Chapter 9 Key Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Key Terms Deck (55):
1

the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

memory

2

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

flashbulb memory

3

processing of information into the memory system- for ex., by extracting meaning

encoding

4

the retention of encoded information over time

storage

5

the process of getting information out of memory storage

retrieval

6

immediate, very brief recording of sensory info in the memory system

sensory memory

7

activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten (such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing)

short-term memory

8

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system; includes knowledge, skills, and experiences

long-term memory

9

a newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

working memory

10

coordinate auditory & visual-spatial elements in working memory

central executive processor

11

unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings

automatic processing

12

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

effortful processing

13

the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage

rehearsal

14

poorest memories are for what was said by the person just before them

next-in-line effect

15

the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

spacing effect

16

our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

serial position effect:

17

the encoding of picture images

visual encoding

18

the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words

acoustic encoding

19

the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words

semantic encoding

20

asked how well adjectives describe yourself, remember the words better

self-reference effect

21

mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding

imagery

22

people tend to recall events more positively than at the time it occurred

rosy retrospection

23

memory aids, especially techniques using vivid imagery & organizational devices

mnemonics

24

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

chunking

25

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second

iconic memory

26

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds

echoic memory

27

an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation; believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

long-term potentiation (LTP)

28

the loss of memory

amnesia

29

retention independent of conscious recollection

implicit (procedural) memory

30

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”

explicit (declarative) memory

31

a neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage

hippocampus

32

reactions and skills learned during infancy reach far into our future, yet as adults we cannot recall anything (explicitly) of our first three years

infantile amnesia

33

a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test

recall

34

a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test

recognition

35

a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time

relearning

36

anchor points you use to access target info when you want to retrieve it later

retrieval cues

37

the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

priming

38

memory without explicit remembering

"memoryless memory”

39

that eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before;” cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience

déjà vu

40

what we learn in one state is sometimes most easily recalled when we are in that state again

state-dependent memory

41

the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood

mood-congruent memory

42

inattention to details produces encoding failure

absent-mindedness

43

storage decay over time

transience

44

inaccessibility of stored information

blocking

45

confusing the source of information

misattribution

46

the lingering effects of misinformation

suggestibility

47

belief-colored recollections

bias

48

unwanted memories

persistence

49

the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

proactive interference

50

the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information

retroactive interference

51

old information can facilitate our learning of new information

positive transfer

52

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

repression

53

incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event

misinformation effect

54

more likely to think they had actually done such things the first time

imagination inflation

55

attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, hear about, read about, or imagined; at the heart of many false memories

source amnesia (source misattribution)