Prologue Flashcards Preview

AP Psych > Prologue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Prologue Deck (51)
Loading flashcards...
1

Define behavior

Any action we can observe

2

Define psychology

The scientific study of behavior and mental processes

3

Define mental processes

Internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior

4

Psychology uses __ & __ to explain human nature, and puts __ to the test

Observations & analysisTheories

5

Describe Buddha's (india) impact on psychology

Pondered how sensations & perceptions combine to form ideas

6

Describe Confucius' (china) impact on psychology

Stressed power of ideas & an educated mind

7

Describe Socrates' & Plato's impact on psychology

Concluded mind is separable from body and continues after death. Knowledge is innate. Derived principles by logic

8

Describe Aristotle's impact on psychology

Derived principles by observations. Knowledge grows from experiences stored in memory

9

Describe Descartes' impact on psychology

Explained how immaterial mind & physical body communicate with "animal spirits"

10

Describe Bacon's impact on psychology

A founder of modern science. Saw how we perceive patterns in random events. Researched our noticing and remembering events

11

Define Locke's impact on psychology

Mind at birth is a blank slate on which experience writes

12

Define empiricism

View that knowledge comes from experience via the senses, & science flourishes through observation & experiment

13

In 1879, who created the first psychology experiment and laboratory? What did he seek to measure?

Wilhelm WundtFastest & simplest mental processes

14

In 1892, who introduced structuralism? What did it aim to discover?

Edward TitchenerElements of mind, report elements of experience, but was unreliable

15

Define structuralism

Early school of psychology that used introspection (looking inward) to explore the elemental structure of the human mind

16

Who introduced functionalism and wrote Principles of psychology?

William James

17

Define functionalism

School of psychology that focused on how mental & behavioral processes function; how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish

18

First female president of the American Psychological Association

Mary Calkins

19

First woman to receive a psychology PhD

Margaret Washburn

20

Psychology developed from __ & __

Philosophy and biology

21

Describe Pavlov's, Freud's, and Piaget's impact on psychology

Pavlov: study of learningFreud: theory of personalityPiaget: observer of children

22

Until the 1920s, psychology was defined as?

The science of mental life

23

From the 1920s - 1960s, introspection was dismissed and psychology was defined as?

The scientific study of observable behavior

24

In the 1960s, who pioneered humanistic psychology?

Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow

25

Define humanistic psychology

Perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth

26

Describe the cognitive revolution in the 1960s

Support earlier ideas, but expanded ideas with science (like importance of considering internal thought processes)

27

Define cognitive neuroscience

Study of the interaction of thought processes & brain function

28

Describe contemporary psychology

Membership in psychological societies is growing. Psychology is growing & globalizing

29

Define the nature-nurture issue

Longstanding controversy over relative contributions that genes & experience make to the development of psychological traits & behaviors

30

Describe Plato, Aristotle, Locke, & Descartes views on nature-nurture issue

Plato: character & intelligence are largely inherited, certain ideas inbornAristotle: nothing in the mind does not come first from outside worldLocke: mind is blank sheet which experience writesDescartes: some ideas are innate