Boucher left Paris
was captured by Mongol warriors
What did Boucher do in is captivity?
He lived at Karakorum and supervised fifty assistants in workshops that created silver things.
Was Boucher the only person to live at a European Court
No, many people had ventured to the Mongol Courts
By the early 14th century, what feat had the Mongol accomplished?
Hey had built the largest Empire in the world
How did Nomadic societies develop?
by adapting to ecological conditions of arid lands.
How do the nomadic societies develop in the
Central Asia did not receive enough rain to support large scale culture. Oases permitted the intense cultivation.
Nomadic people drove their herds into places where there was abundant vegetation. What did they learn to follow
Local seasons and climatic conditions
What things did they live off of
meat, milk, and hides of their animals
What did they use animal bones for?
tools adn they used animal dung as fuel for fires
What were Yurts
large tents that were made out of wool
How did the Mongols prepare an alcohol drink
out of mares milk. It was known as kumiss
How did the arid climate influence the development of human societies
It limited, oases could yield some agriculture
Nomads sought what:
opportunities to trade with settled peoples and the classical aera routes linked nomadic settlements
What were two classes?
Nobles and the commoners.
How did you become a noble
you won recognition and acquire prestige
Did nobles govern
No. But they wielded absolute authority in times of war
How was noble status passed?
`It was passed along to heirs
Could you loose your noble status?
Yes, it was very possible if they did not provide appropriate leadership
win recognition as nobles by outstanding conduct, courageous behaviour uring war
The earliest religion revolves around what
shamans, They were religious specialists who possessed supernatural powers, communicated with the gods and nature spirits.
Turkish people became attracted to what religion
Islam. Inherit beliefs were not abandoned
What caused conversion
trade with European counterparts
Who were the earliest converts to Islam
Turkish nomads captured in border raids by the Abbasid caliphate in the early ninth century
Slijuqs turned to Islam and migrated to
Iran in hopes of improving their fortune
Who was the ruler of a vast conferderation of subjects
Khans. Ruled through leaders of organized tribes
Nomadic people could wield enormous military power because of
outstanding cavalry forces
How did Nomads become so powerful
They learned to ride horses as children and they had superior equestrian skills
In 1055, the caliph recognized who as the sultan
Tughril first consolidated his rule where
In Baghdad and they extended to Syria, Palestine and other parts
Where did many Turks go
Led by Saljuqs they went to Anatoila 1071. At an army of Mazikert they defeated the Byzantine empire
1453 Ottoman Turks captured what
Mahmud of Chazni led Ghaznavids into
Afghanistan an dIndia
The Ghaznavids began campaigns in
early 11 century. They wanted to plunder
Soon, the Gs became interested in what
permanent rule. They asserted authority in Punjab, then Gujarat and Bengal
Several of the dlhi sultans concieved plans to do what
make an empire in South India
What cultural implications did Turkish rule have in India
Many buddhist and hindu establishments were destroyed. Conversion was encouraged in India
Tumujin was born when and into what
1167 into a noble amily
What was his family background
Father was a prominent warrior who made an alliance between Mongol clans
When Tejumin was 10, the alliance was abandoned
How did Temujin live
In poverty and elided his enemies
Temujin made an alliance with who,
A prominent mongol clan leader. He mastered the art of steppe diplomacy
What does step diplomacy call for
Personal courage intense loyalty. Willingnes to betray alllies or superiors to improve one's position. Entise other tribes into good relationships.
1206 Temujin's supremacy was recognized when he was named
How did Khan influennce the Mongol People
He broke up the tribes and forced men of fighting age to join new military units with no tribal affiliations.
How did he choose high military and poltical officials
He chose them not on their kinship or status in the tribe but on their talents and loyalty to him
Where was Khans's capital
At karakorum. In present day Har Horin which is 300 km west of th eMongolian capital
In his city, what did he build
He built an amazing palace.
What did Karakorum symbolize
A source of Mongol authority superior to the clan or tribe
What was the most important state of institution of the Mongols
How big was the army
How did Mongol forces do their army
they had great horse skills. As they grew up riding horses, they got skills by hinting and playing.
Mongol horsemen were what.
One of the most mobile people of the premodern world
How was the treatment of enemies
If they surrendered, the lives were spared. Usally they provided goo dtreatment of the prisoners. Otherwise DEATH
Once he had united the mongosl where did Khan turn his attention to
The other parts of central asia. Nearby settled societies.
