Chapter 6 Key Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Key Terms Deck (47):
1

the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect

selective attention

2

ability to attend to only one voice among many

cocktail party effect

3

failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere

inattentional blindness

4

lack of awareness of happenings in their visual environment

change blindness

5

focusing on words being said, failing to notice a change in the speaker

change deafness

6

people pick more attractive photo, photo is switched and shown to the person, person explains why they chose the photo; seldom noticed deception. This is an example of

choice blindness

7

when a strikingly distinct stimulus draws our eye; stimuli demands our attention

pop-out

8

the tendency for vision to dominate the other senses

vision capture

9

an organized whole (or form); these psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes

gestalt

10

the organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings

figure-ground

11

the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups

grouping

12

group nearby figures together

proximity

13

group together figures that are similar to each other

similarity

14

perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones

continuity

15

uniform and linked, seen as a single unit

connectedness

16

fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object

closure

17

the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance

depth perception

18

laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals

visual cliff

19

depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes

binocular cues

20

binocular cue for perceiving depth: by comparing images from the 2 eyeballs, the brain computes distance - the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object

retinal disparity

21

binocular cue for perceiving depth; the extent to which the eyes turn inward when looking at an object; the greater the inward strain, the closer the object

convergence

22

depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone

monocular cues

23

if we assume that two objects are similar in size, we perceive the one that casts the smaller retinal image as farther away

relative size

24

if one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer

interposition

25

because light from distant objects passes through more atmosphere, we perceive hazy objects as farther away than sharp, clear objects

relative clarity

26

a gradual change from a coarse, distinct texture to a fine, indistinct texture signals increasing distance

texture gradient

27

we perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away; lower objects seem closer and are usually perceived as figure

relative height

28

as we move, objects that are stable may appear to move

relative motion (motion parallax)

29

parallel lines appear to converge with distance; the more the lines converge, the greater their perceived distance

linear perspective

30

nearby object reflect more light to eyes; dimmer objects seem farther away

light and shadow

31

brain will perceive continuous movement in a rapid series of slightly varying images

stroboscopic movement

32

an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession

phi phenomenon

33

perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness, color, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change

perceptual constancy

34

we perceive the form of familiar objects as constant even when our retinal images of them change

shape constancy

35

we perceive objects as having constant size, even when our distance from them varies

size constancy

36

moon looks 50% larger near the horizon than when high in the sky

moon illusion

37

we perceive an object as having a constant lightness even while its illumination varies

lightness (brightness) constancy

38

the amount of light an object reflects relative to its surroundings

relative luminance

39

in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field

perceptual adaptation

40

a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another

perceptual set

41

a branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use

human factors psychology

42

the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input; said to include telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition

extrasensory perception (ESP)

43

the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis

parapsychology

44

mind-to-mind communication; one person sending thoughts to another or perceiving another’s thoughts

telepathy

45

perceiving remote events; such as sensing a friend’s house is on fire

clairvoyance

46

perceiving future events; such as a president’s death or sporting event outcome

precognition

47

mind over matter; such as levitating a table or influencing the roll of a die

psychokinesis