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Flashcards in Chapter 18 Deck (108):
1

Boucher left Paris 

was captured by Mongol warriors

2

What did Boucher do in is captivity? 

He lived at Karakorum and supervised fifty assistants in workshops that created silver things. 

3

Was Boucher the only person to live at a European Court

No, many people had ventured to the Mongol Courts 

4

By the early 14th century, what feat had the Mongol accomplished? 

Hey had built the largest Empire in the world 

5

How did Nomadic societies develop? 

by adapting to ecological conditions of arid lands. 

6

How do the nomadic societies develop in the 

Central Asia did not receive enough rain to support large scale culture. Oases permitted the intense cultivation.

7

Nomadic people drove their herds into places where there was abundant vegetation. What did they learn to follow 

Local seasons and climatic conditions 

8

What things did they live off of 

meat, milk, and hides of their animals 

9

What did they use animal bones for? 

tools adn they used animal dung as fuel for fires 

10

What were Yurts 

large tents that were made out of wool

11

How did the Mongols prepare an alcohol drink

out of mares milk. It was known as kumiss 

12

How did the arid climate influence the development of human societies 

It limited, oases could yield some agriculture 

13

Nomads sought what: 

opportunities to trade with settled peoples and the classical aera routes linked nomadic settlements 

14

What were two classes? 

Nobles and the commoners. 

15

How did you become a noble 

you won recognition and acquire prestige 

16

Did nobles govern

No. But they wielded absolute authority in times of war 

17

How was noble status passed? 

`It was passed along to heirs 

18

Could you loose your noble status? 

Yes, it was very possible if they did not provide appropriate leadership 

19

Commoners could 

win recognition as nobles by outstanding conduct,  courageous behaviour uring war

20

The earliest religion revolves around what 

shamans, They were religious specialists who possessed supernatural powers, communicated with the gods and nature spirits. 

21

Turkish people became attracted to what religion 

Islam. Inherit beliefs were not abandoned 

22

What caused conversion 

trade with European counterparts 

23

Who were the earliest converts to Islam

Turkish nomads captured in border raids by the Abbasid caliphate in the early ninth century 

24

Slijuqs turned to Islam and migrated to 

Iran  in hopes of improving their fortune 

25

Who was the ruler of a vast conferderation of subjects 

Khans. Ruled through leaders of organized tribes 

26

Nomadic people could wield enormous military power because of 

outstanding cavalry forces 

27

How did Nomads become so powerful

They learned to ride horses as children and they had superior equestrian skills 

28

In 1055, the caliph recognized who as the sultan 

Tughril Beg 

29

Tughril first consolidated his rule where 

In Baghdad and they extended to Syria, Palestine and other parts 

30

Where did many Turks go 

Led by Saljuqs they went to Anatoila  1071. At an army of Mazikert they defeated the Byzantine empire 

31

1453 Ottoman Turks captured what 

Constantinople 

32

Mahmud of Chazni led Ghaznavids into 

Afghanistan an dIndia 

33

The Ghaznavids began campaigns in 

early 11 century. They wanted to plunder 

34

Soon, the Gs became interested in what 

permanent rule. They asserted authority in Punjab, then Gujarat and Bengal 

35

Several of the dlhi sultans concieved plans to do what 

make an empire in South India 

36

What cultural implications did Turkish rule have in India 

Many buddhist and hindu establishments were destroyed. Conversion was encouraged in India

37

Tumujin was born when and into what 

1167 into a noble amily 

38

What was his family background 

Father was a prominent warrior who made an alliance between Mongol clans 

39

When Tejumin was 10, the alliance was abandoned 

40

How did Temujin live 

In poverty and elided his enemies 

41

Temujin made an alliance with who, 

A prominent mongol clan leader. He mastered the art of steppe diplomacy 

42

What does step diplomacy call for 

Personal courage intense loyalty. Willingnes to betray alllies or superiors to improve one's position. Entise other tribes into good relationships. 

43

1206 Temujin's supremacy was recognized when he was named 

Chinggis Khan 

44

How did Khan influennce the Mongol People 

He broke up the tribes and forced men of fighting age to join new military units with no tribal affiliations. 

45

How did he choose high military and poltical officials 

He chose them not on their kinship or status in the tribe but on their talents and loyalty to him 

46

Where was Khans's capital 

At karakorum. In present day Har Horin which is 300 km west of th eMongolian capital 

47

In his city, what did he build 

He built an amazing palace. 

48

What did Karakorum symbolize 

A source of Mongol authority superior to the clan or tribe 

49

What was the most important state of institution of the Mongols 

The army. 

50

How big was the army 

100.000-125000 

51

How did Mongol forces do their army 

they had great horse skills. As they grew up riding horses, they got skills by hinting and playing. 

52

Mongol horsemen were what. 

One of the most mobile people of the premodern world 

53

How was the treatment of enemies 

If they surrendered, the lives were spared. Usally they provided goo dtreatment of the prisoners. Otherwise DEATH 

54

Once he had united the mongosl where did Khan turn his attention to 

The other parts of central asia. Nearby settled societies. 

