Chapter 10 Key Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Key Terms Deck (36):
1

the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

Cognition

2

a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people

Concepts

3

a mental image or best example of a category

Prototypes

4

a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem

Algorithm

5

a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms

Heuristic

6

a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions

Insight

7

a tendency to search for information that confirms one’s perceptions

Confirmation bias

8

the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; impediment to problem solving

Fixation

9

a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

Mental set

10

the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving

Functional fixedness

11

judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information

Representativeness heuristic

12

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps b/c its vivid), we presume such events are common

Availability heuristic

13

the tendency to be more confident than correct; to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgements

Overconfidence

14

the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements

Framing

15

the tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid

Belief bias

16

clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited

Belief perseverance

17

our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning

Language

18

in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit

Phonemes

19

in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)

Morpheme

20

in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others

Grammar

21

the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning

Semantics

22

the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language

Syntax

23

ability to comprehend speech

receptive language

24

ability to produce words

productive language

25

beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language

Babbling stage

26

the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words

One-word stage

27

beginning at about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements

Two-word stage

28

early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram - “go car” - using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words

Telegraphic speech

29

all languages have the same grammatical building blocks that underlies all human language

universal grammar

30

Over time, we grasp specific phonemes, morphemes, words, and sentences, and the rules by which we can combine them; Chomsky called it this

surface structure

31

While deciphering surface structure, we also learn to discern its meanings; Chomsky called it this

deep structure

32

A period for mastering certain aspects of language during childhood

critical period

33

Whorf’s hypothesis that language determines the way we think

Linguistic determinism

34

ability to learn to inhibit one language while using their other language and helps better able to inhibit attention to irrelevant information

Bilingual advantage

35

told to imagine the destination you want to achieve

Outcome stimulation

36

told to imagine how you are going to get to the destination you want

Process stimulation