Chapter 3 Key Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Key Terms Deck (39):
1

every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us

environment

2

study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior

behavior genetics

3

threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes

chromosomes

4

a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

5

the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein

genes

6

the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism’s chromosomes

genome

7

many genes that act together that influence human traits

gene complexes

8

twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms

identical twins

9

twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment

fraternal twins

10

a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

temperament

11

the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. Depends on the range of populations and environments studied

heritability

12

effect of one factor (like environment) depends on another factor (like heredity)

interactions

13

subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure & function of genes

molecular genetics

14

the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection

evolutionary psychology

15

principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

natural selection

16

a random error in gene replication that leads to a change

mutations

17

in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female

gender

18

massive loss of unemployed neural connections by puberty

pruning

19

kids seek out peers with similar attitudes and interests

selection effect

20

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

culture

21

an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior; prescribe “proper” behavior

norm

22

the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies

personal space

23

giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications

individualism

24

giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly

collectivism

25

physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone

aggression

26

men hazard answers rather than admitting they don’t know

male answer syndrome

27

the sex chromosome found in both men and women; females have two, males have one; one from each parent produces a female child

x chromosome

28

the sex chromosome found only in males; when paired with the chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child

y chromosome

29

most important of male sex hormones; both males and females have it, but the additional amount in males stimulates the growth of male sex organs in the fetus and the development of male sex characteristics during puberty

testosterone

30

a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave

role

31

a set of expected behaviors for males and for females

gender role

32

one’s sense of being male or female

gender identity

33

the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

gender-typing

34

theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

social learning theory

35

theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly

gender schema theory

36

formed concepts

schema

37

principle that we should prefer the simplest of competing explanations

Occam's razor

38

act on sense of difference by living as a member of opposite sex, often with hormonal and surgical interventions that support this gender reassignment

transsexual

39

have a sense of sexual identity that is different from their birth sex

transgender