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In 802, traveler made his way from Baghdad to Aacehn ? 

An abino eleohat, a diplomatic gift from the the Abbasid Caliph Harun a Rashid to charlemagen. 


What was the elephant called? 

He was called Abu Al Abbas. in onor of Harthe Abbasids dunasty founder . Th elephant was born in idna and went to Baghdad as a present form an  Indain king 


What was Charlemagnes views on Islam? 

He was not friendly to it. At the battle of Tourns, Charles mratel and defeated a muslime aremy that wventured into frakish territory .


How many embassies wre in baghdad? 

Three and recieved three. They dealt with the safety of Christian pilgrims and mercahnts, reltations between Charlemagnes realm and western Europe.


What was the are between 500-1500 called? 

The emdival period of European history 


WHat three developments of early medival era served as foundation s for tehe development of the powrful society 

1. People of western Europe restored political order 

2. Europeans began a process of economic recover. They had agricultural produciton by increaisng the amount of ladn under cultivation and inroducting new tools and techniques laying an agricultural foundation for trade an drapid economic development after the thenth century 

3.Europeans people bult an instituitonal framework that enable the Christian church based in Rome to provde religious leadership and maintin culturla unity throhout western Europe


Who looked like they might reestablish imperial authority in Europe 

The Franks . 


What were the muslims? 

Muslims, Hungarian Magyars,a nd Vikings 



Odoacer deposed of the last of the western Roman emperors but the adminstrative apparatus of the Roman empire did not immediatly dissapear 


After the Roman empire fell. what was the government like? 

The provincial governmnors continued to rule thier territoriess aided by Roman bureaucrats and tax collectors and roman general s continued to field armies throughout the crumbling empire 


Cities of western Roman empire 

Lost population during the 5th century. As invasins and cntests for power disrupted trade and manufacturing.This decay of Roman cities hastened imeprial decline 



Spain durign the 470s and established a kingdom there 



dominated Italy from the 5th century 



filled Italy after the departure of Byzantine people 



fell under the octrol of other Germanic poeple including the Burgundians who settled in the souther and eatern eregions. And the Franks who brought the more northerly and westerly regions under their control 



Alges, Saxons, and Germanic poeple 


Germanic people gradually displaced the authority and instituiton of Romae, and they 

absorbed a lot of Roman influence. Many converted to Chiristianity and adapted law 


The Franks influenced 

The politcla, social and cultrual devlopmnt of western Europe 


The Franks consturcted a society that 

drew on the agricultural resource of continental Europe. The cent


Where did the center fo Western Eurpope shift to 

Norht frnace, Germany and the low countries. Furthermore, the Grank


Furthermore,the Franks overaw the development of decentralized political institutions whcih influenced 

The European politics and society for a mllenium 


What did the Franks have littleexperience in?

Not muhc Roman society. Some of their ancesors ad lived within Roman boundaries since about the third century. 


Whaen did Clovis rule 



Under Clovis? 

Th Franks became the military and political power in Western Europe 



CLovis led Frankish forces on a campaign that wiped out the last vestiges of Roman authority in Gaul. Then, he imposed his authority on the Franks htemselges. He organized campaigns against other germanic people and he transformed them 


After CLovis, what were the Franks 

They were the strongest people. 


What were was a a reason for the Franks rapid rise? 

Religion, Originally, all the Germanic invaders of  the Roman empire wer epolutheistc and were honoreing a pantheon of warlike gods. They soon converted to Christianity 


What did the Franks convert to 

 Accepted Arian Chrisitanity. Ut, church authoritis commended it. Clovis  convetted to Roman Christianity by the influence of his wife Clotilda 


What were the political implication sof the conversion 

Franks attracted the alleigiance of The Christian popuaiton and the churh 


After Clovis's death 

Franks lost mnuch of thier authority as aristocratic warrors seized control. 


Carolingian dynasty takes its anme from 

Charles Martel: Charles the Hammer because of his military prowess 



Battle of Tours: he turned back a Muslim rmy that had ventured from Sapin, recently conquered by Muslim warriors from north Africa. It helepd to persuatde uslim rulers tat it was not wrothwhile to seeek furhter conquests 





What feats did Charlemagne have?> 

Temporarily reestablished centralized mimperial rule in a soceity disrupted by invasion adn contests for power. He had a lot fo emergy, 


Qulities of Charlemagne? 

He was extremely intelligent. He spoke atin, understood some greek and egularly conversed with Theologians and other men. He maintianed diplomatic relations with the Byzantine and Abbaside Empire s


When Charlemage inherited the Frankish thrne, what lands did he hae? 

Included most of modern france as well asthe lands that now for Beglgium, the Netherlands and Soutweste Germany 


Where di Charlemagne capaign for 32 years 

To impose his rul on the Sacon s in Germany 


Where did Charlemagne establish a court? 