55

Where did Turkish people rule 

In Tibet, China, Persia, 

56

Why were his conquests important. 

Because tey protected him against the possibility that other nomadic leaders might challenge his rule 

57

Where did Khan extend Mongol rule 

To Northern China dominated since 1127 by Jurchen people. Song were in the South 

58

When did the Conquest begin 

1211 they raided the Jurchen realm. Soon a campaign of Conquest was develped. 

59

What was the capital named 

Khanbaliq (city of Khan) 

60

Khan also led forces to Afghanistan and Persia 

It was ruled by the Saljuqs  Khwarzm shah 

61

in 1218, the Shah hurt the mongol forces what happened 

He was murdered 

62

Chinggis Khan did what 

Wreaked destructiomn on the conquored land. Mongols demolished everything 

63

1227. and Khan's death, what happneded 

He died 

64

How was the empire divided up 

Chahatai ruled the Khanate in Central Asia, Ilkhans in the Persia,Khublai Khan in China 

65

Khubilai Khan was one of 

Khan's grandsons 

66

What were the qualities of KK 

He unleashed ruthless attacks on enemies

67

How did he promote culture 

He promoted Buddhism, Daoist, Muslim, and Christian

68

Great generosity to who 

poor and efforts to build roads 

69

KK spent how many years fighting conteors 

4

70

How did KK rule the state of China 

He attacked the Song dynasty and within 3 yearss eliminated al lresistance. 

71

when was KK emporer 

1279 

72

Beyond China was he successful at conquoring 

No, even though he had lauched several invasions of VIetnam, Cambodia and Burma 

73

Why KK

Mongol forces did not adapt well to the humid lands. They were not able to to feed animals 

74

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75

Golden Horde overran Russia between 

1237-1241 

76

How did The GH maintain the prized Black Sea stepps 

they had a large army. Did not occupy russia, maintained Hegomy of Russia for a while 

77

Hulegu did what 

toppled the Abbasid empire and established the Mongol ilkhanate 

78

Where did Hugelu go? 

He went to Syria and other places. 

79

How di  Mongol govern 

they didn't do much governing and often lost many of their territories 

80

How was the mongol governing in Persia 

They used Persians in positions as long as they paid taxes

81

How was Mongol and Persia 

The mongols assimilated to Persian culture

82

What was the Tolerance of religion in persia 

a high tolerance in 1295, Ilkhan Ghazan publically converted to Islam

83

In China how was the culture 

The Mongols were aloof from their subjects who they didn't like. They forbade much interaction 

84

How was the culture interaction with the Mongols in China 

They didn't assimilate at all to the culture. But there was tolerance

85

What was a Buddhism 

Lamaist Buddhism was popular. Because they promoted magic and supernatural powers. Also they esembled the Mongols religion. Lastly, they supported Mongols

86

The Mongols encouraged what 

Trade and they maintained many of the classical trade routes

87

Although the Mongol rulers fought, what was always safe 

The trade routes

88

The Khwarazm Shah was murdered because he did not promote 

Diplomatic relations which was important to the Mongols, and they activley promoted this 

89

Like the Silk roads, what was something that also traveled on it 

Religion. There were missionaries from almost every religon

90

What was another Mongol prtice that encouraged integration 

The usage of resettlement

91

What were the implications of resettlement? 

Special individuals were movled from their homes to many different places. This was good because it helped the Mongols with talent. Such was the case with the Uighur Turks who were literate. 

92

Explain the collapse of the Ilkhanate 

The ilkhan tried to resolve his financial difficultes by making paper money and ordering that all subjects accept it for payment of debts.

93

Also, in Perisa, factional struggles plagued the Mongol leadership,

94

In China 

factions and infighting hasten ed the decline

95

What was the issue with teh plague 

It was a big problem as the Mongols spread it and it went EVERYWHERE 

96

Also, there were rebellious subjects. BWhat Khanate Survived 

Chaghatai

97

What power filled China 

The Ming Dynasty

98

Who was a turkish conqueror 

Timur Lane 

99

Background of Timur Lane 

He was born in 1336 in Samarkand. He came from a family of nbility and had to make his own way to power. During the 1360s, he eliminated rivals and built a capital

100

Where did Timur Lane Go

He went to Persia and tried to get India. 

101

How did Timur Lane rule

Through tribal asssociations 

102

After his death, what happened 

Everyone fought, but the Mughal, Safavid and ottoman empires replaced it

103

After the Mongol conquest of Persia, what happened with the turks 

They migrated from central Asia to the ilkhanate and went to Anatoila 

104

Osman

Built a State there and then launched a campaign to build a state. Became Otomans

105

During 1350s, how did Ottomans gain advantage 

They established a foothold across the Dardanelles at Fallipoli on the Balkan peninsula. They moved to expand the boundaries of their holdings buand found support 

106

How dd Tamerlane delay the expansion of the ottoman 

He captured the sultan. But the Ottomans rebuilt themselves

107

IN 1453, what did Sultan Mehmed II do? 

Sacked constantinople 

108