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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (95)
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1

__ can lead us astray, __ __ similarly err

IntuitionCommon sense

2

Define hindsight bias (aka: I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)

Tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

3

Describe the scientific attitude

Being skeptical but not cynical, open but not gullible. Show evidence. Requires humility to reveal nature's truths

4

People tend to be ___. We are equally __ at predicting our social behavior. We __ our intuition, but __ __ can help sift reality from illusions

OverconfidentWrongOverestimateScientific inquiry

5

Scientific attitude is composed of __ , __ , & __

CuriositySkepticismHumility

6

Define critical thinking

Thinking that doesn't blindly accept arguments & conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, & assesses conclusions

7

Define theory

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations & predicts behaviors or events (simplifies things, offers useful summary)

8

Describe the scientific method

Make observations, form theories, refine theories with new observations

9

Define hypothesis

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory. Gives direction to research

10

Define replication

Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants & circumstances

11

When we urge to see what we expect, it is __ __

Subjective observations

12

Define operational definition

A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables

13

What makes a good theory?

Organize & link observed facts & imply hypotheses that offer testable predictions & sometimes, practical applications

14

What are the 3 research types?

Descriptive, correlational, & experimental

15

Define case study

An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

16

Define survey

A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them

17

Case studies suggest __ for further study. Individuals can be __, so we must use other methods

HypothesesAtypical

18

Survey answers depend on a question's __ & choice of __

WordingRespondents

19

Define false consensus effect

The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs & behaviors

20

Subtle changes to __ of questions may have large effects

Wording

21

Define population

All the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study

22

For an accurate picture of a population, must use a __ __

Representative sample

23

Define random sample

A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

24

Think critically & consider the __ before believing __ __

SampleSurvey findings

25

__ representative samples are better than __ ones

LargeSmall

26

The temptation to __ from a few vivid but __ cases is nearly irresistible

GeneralizeUnrepresentative

27

Define naturalistic observation

Observing & recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate & control the situation.

28

Goodall paved way for later studies of __ thinking, language, & emotion. Whiten & Byrne saw chimps and baboons use __ to achieve their aims

AnimalDeception

29

Naturalistic observations doesn't __ behavior, it __ it

ExplainDescribes

30

Pace of life is fastest in __ & __ __ & in __ climates. Pace of life is slower in economically __ __ countries

Japan & Western EuropeColderLess-developed