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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (57):
1

Do not directly guide our behavior

genes

2

Every human shares about __ % of the same DNA, but __ % difference makes you, you

99.9%.1%

3

In extraversion (outgoingness) & neuroticism (emotional instability), __ twins are much more similar than __ twins

identicalfraternal

4

Jim Springer and Jim Lewis were identical twins who were separated at birth & adopted by different families. Virtually alike with __, __, __, __, & __

personality, intelligence, heart rate, brain waves, and voices

5

People grown up together (biologically or not) don’t much resemble one another in __

personality

6

Adoptees’ traits bear more similarities to their __ parents than their __ parents

biologicaladoptive

7

__ factors shared by a family’s children have virtually no impact on personality

Environmental

8

__ do influence children’s attitudes, values, manners, faith, and politics

Parents

9

Biologically rooted __ helps form our enduring personality

temperament

10

__ refers to the extent to which differences among people are attributable to genes

Heritability

11

The more __ environments are, heredity as a source of differences becomes important

similar

12

Heritable __ differences need not imply heritable __ differences

individualgroup

13

__ respond to environments and are self-regulating

Genes

14

human differences are nearly always the result of both __ and __ influences

geneticenvironmental

15

Goal of __ __: find some of the many genes that influence normal human traits. Seek link b/w certain genes or chromosome segments and specific disorders

molecular genetics

16

When certain traits are selected (by reproductive advantage), those traits will __ over time

prevail

17

Our adaptive flexibility to environments contribute to our __: ability to survive & reproduce

fitness

18

we are __ prepared for a world that no longer exists

biologically

19

__ are more likely than females to initiate sexual activity

Males

20

Casual, impulsive sex is most frequent among __ with traditional __ attitudes

malesmasculine

21

__ have lower threshold for perceiving warm responses as a sexual come-on. __ more often than __ attribute a __ friendliness to sexual interest

MenMenwomenwoman’s

22

Woman normally incubate & nurse __ __ , while males spread genes to other __

one infantfemales

23

Men believe __ looking women are more attractive

youthful

24

Women are attracted to __, __, __, & __ males

mature, dominant, bold, and affluent

25

__ are greater risk takers; have genetic tradeoff b/w distributing one’s genes or co-parenting

men

26

__ __ reassure that the sexes are more alike than different & humans have a great capacity for learning and social progress

Evolutionary psychologists

27

Problem with evolutionary perspective

starts with an effect and works backward to propose an explanation

28

__ helps develop our brain’s neural connections

Experience

29

Rosenzweig and Krech: studied rats in impoverished and enriched environments, and looked at brain cortex size __ with better environment

increase

30

Stimulation of touch or massage __ infants (gain __ & develop __ rapidly)

benefitsweightneurologically

31

Child’s enriched environment activates and preserves __. As a child, excess __ are still on call and it's easier to learn new things

connectionsconnections

32

Power of family environment is __ in children’s attitudes, beliefs, manners, & success

evident

33

Shared environment among children account for less than __% of differences in personality

10%

34

__ to group influences to establish ourselves and be accepted in different groups

Subject

35

If everyone lived in homogeneous ethnic groups, cultural diversity would be less __

relevant

36

Cultures vary in __, __ & __

expressiveness, pace of life, and punctuality

37

Cannot explain __ changes by changes in human gene pool which evolves far too slowly to account for high-speed __ transformations

culturalcultural

38

Concept: SelfIndividualism:Collectivism:

Individualism: independentCollectivism: interdependent

39

Concept: Life taskIndividualism:Collectivism:

Individualism: express one's uniquenessCollectivism: keep connections, perform role

40

Concept: What mattersIndividualism:Collectivism:

Individualism: me- personal achievement, self-esteemCollectivism: us- group goals, solidarity, family duty

41

Concept: Coping methodIndividualism:Collectivism:

Individualism: change realityCollectivism: accommodate to reality

42

Concept: MoralityIndividualism:Collectivism:

Individualism: defined by individualsCollectivism: defined by social networks

43

Concept: RelationshipsIndividualism:Collectivism:

Individualism: many, temporary or casual, confrontation acceptableCollectivism: few, close and enduring, harmony valued

44

Concept: Attributing BehaviorIndividualism:Collectivism:

Individualism: reflects one's personality and attitudesCollectivism: reflects social norms and roles

45

__ __: parents want children to think for themselves__ __: focus on cultivating emotional closeness, strong sense of family self- shames child shames family, honor to family, honor to self

Western societyAsia / Africa

46

__ behave more aggressive. Aggression gender gap pertains to __ rather than __ aggression

menphysicalverbal

47

more dominant, forceful, independent, leaders, directive, autocratic, opinionistic, powerful, receive higher pay, hold most gov’t positions

men

48

deferential, nurturant, affiliative, democratic, decision makers, supporters

women

49

__ differ from __ b/c they’re less concerned with being separate individuals and in being more concerned with making connections

Femalesmales

50

__: play in large groups, emphasize freedom, self-reliance; __: play in small groups, less competitive, more open & responsive to feedback, more caring, open to spirituality, strong bonds, talk more often & openly, turn to others in stress

BoysGirls

51

Women use conversation to __ __ , men use it to __ __

explore relationshipscommunicate solutions

52

Children organize themselves into __ and __ __

boygirl worlds

53

We’re the product of __ & __, also an open system

nature and nurture

54

environment acts on the surface of genes to alter their activity

epigenetics

55

testes develop at __ weeks and produce a flood of testosterone

7

56

guide development of external sex organs

hormones

57

during the __ and __ month of pregnancy, sex hormones bathe fetal brain

4 and 5