Where did Turkish people rule
In Tibet, China, Persia,
Why were his conquests important.
Because tey protected him against the possibility that other nomadic leaders might challenge his rule
Where did Khan extend Mongol rule
To Northern China dominated since 1127 by Jurchen people. Song were in the South
When did the Conquest begin
1211 they raided the Jurchen realm. Soon a campaign of Conquest was develped.
What was the capital named
Khanbaliq (city of Khan)
Khan also led forces to Afghanistan and Persia
It was ruled by the Saljuqs Khwarzm shah
in 1218, the Shah hurt the mongol forces what happened
He was murdered
Chinggis Khan did what
Wreaked destructiomn on the conquored land. Mongols demolished everything
1227. and Khan's death, what happneded
How was the empire divided up
Chahatai ruled the Khanate in Central Asia, Ilkhans in the Persia,Khublai Khan in China
Khubilai Khan was one of
What were the qualities of KK
He unleashed ruthless attacks on enemies
How did he promote culture
He promoted Buddhism, Daoist, Muslim, and Christian
Great generosity to who
poor and efforts to build roads
KK spent how many years fighting conteors
How did KK rule the state of China
He attacked the Song dynasty and within 3 yearss eliminated al lresistance.
when was KK emporer
Beyond China was he successful at conquoring
No, even though he had lauched several invasions of VIetnam, Cambodia and Burma
Mongol forces did not adapt well to the humid lands. They were not able to to feed animals
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Golden Horde overran Russia between
How did The GH maintain the prized Black Sea stepps
they had a large army. Did not occupy russia, maintained Hegomy of Russia for a while
Hulegu did what
toppled the Abbasid empire and established the Mongol ilkhanate
Where did Hugelu go?
He went to Syria and other places.
How di Mongol govern
they didn't do much governing and often lost many of their territories
How was the mongol governing in Persia
They used Persians in positions as long as they paid taxes
How was Mongol and Persia
The mongols assimilated to Persian culture
What was the Tolerance of religion in persia
a high tolerance in 1295, Ilkhan Ghazan publically converted to Islam
In China how was the culture
The Mongols were aloof from their subjects who they didn't like. They forbade much interaction
How was the culture interaction with the Mongols in China
They didn't assimilate at all to the culture. But there was tolerance
What was a Buddhism
Lamaist Buddhism was popular. Because they promoted magic and supernatural powers. Also they esembled the Mongols religion. Lastly, they supported Mongols
The Mongols encouraged what
Trade and they maintained many of the classical trade routes
Although the Mongol rulers fought, what was always safe
The trade routes
The Khwarazm Shah was murdered because he did not promote
Diplomatic relations which was important to the Mongols, and they activley promoted this
Like the Silk roads, what was something that also traveled on it
Religion. There were missionaries from almost every religon
What was another Mongol prtice that encouraged integration
The usage of resettlement
What were the implications of resettlement?
Special individuals were movled from their homes to many different places. This was good because it helped the Mongols with talent. Such was the case with the Uighur Turks who were literate.
Explain the collapse of the Ilkhanate
The ilkhan tried to resolve his financial difficultes by making paper money and ordering that all subjects accept it for payment of debts.
Also, in Perisa, factional struggles plagued the Mongol leadership,
factions and infighting hasten ed the decline
What was the issue with teh plague
It was a big problem as the Mongols spread it and it went EVERYWHERE
Also, there were rebellious subjects. BWhat Khanate Survived
What power filled China
The Ming Dynasty
Who was a turkish conqueror
Background of Timur Lane
He was born in 1336 in Samarkand. He came from a family of nbility and had to make his own way to power. During the 1360s, he eliminated rivals and built a capital
Where did Timur Lane Go
He went to Persia and tried to get India.
How did Timur Lane rule
Through tribal asssociations
After his death, what happened
Everyone fought, but the Mughal, Safavid and ottoman empires replaced it
After the Mongol conquest of Persia, what happened with the turks
They migrated from central Asia to the ilkhanate and went to Anatoila
Built a State there and then launched a campaign to build a state. Became Otomans
During 1350s, how did Ottomans gain advantage
They established a foothold across the Dardanelles at Fallipoli on the Balkan peninsula. They moved to expand the boundaries of their holdings buand found support
How dd Tamerlane delay the expansion of the ottoman
He captured the sultan. But the Ottomans rebuilt themselves
IN 1453, what did Sultan Mehmed II do?