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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (95):
1

__ can lead us astray, __ __ similarly err

IntuitionCommon sense

2

Define hindsight bias (aka: I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)

Tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

3

Describe the scientific attitude

Being skeptical but not cynical, open but not gullible. Show evidence. Requires humility to reveal nature's truths

4

People tend to be ___. We are equally __ at predicting our social behavior. We __ our intuition, but __ __ can help sift reality from illusions

OverconfidentWrongOverestimateScientific inquiry

5

Scientific attitude is composed of __ , __ , & __

CuriositySkepticismHumility

6

Define critical thinking

Thinking that doesn't blindly accept arguments & conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, & assesses conclusions

7

Define theory

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations & predicts behaviors or events (simplifies things, offers useful summary)

8

Describe the scientific method

Make observations, form theories, refine theories with new observations

9

Define hypothesis

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory. Gives direction to research

10

Define replication

Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants & circumstances

11

When we urge to see what we expect, it is __ __

Subjective observations

12

Define operational definition

A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables

13

What makes a good theory?

Organize & link observed facts & imply hypotheses that offer testable predictions & sometimes, practical applications

14

What are the 3 research types?

Descriptive, correlational, & experimental

15

Define case study

An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

16

Define survey

A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them

17

Case studies suggest __ for further study. Individuals can be __, so we must use other methods

HypothesesAtypical

18

Survey answers depend on a question's __ & choice of __

WordingRespondents

19

Define false consensus effect

The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs & behaviors

20

Subtle changes to __ of questions may have large effects

Wording

21

Define population

All the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study

22

For an accurate picture of a population, must use a __ __

Representative sample

23

Define random sample

A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

24

Think critically & consider the __ before believing __ __

SampleSurvey findings

25

__ representative samples are better than __ ones

LargeSmall

26

The temptation to __ from a few vivid but __ cases is nearly irresistible

GeneralizeUnrepresentative

27

Define naturalistic observation

Observing & recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate & control the situation.

28

Goodall paved way for later studies of __ thinking, language, & emotion. Whiten & Byrne saw chimps and baboons use __ to achieve their aims

AnimalDeception

29

Naturalistic observations doesn't __ behavior, it __ it

ExplainDescribes

30

Pace of life is fastest in __ & __ __ & in __ climates. Pace of life is slower in economically __ __ countries

Japan & Western EuropeColderLess-developed

31

Naturalistic observation can also be used with __ __

Correlational research

32

Define correlation

A measure of the extent to which 2 factors vary together, & thus of how well either factor predicts the other

33

Define correlation coefficient

Statistical measure of a relationship: reveals how closely 2 things vary together & how well either one predicts the other. Ranges from -1 to +1

34

Define scatterplot (aka: scatter gram & scatter diagram)

A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of 2 variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the 2 variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation

35

Little scatter indicates __ correlation

High

36

Define positive correlation

2 sets of scores tend to rise or fall together

37

Define negative correlation

2 things relate inversely (1 goes up, other goes down)

38

Positive and negative correlations have nothing to do with the __ or __. Correlation indicates a __ __

StrengthWeaknessStatistical relationship

39

We recall & notice instances that __ our beliefs. Illusory correlations explain ___. We ignore __ information. We __ ourselves by seeing correlation with a __ event when its not there

ConfirmSuperstitionsEssentialDeceiveRandom

40

Correlation indicates the possibility of a __ __ relationship, but it doesn't prove __

Cause-effectCausation

41

Define illusory correlation

The perception of a relationship where none exists

42

To isolate cause and effect, psychologists statistically __ other factors & remove __

ControlDifferences

43

__ __ often don't look random, & get over interpreted. Some events seem so __, we struggle to come up with an __. With a large enough sample, any __ thing is likely to happen

Random sequencesExtraordinaryExplanationOutrageous

44

Define experiment

A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable).

45

By __ __ of participants, the experimenter aims to control other __ __ and hold constant other factors

Random assignmentRelevant factors

46

__ __ infants have higher intelligence scores than __ __ ones

Breast fedFormula fed

47

__ show naturally occurring relationships, __ manipulate factors. If a behavior changes when an __ factor is varied, then we know the factor is having an effect

CorrelationsExperimentsExperimental

48

Define double-blind procedure

Experimental procedure in which both the research participants & the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo

49

Double-blind procedure is commonly used in __ __ studies

Drug-evaluation

50

Define placebo effect

Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent

51

Define control condition

Condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition & serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment

52

Define experimental condition

Condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable

53

Define independent variable

The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

54

Define random assignment

Assigning participants to experimental & control conditions by chance, thus minimizing pre existing differences between those assigned to different groups

55

Experiments help evaluate __ programs. They aim to manipulate an __ variable, measure the __ variable, & control all other __

SocialIndependentDependentVariables

56

Define dependent variable

The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

57

Doubt __, __ numbers; apply statistical principles to __

Big, undocumentedReasoning

58

Researchers first task is to organize gathered __. Look at __ labels & __ on bar graphs because they can be misleading

DataScaleRanges

59

Define mode

The most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

60

Define a measure of central tendency

A single score that represents a whole set of scores

61

Define mean

The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores & then dividing by the number of scores

62

Define median

The middle score in a distribution; half above & half below

63

What are the 3 measures of central tendency?

