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Flashcards in Prologue Deck (51):
1

Define behavior

Any action we can observe

2

Define psychology

The scientific study of behavior and mental processes

3

Define mental processes

Internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior

4

Psychology uses __ & __ to explain human nature, and puts __ to the test

Observations & analysisTheories

5

Describe Buddha's (india) impact on psychology

Pondered how sensations & perceptions combine to form ideas

6

Describe Confucius' (china) impact on psychology

Stressed power of ideas & an educated mind

7

Describe Socrates' & Plato's impact on psychology

Concluded mind is separable from body and continues after death. Knowledge is innate. Derived principles by logic

8

Describe Aristotle's impact on psychology

Derived principles by observations. Knowledge grows from experiences stored in memory

9

Describe Descartes' impact on psychology

Explained how immaterial mind & physical body communicate with "animal spirits"

10

Describe Bacon's impact on psychology

A founder of modern science. Saw how we perceive patterns in random events. Researched our noticing and remembering events

11

Define Locke's impact on psychology

Mind at birth is a blank slate on which experience writes

12

Define empiricism

View that knowledge comes from experience via the senses, & science flourishes through observation & experiment

13

In 1879, who created the first psychology experiment and laboratory? What did he seek to measure?

Wilhelm WundtFastest & simplest mental processes

14

In 1892, who introduced structuralism? What did it aim to discover?

Edward TitchenerElements of mind, report elements of experience, but was unreliable

15

Define structuralism

Early school of psychology that used introspection (looking inward) to explore the elemental structure of the human mind

16

Who introduced functionalism and wrote Principles of psychology?

William James

17

Define functionalism

School of psychology that focused on how mental & behavioral processes function; how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish

18

First female president of the American Psychological Association

Mary Calkins

19

First woman to receive a psychology PhD

Margaret Washburn

20

Psychology developed from __ & __

Philosophy and biology

21

Describe Pavlov's, Freud's, and Piaget's impact on psychology

Pavlov: study of learningFreud: theory of personalityPiaget: observer of children

22

Until the 1920s, psychology was defined as?

The science of mental life

23

From the 1920s - 1960s, introspection was dismissed and psychology was defined as?

The scientific study of observable behavior

24

In the 1960s, who pioneered humanistic psychology?

Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow

25

Define humanistic psychology

Perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth

26

Describe the cognitive revolution in the 1960s

Support earlier ideas, but expanded ideas with science (like importance of considering internal thought processes)

27

Define cognitive neuroscience

Study of the interaction of thought processes & brain function

28

Describe contemporary psychology

Membership in psychological societies is growing. Psychology is growing & globalizing

29

Define the nature-nurture issue

Longstanding controversy over relative contributions that genes & experience make to the development of psychological traits & behaviors

30

Describe Plato, Aristotle, Locke, & Descartes views on nature-nurture issue

Plato: character & intelligence are largely inherited, certain ideas inbornAristotle: nothing in the mind does not come first from outside worldLocke: mind is blank sheet which experience writesDescartes: some ideas are innate

31

Describe Darwin's impact on psychology

1831: pondered incredible species variation. 1859: book Origin of Species proposed evolutionary process & principle of natural selection

32

Define natural selection

Principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction & survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

33

Define levels of analysis

Differing complementary views from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any phenomenon

34

Define biopsychosocial approach

Integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, & social-cultural levels of analysis

35

Describe psychology's varied perspectives:Neuroscience:Evolutionary:

Neuroscience: body & brain enable emotions, memories, & sensory experiences Evolutionary: natural selection promotes perpetuation of one's genes

36

Describe psychology's varied perspectives:Behavior genetics:Psychodynamic:

Behavior genetics: genes & environment influence our individual differencesPsychodynamic: behavior springs from unconscious drives & conflicts

37

Describe psychology's varied perspectives:Behavioral:Cognitive:Social-cultural:

Behavioral: learn observable responsesCognitive: encode, process, store, & retrieve informationSocial-cultural: behavior & thinking vary across situations & cultures

38

Define basic research

Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

39

Define the researcher types:Biological:Developmental:Cognitive:

Biological: explore links between brain and mindDevelopmental: study changing abilities from birth to deathCognitive: experiment how we perceive, think, & solve problems

40

Define the researcher types:Personality:Social:Industrial/organizational:

Personality: investigate persistent traitsSocial: explore how we view & affect one another Industrial/organizational: study and advise on behavior in the workplace

41

Define applied research

Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

42

Define counseling psychology

Branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living and in achieving greater well-being

43

Define clinical psychology

Branch of psychology that studies, assesses, & treats people with psychological disorders

44

Define psychiatry

Branch of medicine that deals with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy

45

To master information, you must __ __ __

Actively process it

46

What does the SQ3R study method stand for?

Survey, Question, Read, Review, & Reflect

47

Describe the study method

Look over what you're going to read and note the sections' main topic. Keep learning objective as the question you'll answer. Review section & definitions. Stop & reflect & summarize reading

48

Five study hints to boost your learning

1) Distribute your study time2) In class, listen actively3) Overlearn4) Focus on big ideas 5) Be a smart test-taker

49

What did John Watson redefine psychology as? What was he known as

the scientific study of observable behaviorbehaviorist

50

What are psychology's 7 perspectives?

neuroscience, evolutionary, behavior genetics, psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, and social-cultural

51

What are psychology's 6 types of researchers?

biological, developmental, cognitive, personality, social, and industrial/organizational