Flashcards in Prologue Deck (51)
Any action we can observe
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Define mental processes
Internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior
Psychology uses __ & __ to explain human nature, and puts __ to the test
Observations & analysisTheories
Describe Buddha's (india) impact on psychology
Pondered how sensations & perceptions combine to form ideas
Describe Confucius' (china) impact on psychology
Stressed power of ideas & an educated mind
Describe Socrates' & Plato's impact on psychology
Concluded mind is separable from body and continues after death. Knowledge is innate. Derived principles by logic
Describe Aristotle's impact on psychology
Derived principles by observations. Knowledge grows from experiences stored in memory
Describe Descartes' impact on psychology
Explained how immaterial mind & physical body communicate with "animal spirits"
Describe Bacon's impact on psychology
A founder of modern science. Saw how we perceive patterns in random events. Researched our noticing and remembering events
Define Locke's impact on psychology
Mind at birth is a blank slate on which experience writes
View that knowledge comes from experience via the senses, & science flourishes through observation & experiment
In 1879, who created the first psychology experiment and laboratory? What did he seek to measure?
Wilhelm WundtFastest & simplest mental processes
In 1892, who introduced structuralism? What did it aim to discover?
Edward TitchenerElements of mind, report elements of experience, but was unreliable
Early school of psychology that used introspection (looking inward) to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
Who introduced functionalism and wrote Principles of psychology?
School of psychology that focused on how mental & behavioral processes function; how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish
First female president of the American Psychological Association
First woman to receive a psychology PhD
Psychology developed from __ & __
Philosophy and biology
Describe Pavlov's, Freud's, and Piaget's impact on psychology
Pavlov: study of learningFreud: theory of personalityPiaget: observer of children
Until the 1920s, psychology was defined as?
The science of mental life
From the 1920s - 1960s, introspection was dismissed and psychology was defined as?
The scientific study of observable behavior
In the 1960s, who pioneered humanistic psychology?
Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow
Define humanistic psychology
Perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth
Describe the cognitive revolution in the 1960s
Support earlier ideas, but expanded ideas with science (like importance of considering internal thought processes)
Define cognitive neuroscience
Study of the interaction of thought processes & brain function
Describe contemporary psychology
Membership in psychological societies is growing. Psychology is growing & globalizing
Define the nature-nurture issue
Longstanding controversy over relative contributions that genes & experience make to the development of psychological traits & behaviors