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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (87):
1

Detecting a signal depends on the signal’s __ and our __ state

strengthpsychological

2

More false alarms with heightened __

responsiveness

3

Ability to catch a faint signal diminishes after about __ minutes

30

4

Most information processing occurs __, out of sight of our __ mind

automaticallyconscious

5

Difference threshold is some constant proportion of the size of the __ __

original stimulus

6

Sensory adaptation enables us to focus on __ changes in our environment without being distracted by the __ constant stimulations

informativeuninformative

7

We perceive the world not exactly as it is, but as it is __ for us to perceive it

useful

8

__ spectrum ranges from short gamma rays to long radio waves

Electromagnetic

9

Iris changes size in response to light __ and inner __

intensityemotions

10

Millions of receptor cells convert light energy into __ __ in the retina that are sent to the brain and constructed there into an __ image

neural impulsesupright

11

In retina, generated neural signals activate __ cells that activate neighboring __ cells

bipolar ganglion

12

__ receives and distributes this information from the optic nerve

Thalamus

13

__ cells help relay __’s individual message to the visual cortex, preserves precise info, makes __ better at detecting fine detail

Bipolarconescones

14

rods share __ cells so individual messages get __

bipolarcombined

15

Special sensitivity- __: to detail and color, __: to faint light

conesrods

16

retina processes info before routing it via the __ to the brain’s cortex. Retina’s neural layers help to __ and __ the sensory info. Retinal areas relay info to part of the __ lobe; retinal cells can be triggered by __

thalamusencodeanalyzeoccipitalpressure

17

For biologically important objects and events, brains have cells that respond to __ stimulus but not to __

oneothers

18

Perception combines sensory input with our __ and __

assumptions and expectations

19

Damage to the rear of both sides of the brain can cause a person to not detect __

movement

20

Two visual systems: one gives us __ perceptions and one guides our __

consciousactions

21

About 1 in __ people have vision color deficiency, usually males because it is __ __

50sex-linked

22

Color deficient people lack functioning __ or __ sensitive cones, or both

red or green

23

Color processing occurs in two stages: 1) retina’s red, blue, green __ respond to different color __ 2) signals are processed by __ __ cell en route to the visual cortex

conesstimuliopponent-process

24

We perceive objects not in isolation but in their __ context

environmental

25

Hear best w/ frequencies corresponding to __ __

human voices

26

Hear by both __ and __ conduction; hearing is a special form of __ __

airbonetouch sensation

27

Ears transform vibrating air into __ __, which the brain decodes as __

nerve impulsessounds

28

Strength, or amplitude, of sound waves determines the __

loudness

29

__ waves: low frequency and low pitch, __ color; __ waves: high frequency and high pitch, __ color

LongRedShortBlue

30

__ __ movement triggers impulses in adjacent nerve fibers, converge to form __ __; send neural messages via the __ to the __ __’s auditory cortex

Hair cell auditory nervethalamustemporal lobe

31

__ __ are delicate and fragile; interprets loudness from __ of activated hair cellsHard-of-hearing people prefer __ sounds (hard-to-hear sounds more __)

Hair cellsnumbercompressedamplified

32

Brief exposure to extremely intense sounds or prolonged exposure to intense sounds can damage __ cells and __ nerves

receptorauditory

33

Ringing of the ears alerts us to possible __ __ (equivalent to bleeding)

hearing loss

34

Noise is stressful when __ or __

unanticipated or uncontrollable

35

Brain can determine a sound’s __ by recognizing the place on the membrane from which it receives __ signals

pitchneural

36

__ theory: sense high pitches, __ theory: sense low pitches

PlaceFrequency

37

Placement of our ears makes our hearing __ (“three-dimensional”)

stereophonic

38

When trying to __ a sound, cock your head so the 2 ears receive slightly different messages b/c you’re not well at pinpointing sounds from __, __, __, or __

pinpointabove, below, ahead, or behind

39

Sensorineural hearing loss (nerve deafness) is Caused mostly by __ changes; tissues remain __ once destroyed

biologicaldead

40

Hearing aids amplify vibrations for __ (usually high) in which one’s hearing is weakest, and also __ sound (amplifying soft sounds)

frequenciescompressing

41

__ __ __ is a complete language with its own grammar, syntax, and semantics; those who only learn __ __ __ have a difficult time learning to __ and __

American Sign LanguageAmerican Sign Languageread and write

42

Those who align with the __ __ show higher self esteem; __ is worth it. Almost universal among deaf people that they want to cause hearing people __ __Deaf people feel __ when they can’t hear a person’s question