At aachen, but he spent most of his reign travelling throughout his alm to maintin authority. Such consist travel was nece


Why did Charlemagne travel  so much 

because he didn not have the financial resources to maintan an eaborate bureaucracy or an adminstrative apparatus that oculd implement his politicies 


What were counts 

They were aristocratic deputues that held political, military authority and legl under some jurisdictions 


Missi Domici 

enoys of the lord ruler who traveled every year to all local jurisdiciton and reviewd the accounds 


What did Charlemagne build the Frankish kindom into an emire 

on the basis of military expeditions and began to outfit it with some centralzd institutions. Yet, he hesitated to call himself emperor because of byzantium 



Charlemange is crowend emperor by Poe lLeo. He did not know about this, but he had already built an impoerail state 


How did the Carlogian state collapse 

Internal disunity and exterbak ubvasuibs 


Louis the Pious 

succeded his father and kept the carolingian empire together. Lacking Charlemagne's strong wil and military skils, he lost control of the counts and other local authoriteis 


What was the dispute that went on with Louis the Pious 

His thre sons divided the empire into 3 portions 


Who pillaged the Franksih realm 

In search of welath. South : Muslims, they had sicily as well as sseveral territories in South italy and southern France. East: Magyars and the Vikings 


What did NOrese expansin relfect 

Population growth fueld by increased agricultrual productivity. It is also possible that they lashed out at Chirsitian communities 


Nosre expasion depended on what? 

On a set of shipbuilding techniqes and seafaring skills that scandinavian mariners developed during the seventh and eigth vcentures  built rugged boats outfitted with ails and reliably through the open ocean as well as 


The Norse found 

Iceland and Greeand. They also made colonies in North America that survived not veyr log


Most norse seafarers were 

Popele seeking commecial authorities


What does teh term Viking refer to 

A group that raided the British Ilse from Vik in norway. 


What were teh vikings boats 

draft boats, Sailors carefully coordianted their ships movement and timed their attacks. The boats often had dragondesigns on them. 


The Carolinginas had what 

nO navy and no means to protect vulnerable sites and no way to preduct the movemnts of vViking peoples. 


What did Defense rest with 

The forces of local poeple that could respond rapidly. 


Viking invasions in England prompted 

A series of small kingdoms by the Angles and saxons to merge 


The leader of England merging

King Alfred who expanded form his base in southern England to territoris farther norht held by Danish invaders. Alfreed built a navy ot challeng the Vikings at sea and constructed lands 


In Germany, the resonse to invasion brought 

The end of Carlingian rule and the formation of a more effective state 


King Otto I of Saxony 

In 955 he faced a large Magyar army at LEchfeld and inflicted a crushing diffeat that ended thier threat. He imposed his authority throughout Germany and led armies into Italy to Support the Papcy 



Proclaimed himself Emporer by the pope. Hebecame ruler of the Holy Roman Empire 


 France , the end of the Caroligians 

Subordinates withdrew alliance from teh cenrral government ruled thier territiries in their own intersts and usurped royal rights and prerogatives for them without reference. Vikings established settlements in norhter France and they had a decenralized political development 



Political and social order of medival Europe. They spoke routinely of feudal system based on a hiercrhy o lords and vassals . 


Local noble ssuch as the counts or other authorities tok responsibility for maintining 

order int hier own territories, These nobles usually owed a nominla allgiance to higher authority. 


Local lordes provided rants that enabled htier retainers 

to support hemselves and thier families, usually those grants were parcls of land. But sometimes they took other fors such as the right to income or rents na dayment s


The grants allowed retainers 

to devotte time to military forces and get military obidenant. 


The lord retainer relationship became very important 

Politically. The retainers increasingly exercised political and lgal rights over thier hodlings and became responsible for the local public works 


Why did the Lrod relationships becomve very complicated 

Because a lord might become a retiner to another lord, and the dependenc onthe  personal relationship also introduced an element of the instablility. Unless lrod


Lords had to 

discipline and control their retainers other wise tit could lead to poltiical chaos as in France. Yet, it was possibl for lords to built powerful states on teh foundations 


Military, political and legal affairs were 

The business of a small governing elite. 


The development of a decentraliezed political order accompanied what

fundamental changes in society 


As European society regained stablity, saves and free peasants 

worked at the sae kinds of asgricultral tasks and frequently intermaried. They w



Chatel lsaes were semifree. They had the right to work certain lands and pss rights totheir heirs. The o


What were some of the serfs obligaions 

They had to give a portion of thier harvet, give some adidtional labor, and owmen also worked 


Did serfs have any opportunity to move otother ands

 Not really, they had to with the permisison of their lord 


During the early midle ages, the institution of serfdom encouraged the development 

of the manor, sathe principal form of agricultural organization in wester Europe. 


What was a manor 

It was a large estate consisting of fields, meadows, forests, africultral lamd. 


What was the lord of the manor 

a prominent polical or military figure. He and his deputies provided govenrment, administration , political service and justice for the manor. If disputes arose, the lord and his servents restored order 


What could the manor be compared to 

A little city , because it had many things 


During the early and midle ages, economic activity in western Europe was 

considerably slower than in Chian, Indian, Soutwest asia and the eastern Emditerranean region. 


