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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (87)
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1

Detecting a signal depends on the signal’s __ and our __ state

strengthpsychological

2

More false alarms with heightened __

responsiveness

3

Ability to catch a faint signal diminishes after about __ minutes

30

4

Most information processing occurs __, out of sight of our __ mind

automaticallyconscious

5

Difference threshold is some constant proportion of the size of the __ __

original stimulus

6

Sensory adaptation enables us to focus on __ changes in our environment without being distracted by the __ constant stimulations

informativeuninformative

7

We perceive the world not exactly as it is, but as it is __ for us to perceive it

useful

8

__ spectrum ranges from short gamma rays to long radio waves

Electromagnetic

9

Iris changes size in response to light __ and inner __

intensityemotions

10

Millions of receptor cells convert light energy into __ __ in the retina that are sent to the brain and constructed there into an __ image

neural impulsesupright

11

In retina, generated neural signals activate __ cells that activate neighboring __ cells

bipolar ganglion

12

__ receives and distributes this information from the optic nerve

Thalamus

13

__ cells help relay __’s individual message to the visual cortex, preserves precise info, makes __ better at detecting fine detail

Bipolarconescones

14

rods share __ cells so individual messages get __

bipolarcombined

15

Special sensitivity- __: to detail and color, __: to faint light

conesrods

16

retina processes info before routing it via the __ to the brain’s cortex. Retina’s neural layers help to __ and __ the sensory info. Retinal areas relay info to part of the __ lobe; retinal cells can be triggered by __

thalamusencodeanalyzeoccipitalpressure

17

For biologically important objects and events, brains have cells that respond to __ stimulus but not to __

oneothers

18

Perception combines sensory input with our __ and __

assumptions and expectations

19

Damage to the rear of both sides of the brain can cause a person to not detect __

movement

20

Two visual systems: one gives us __ perceptions and one guides our __

consciousactions

21

About 1 in __ people have vision color deficiency, usually males because it is __ __

50sex-linked

22

Color deficient people lack functioning __ or __ sensitive cones, or both

red or green

23

Color processing occurs in two stages: 1) retina’s red, blue, green __ respond to different color __ 2) signals are processed by __ __ cell en route to the visual cortex

conesstimuliopponent-process

24

We perceive objects not in isolation but in their __ context

environmental

25

Hear best w/ frequencies corresponding to __ __

human voices

26

Hear by both __ and __ conduction; hearing is a special form of __ __

airbonetouch sensation

27

Ears transform vibrating air into __ __, which the brain decodes as __

nerve impulsessounds

28

Strength, or amplitude, of sound waves determines the __

loudness

29

__ waves: low frequency and low pitch, __ color; __ waves: high frequency and high pitch, __ color

LongRedShortBlue

30

__ __ movement triggers impulses in adjacent nerve fibers, converge to form __ __; send neural messages via the __ to the __ __’s auditory cortex

Hair cell auditory nervethalamustemporal lobe