Chapter 9 Key Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Key Terms Deck (55)
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1

the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

memory

2

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

flashbulb memory

3

processing of information into the memory system- for ex., by extracting meaning

encoding

4

the retention of encoded information over time

storage

5

the process of getting information out of memory storage

retrieval

6

immediate, very brief recording of sensory info in the memory system

sensory memory

7

activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten (such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing)

short-term memory

8

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system; includes knowledge, skills, and experiences

long-term memory

9

a newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

working memory

10

coordinate auditory & visual-spatial elements in working memory

central executive processor

11

unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings

automatic processing

12

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

effortful processing

13

the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage

rehearsal

14

poorest memories are for what was said by the person just before them

next-in-line effect

15

the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

spacing effect

16

our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

serial position effect:

17

the encoding of picture images

visual encoding

18

the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words

acoustic encoding

19

the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words

semantic encoding

20

asked how well adjectives describe yourself, remember the words better

self-reference effect

21

mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding

imagery

22

people tend to recall events more positively than at the time it occurred

rosy retrospection

23

memory aids, especially techniques using vivid imagery & organizational devices

mnemonics

24

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

chunking

25

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second

iconic memory

26

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds

echoic memory

27

an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation; believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

long-term potentiation (LTP)

28

the loss of memory

amnesia

29

retention independent of conscious recollection

implicit (procedural) memory

30

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”

explicit (declarative) memory