and preserve neural pathways

physiological function theory

38

Explanation: REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random visual memories, which our sleeping brain weaves into stories

activation-synthesis theory

39

Explanation: Dream content reflects dreamers’ cognitive development- their knowledge and understanding

Cognitive theory

40

a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur

hypnosis

41

suggestion made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors

posthypnotic suggestion

42

a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others

dissociation

43

hypnosis has caused a split in awareness

divided-consciousness theory

44

subject is so caught up in the hypnotized role that she ignores the odor

social-influence theory

45

a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods

psychoactive drugs

46

the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug’s effect

tolerance

47

the brain adapts its chemistry to offset the drug effect

neuroadaptation

48

the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug

withdrawal

49

a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued

physical dependence

50

a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions

psychological dependence

51

compulsive drug craving and use

addiction

52

drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions

depressants

53

drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment

barbiturates (tranquilizer)

54

opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety

opiates

55

drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions

stimulants

56

drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes

amphetamines

57

a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels

methamphetamine

58

synthetic stimulant & mild hallucinogen; produces euphoria & social intimacy, but with short-term health risks & longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons & to mood and cognition

Ecstasy (MDMA)

59

psychedelic (”mind-manifesting”) drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input

hallucinogens

60

a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide)

LSD

61

the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations

THC

62

addictive chemicals commandeer and boost its activity

dopamine reward circuit

63

an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations

near-death experience

64

the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact

dualism

65

the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing

monism