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Flashcards in Chapter31 Part2 Deck (56):

Independent Mexico experienced a succession of governments from

Monarchy. To a liberal reform movement


Who was Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

He attempted to perpetuate his intermittent rule


What did benito juarez do?

He led the liberal reform and he aimed o limit the power of the military and the roman catholic church in Mexican society


La reforma

It curtailed the prerogatives of military priests and mil Italy litigates and it guaranteed universal male suffrage and other civil liberties such as freedom of speech and their things


What conservatism did la reforma challenge?

It challenged the mexican elites who led spiritd opposition it political social and economic reform people stayed bitterly divided and c


To lessen mexico financial woes what did Juarez choose to do

Suspend loan payments to the forming powers that led t o French British and Spanish intervention


How did people end up invading in Mexico

Napoleon iit provided especially persistent and intrusive. He attempts to end Mexican disorder gave resistant at Puebla he the. Set tens of thousands of trios to proclaim a Mexican empire


By the early twentieth century, what was Mexico.. And what did it lead to

It was a divided land that ultimately ended up in a revolution... Middle class Mexican s Jodi with peasants a d workers to overthrow the powerful ad violent efforts in Latin America


Profiro Diaz

He was the dictator at that TIME


The war in Mexico marked the first major..

It was the first major conflict in Latin America. It was an attempt to topple the grossly unequal system of land distribution where like 95 percent of the peasants were landless


What did the peasaNts n Mexico do?

The peasants became increasingly radical and they became armed with forces and started going with guirella tactics


Who did the lower classes follow? 

They followed the revolutionary leaders Emiliano Zapata and Francisco Pancho Villa, charasmatic agrarian rebels who organized massive armies fighting fr tierra y libertad


What is tierra y libertad 

land and liberty, which were Zapata's revolutionary goa


What was Zapata's background? 

he was the son of a mestizo peasant and Villa, was the son of a field worker


what did each reformer do? 

Zapata confiscated  hacienda lands and began distributing hte lands to tehe peasants while Villa attacked and killed US  citizens


Despite the popularity enjoyed by Zapata and Villa, what were they unable to do? 

Capture mexco's major cities and they did not command the resources and weath to which government forces had access. The Mexican revolution came ot an end soon after 


When did the Mexican Revolution come to an end..and why? 

after government forces ambushed nad killed Zaputa while driving in the twon of Hidalogo de Parral, his car and body was riddled with bullets.


What was the Mexican constitution 

Of 1917, had already addressed some of the concerns of the revolutionaries by providing for land redistribution, universal suffrange, state supported education


Underpinning the economic developmen tof the AMericas was the what?

Mass migration of European and Asian peoples to the United State, Canada,and Latin Ameirca. 


What were some reasons that people migrated to the United States? 

Because they wanted gold...and other things 


Outnumbering gold prospectors were millions of European and Asian migrants who made thier way to the...

railroad construction sites, factories and plantations. Others who offered support to new migrant workers and gave them ore comfort and at the same time transformed the ethic and cultural  landscape of the Americas


After the mid ninteenth century, European Migrants flocked to North America, where they filled the what?

Factories and growing industrial economy of the United States


Why were migrants atractive to industrialists? 

Because they were seeking workers to operate machinery or perform labor at low wages.


in 1850, how many European migrants were in the United States 

2.3 million 


Increasing indebtness drove cultivatos from where? 

Ireland,Scotland, Gemrany and Scandinavia 


Where did some of the immigrants settle, 

They moved to the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys in search of cheap and abundant land but many stayed in eastern cities and contributed 


What were some ethnic groups that came to the united states? 

EasternEurope, poles, Russian Jews Slavs, Italians, Greeks and Portugese wer emost prominent among the later migrants, and they settled largely in the industrial cities of the eastern States


Where were Asian migrants prominent? 

They were prominent in  California...


Why did Chinese Migration grow rapidly in the 1840s? 

Because officials of the Qing government permitted foreigners to seek indentured laberors in China and approveed thier migration to distant lands


Wheras migrants to the United States contributed o the development of an industril society , those who went to Latin Ameircan lands mostly worked on what? 

Agricultural plantations



Swallos, Italian workers settled in Argentina, and became known as that because of regular migrations


Other migrants who worked on plantations in the western hemisphere came frm wher? 

Western lands like China,. Indian migrants traveled to Jamaica, Trinidad, and Tobago 


When did British investment in the UNited States prove to be crucial? 

During the early stages of industrial development. It spurred a vast expansion of US industry. 


The flow of investment monies was a consequence of Britians own industry//which generated 

enormous wealth, and created a need for investors to find profitable outlets


After the 1860s, U>S> business made effective usage of what? 

Foreign investment capital as the reunited land recovered form the Civil war


What was the most important economic development of the later ninteenth century 

the construction of railroad lines that linked all U.S. regions nad helped create an integrated national exonomy. 


Because of its enormous size, and environmental diveristy, what did the United States offer? 

an abundance of natural resources  for industrial exploitation, but vast distances made it difficult to maintin close economic ties


Railroads influenced U.S. economic development because

They provided cheap transportation for agricultural products


What did Railroads haul> 

Grain, beef, hogs form the plains states,c otton, and tobacco from the south, lumber form the northwest, and iron and steel 


What changes in organization did railroads lead to? 

they Alered the landscape, in land control and developmen . There was continued exploitation of land resources, and there was more farming na dmining lands


What were the new developments in time? 

Well railroads developed railroad time


Led by railroads, the U.S economy expandedat a blistering pace, what happened? 

Inventors designed new products and brought them to the market. E


What emerged with industrialization? 

LArge scale labor unions, emerged 


Who else did the British influence/ 

They alos influenced the development of the Canadian


National Policy 

It was a canadian idea, that was supposed to attract migrants, and protet the industries through tarriffs, and build national transport systems


What was the canadian railroad network

the Canadian Pacific Railroad.


What did the National Policy create> 

Some violent altercations with indegenous people who resisted encroachments by other people


As a result of national policy, what did Canada experience? 

A booming agricultural, mineral, and industrial prodction 


Who also invested in Canada? 

The United States did. 


Even when Spain and POrtugal controlled the trade and investment policies, their hom eeconomies were unable to spply 

sufficient quanttitie sof the manufcatured goods. As a result, they opeed the colonies to European trade


The relatively small size of Latin American limited foreign investment..british 

had little despire, din't want to invest because htere was no  market, so they invested and took advantage of it


What did the investors encourage the development of? British 

cattle, and sheep ranching..refrigerated cargo ships, meat...


Porfiro Diaz ruled Mexico, he did what for industrialization? 

He put railroad tracks and telegraph lines, in all parts of Mexico, an dthe production of mineral resources surged 


How did Mexico undergo transform the city? 

there were paved streets, street car lines, and electric street lights, but the profits form the mexican enterprises did not support more industrial development


What did Latin America export? 

Copper and silver, bananas and coffee, rubber and coffee, beef and wheat