Mode, mean, & median

64

A __ distribution makes the mean biased by a few __ scores

SkewedExtreme

65

Define standard deviation

A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

66

Averages from scores with __ variability are more reliable than averages based on scores with __ variability

LowHigh

67

Define range

The difference between the highest & lowest scores in a distribution

68

Measures of variation better gauge whether scores are __ __ or __

Packed togetherDispersed

69

__ samples are better than __ samples. __ __ observations are more reliable than those that are __ __. __ cases are better than __. Generalizations based on a few unrepresentative cases are __

RepresentativeBiasedLess-variableMore-variableMoreFewerUnreliable

70

When averages from 2 samples are reliable, then their difference is likely to be __. When averages are reliable & the difference is large, it's __ __

ReliableStatistically significant

71

Define statistical significance

Statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

72

Statistical significance indicates the __ that a result will happen by __. Doesn't indicate the __ of the result

LikelihoodChanceImportance

73

Experimenters intend labs to be a __ __. Purpose of experiments is not to __ __ exact behaviors, but to test __ __. Resulting principles help explain __ __.

Simplified realityRe-createTheoretical principlesMany behaviors

74

Psychologists concerns lie with __ __ that explain many __

General principlesBehaviors

75

Define culture

The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, & traditions shared by a large group of people & transmitted from one generation to the next

76

Psychologists study animals to understand how different species __, __, & __. Also to learn about __. Animal experiments lead to treatments for __ __

LearnThinkBehavePeopleHuman diseases

77

The same __ __ guide people everywhere. All languages share deep principles of __ even with variations. We are like __ others, __ others, & __ other

Underlying processesGrammarAllSomeNo

78

In conversations __ build relationships, __ give info and advice. __ & __ are overwhelmingly similar

WomenMenFemales & males

79

Issue: is it right to place well-being of __ above __. What __ should protect the animals?

HumansAnimalsSafeguards

80

Describe the animal protection movement

Protests use of animal in medical, biological, & psychological research. Advocate naturalistic observation over lab experiments

81

The issue with animal protection movement is compassion for __ vs compassion for __

AnimalsPeople

82

What are the guidelines set to protect animals?

Mandate ensuring comfort, health, & humane treatment of animals, & of minimizing infection, illness, & pain of animal subjects

83

What are the ethical principles set for experiments with people?

Obtain informed consent of potential participants, protect them from harm & discomfort, treat information about individual participants confidentially, & fully explain the research afterward

84

Most psychological research involves no __. Occasionally researchers temporarily use __ to understand violence

StressStress

85

Some see psychology as just __ __, others feel it's becoming __ __

Common senseDangerously powerful

86

__ affect what we study, how we study it, & how we interpret results. __ describe & __ evaluate. Psychology can help us __ goals, but cannot __ which goals

ValuesLabelsLabelsReachChoose

87

Psychology has the power to __ but its purpose is to __. Psychologists explore ways to __ learning, creativity, & compassion. Psychology speaks to many __ __ & __ __

Deceive EnlightenEnhanceWorld problemsDeepest longings

88

Describe post-modernism

Questions scientific objectivity. Says scientific concepts are socially constructed fictions

89

Psychologists agree important questions lie beyond science's __ & beliefs __ __, but they believe there's a __ __ out there

ReachShape perceptionsReal world

90

Jurors in capital punishment cases don't represent the __ __

Greater population

91

1954: decision declaring segregated schools unconstitutional was the first case in which __ __ participated actively

Social psychologists

92

Does the __ __ fall under constitution's ban on cruel & unusual punishment? Court disregards __ __ research on __ & __ of it

Death penaltySocial scienceFairnessEffectiveness

93

Stats with a death penalty __ __ __ homicide rates. States without a death penalty haven't seen __ in homicides

Don't have lowerRises

94

Court persists in belief that the death penalty __ is a __ __

UndoubtedlySignificant deterrent

95

Skeptical __ & __ fuel all scientific endeavor

ScrutinyHumility