Deaf culturecommunicationlittle fussfrustrated

43

Deafness could be considered as "__ __" as “hearing impairment”

“vision enhancement”

44

“Sense of touch” is a mix of 4 distinct skin senses: __, __, __, and __

pressure, warmth, cold, and pain

45

No __ relationship b/w what we feel at a given spot and the nerve ending found there

simple

46

__ is most sensitive to unexpected stimulation

Brain

47

__ tells you something is wrong and to change your behavior immediately

Pain

48

People born w/o the ability to feel pain die by __ __ because they can’t feel injury

early adulthood

49

Pain is a property of the __, __, and our __

senses, brain, and our expectations

50

People who lose vision can have __ __: nonthreatening hallucinations

phantom sights

51

Can see, hear, taste, smell, and feel with our brain, which can sense __ __ senses

w/o functioning

52

No one type of stimulus that triggers __ and no special receptors for __

painpain

53

Treating chronic pain (through __, __ or __ ) stimulates “gate closing” activity in the __ neural fibers

massage, acupuncture, or electrical stimulationlarge

54

People with more __ are less bothered by pain, and brain is __ responsive to it. __ creates pain. People overlook pain __; better to __ __ a painful procedure than to switch it off __; __ milder discomfort

endorphinslessbraindurationtaper downabruptlyextend

55

Lamaze method of childbirth combines __, __ and __

relaxation, counterstimulation, and distraction

56

Pain is in the brain, so __ the brain’s attention may bring relief

diverting

57

Taste sensations are __, __, __, __, and __(meaty taste, flavor enhancer monosodium glutamate)

sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami (meaty taste, flavor enhancer monosodium glutamate)

58

__ __ relates to food poisoning from plant and meat toxins for our ancestors. __ is a chemical sense; __ __ catch food chemicals

Picky eatingTastetaste buds

59

Taste receptors reproduce every _-_ weeks, taste buds __ as you get older. Sense of __ enhances sense of __

1-2 weeksdecreasesmelltaste

60

Resulting experiences of smell (__): you inhale something of whatever you smell. __ is a chemical sense; olfactory receptor cells respond __ and recognize odors __; receptor proteins are embedded on surface of the __ __ neurons

olfactionSmell selectivelyindividuallynasal cavity

61

Do not have __ receptors for each detectable __; odors can evoke bad __

distinctodoremotions

62

Sense of __ declines after early adulthood; __ are harder to describe and recall. odors can provoke __

smellsmellsmemories

63

__ __ and __ __ contain fluid that moves w/ the head, keeping balance. __ that normally give us an accurate experience of the world can fool us

Semicircular canals & vestibular sacsMechanisms

64

Brain __ input from the sensory organs

Receives

65

Brain makes ___ of the input from sensory organs

Sense

66

Process of sensation can be seen as 3 steps:__, __ and __

ReceptionTransductionTransmission

67

Stimulation of receptor cells by energy

Reception

68

Transforming cell stimulation into neural impulses

Transduction

69

Delivering neural info to the brain to be processed

Transmission

70

Some __ cells in the eye send signals directly to the __ cortex in response to certain features

GanglionVisual

71

In and around the visual cortex, __ integrate these feature signals to recognize more __ forms like faces

SupercellsComplex

72

Corresponds to our perception of timbre. Perceived as __ __ or __

ComplexitySound qualityResonance

73

Collects sound and funnels it to the eardrum

Outer ear

74

Waves of fluid move from the oval window over the cochlea's "hair" receptor cells

Inner ear

75

At high frequencies, signals are generated at different locations in the cochlea, depending on pitch

Place Theory

76

At low sound frequencies, hair cells send signals at whatever rate the sound is received

Frequency theory

77

At ultra high frequencies, receptor cells fire in succession, combining signals to reach higher firing rates

Volley principle

78

To prevent hearing loss, limit exposure to noises over __ decibels

85

79

Sensing movement and position of individual body parts relative to each other

Kinesthesis

80

Ability to sense the position of the hand and body relative to gravity, including sense of balance

Vestibular sense

81

Describe the process of smell

Airborne chemicals affix themselves to the olfactory membrane that shoot directly to the brain

82

__ and __ __ have the best sense of smell

womenyoung adults

83

What are the 4 skin sensations?

pressure, warmth, cold, pain

84

only skin sensation with identifiable receptors

pressure

85

theory that the spinal cord blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain

gate control theory

86

"Gate" opened by the activity of pain signals traveling __ __ nerve fibers

upsmall

87

"Gate" closed by activity in __ fibers or by information __ __ the brain

largecomingfrom