With the establishment of the Frankish kingdom and the carlingian empire, the European center of gravity shifted 

To the northern lans in France. But, the agricultrial tooks didn't transder very well 


After the 8th century, 

Heavy tooled equipped with iron tips tha tdug into the earth and with a mould nboard tha tturned the soil so as the aerate it thoroughly. ThI tdidn't see wide spread use for a long time. Onece hitche dto oxen or draft horses, heavy plow contributed to incrased agricultural produciotn 


What was constructed because of an increase in agricultral 

Water mills which enabled them to take advatage of renewable energy.D eveloped a horse collar that allowed them to increase the amount o fland in cultivation


Agricultrual surplus of early medievl Europe was 

Sufficient to sustain political elites such as lords and their retainer s but not substantial ennought to support cities with larg populations of artisans, craft works ,merchants, and profesionals.


Who produced most of the manufacturd goods/ 

Manors. Towns were very little 


Where did small scale trade take place? 

local market. maritime trade flourished and Christian merhcants from Italy n dspain regularly traded accros religous boundary lines iwht Smuslim . Food crops made their way from eh islamic workd there 


Where did Maritime trade flouris? 

iT flourished in the NOrht sea and the Baltic sea. Most active were the Norse seafarreres . They raided lands 


What routes did Norse seafarers follow? 

They went the same way as Viking raiders and many individual mariers no doubt tuned form Commerce to plnder. 


What did Norse people take? 

THye got fish, fur and honey from poland, wheat form England and wine from France. BEer from the low countries. They were able to trade actively with the other empires which was good. They


Who linked the Western Europe with other poepl

The norse people. They were able to ttransfer many pople



200 C.E 36 800 32 100 36


What source whas the thing of religous, moral and cultural authority throughout the Mediterranena basin 

Christianity. However, there were few converts in the North. Gemranic invaders of the Roman empire sometimes of Arian Chrisitanity 


Clovis and the Franks wn

Support of the chuch hierarch as well as the Christian ppulaiton of the former Roman empire which they converted 


Thier aliance ith Rome provided the Fanks with what 

The means to educate individuals. Scribes, aecretaris and reocrd popele came form Chuch 


What was a hallmark to Frankish polticy 

A deep commitment to Roman Christianity. Clovis and his successors and the Carolinginas viewed themselves as the papcy. 


Why did Charlmagne mount a military campaing 

That destroyed th eLombards because they had threatened the Popes 


Charlemange acted inteh suport of the religion nd 

worked to spread it. he had a sochool at his court in Aache where he ahd the most prominent scholars form all parts of his empire. they ocrreced texts and copied it and ordered monasteries thorughi t to provide free instrucitons 


What was the result of Charlemagne's efforts 

It was quite limiteed but increase literacy in latin as well as popular understainding of basic Christian doctorine 


How did Charlemange promote the spread of Christinanity 

Military force. He waged a bittter campaign against the soxons a pagan peopel in norther Germany. Alongside his claim, he insiste that the Saxons adopt Roman Chrisitianity. they 


Did Pagan principals dissapear form Western Europe? 

They did not, it survivde for centiries after the conquorers 


Apart form teh policial suppor that it recieved form the franks, Roman Church benefitted fomr 

Strong papal leadership. When the western Roman empire eollapsed, the papcy surivied and claime dauthority over the empire. 


TPope Gregory I 

Durign the late sxth century, the Lombards consolidated their hold on the Italian peninsula menacing Romand  the Chuch. He mobilized local resources and he reassedted the papl primacy, the claime that the bishop of Roman was the ultimate authority 


What theologian rule did Gregory have? 

He encouraged individuals confess their sins and atone for them 


How did Gregory extend the appeal to other pople 

He directed one at Englad and aimed his efofrts at the kings who ruled the various regions hoping tha thteir conversions would induce Chiristanity in teh other people. It worked 


Where did Christian monsticim have its origin

In egypt. during the second and the third centuries, many devout Christians sought to lead ascetic ad holy lives in teh desers of Gypt. 


During the early days of Christian monasticn, what happened 

Each community developed its own rules, procedures and priorities. Some communities demanded that their inhabitans follwe extremely austere lifestyles that sapped the energy of the monks. 


St. Benedict of Nursura 

Strenghthed the early monastic movement by providing it with discipline and a sense of purpose. 



Benedict prepared it. It did not permit extremem ascetism but it required onks to take vows to lead communal, calibate lives under the absolute direction of the abbot who superivesed the monaster, povery, chasity and obidence became the prime virtues. The rule also claled for monsk to spend their time in prayer, meditation adn work 


St. Scholastica 

Was Benedicts sister who provided guidance using the Rule for  women. 


Because of the Rule, 

Monasteries ebcame a dominant feature in the social and cultural life of western Europe throughout the middle ages. moansteries helped to provide order in the countryside for example aswellas authority over serfs 


What were Monasteries in society 

tThey were orphanages and schools as well as inns on the highway. THye were effective agents in teh spread of the religon