Independent Mexico experienced a succession of governments from
Monarchy. To a liberal reform movement
Who was Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
He attempted to perpetuate his intermittent rule
What did benito juarez do?
He led the liberal reform and he aimed o limit the power of the military and the roman catholic church in Mexican society
It curtailed the prerogatives of military priests and mil Italy litigates and it guaranteed universal male suffrage and other civil liberties such as freedom of speech and their things
What conservatism did la reforma challenge?
It challenged the mexican elites who led spiritd opposition it political social and economic reform people stayed bitterly divided and c
To lessen mexico financial woes what did Juarez choose to do
Suspend loan payments to the forming powers that led t o French British and Spanish intervention
How did people end up invading in Mexico
Napoleon iit provided especially persistent and intrusive. He attempts to end Mexican disorder gave resistant at Puebla he the. Set tens of thousands of trios to proclaim a Mexican empire
By the early twentieth century, what was Mexico.. And what did it lead to
It was a divided land that ultimately ended up in a revolution... Middle class Mexican s Jodi with peasants a d workers to overthrow the powerful ad violent efforts in Latin America
He was the dictator at that TIME
The war in Mexico marked the first major..
It was the first major conflict in Latin America. It was an attempt to topple the grossly unequal system of land distribution where like 95 percent of the peasants were landless
What did the peasaNts n Mexico do?
The peasants became increasingly radical and they became armed with forces and started going with guirella tactics
Who did the lower classes follow?
They followed the revolutionary leaders Emiliano Zapata and Francisco Pancho Villa, charasmatic agrarian rebels who organized massive armies fighting fr tierra y libertad
What is tierra y libertad
land and liberty, which were Zapata's revolutionary goa
What was Zapata's background?
he was the son of a mestizo peasant and Villa, was the son of a field worker
what did each reformer do?
Zapata confiscated hacienda lands and began distributing hte lands to tehe peasants while Villa attacked and killed US citizens
Despite the popularity enjoyed by Zapata and Villa, what were they unable to do?
Capture mexco's major cities and they did not command the resources and weath to which government forces had access. The Mexican revolution came ot an end soon after
When did the Mexican Revolution come to an end..and why?
after government forces ambushed nad killed Zaputa while driving in the twon of Hidalogo de Parral, his car and body was riddled with bullets.
What was the Mexican constitution
Of 1917, had already addressed some of the concerns of the revolutionaries by providing for land redistribution, universal suffrange, state supported education
Underpinning the economic developmen tof the AMericas was the what?
Mass migration of European and Asian peoples to the United State, Canada,and Latin Ameirca.
What were some reasons that people migrated to the United States?
Because they wanted gold...and other things
Outnumbering gold prospectors were millions of European and Asian migrants who made thier way to the...
railroad construction sites, factories and plantations. Others who offered support to new migrant workers and gave them ore comfort and at the same time transformed the ethic and cultural landscape of the Americas
After the mid ninteenth century, European Migrants flocked to North America, where they filled the what?
Factories and growing industrial economy of the United States
Why were migrants atractive to industrialists?
Because they were seeking workers to operate machinery or perform labor at low wages.
in 1850, how many European migrants were in the United States
Increasing indebtness drove cultivatos from where?
Ireland,Scotland, Gemrany and Scandinavia
Where did some of the immigrants settle,
They moved to the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys in search of cheap and abundant land but many stayed in eastern cities and contributed
What were some ethnic groups that came to the united states?
EasternEurope, poles, Russian Jews Slavs, Italians, Greeks and Portugese wer emost prominent among the later migrants, and they settled largely in the industrial cities of the eastern States
Where were Asian migrants prominent?
They were prominent in California...
Why did Chinese Migration grow rapidly in the 1840s?
Because officials of the Qing government permitted foreigners to seek indentured laberors in China and approveed thier migration to distant lands
Wheras migrants to the United States contributed o the development of an industril society , those who went to Latin Ameircan lands mostly worked on what?
Swallos, Italian workers settled in Argentina, and became known as that because of regular migrations
Other migrants who worked on plantations in the western hemisphere came frm wher?
Western lands like China,. Indian migrants traveled to Jamaica, Trinidad, and Tobago
When did British investment in the UNited States prove to be crucial?
During the early stages of industrial development. It spurred a vast expansion of US industry.
The flow of investment monies was a consequence of Britians own industry//which generated
enormous wealth, and created a need for investors to find profitable outlets
After the 1860s, U>S> business made effective usage of what?
Foreign investment capital as the reunited land recovered form the Civil war
What was the most important economic development of the later ninteenth century
the construction of railroad lines that linked all U.S. regions nad helped create an integrated national exonomy.
Because of its enormous size, and environmental diveristy, what did the United States offer?
an abundance of natural resources for industrial exploitation, but vast distances made it difficult to maintin close economic ties
Railroads influenced U.S. economic development because
They provided cheap transportation for agricultural products
What did Railroads haul>
Grain, beef, hogs form the plains states,c otton, and tobacco from the south, lumber form the northwest, and iron and steel
What changes in organization did railroads lead to?
they Alered the landscape, in land control and developmen . There was continued exploitation of land resources, and there was more farming na dmining lands
What were the new developments in time?
Well railroads developed railroad time
Led by railroads, the U.S economy expandedat a blistering pace, what happened?
Inventors designed new products and brought them to the market. E
What emerged with industrialization?
LArge scale labor unions, emerged
Who else did the British influence/
They alos influenced the development of the Canadian
It was a canadian idea, that was supposed to attract migrants, and protet the industries through tarriffs, and build national transport systems
What was the canadian railroad network
the Canadian Pacific Railroad.
What did the National Policy create>
Some violent altercations with indegenous people who resisted encroachments by other people
As a result of national policy, what did Canada experience?
A booming agricultural, mineral, and industrial prodction
Who also invested in Canada?
The United States did.
Even when Spain and POrtugal controlled the trade and investment policies, their hom eeconomies were unable to spply
sufficient quanttitie sof the manufcatured goods. As a result, they opeed the colonies to European trade
The relatively small size of Latin American limited foreign investment..british
had little despire, din't want to invest because htere was no market, so they invested and took advantage of it
What did the investors encourage the development of? British
cattle, and sheep ranching..refrigerated cargo ships, meat...
Porfiro Diaz ruled Mexico, he did what for industrialization?
He put railroad tracks and telegraph lines, in all parts of Mexico, an dthe production of mineral resources surged
How did Mexico undergo transform the city?
there were paved streets, street car lines, and electric street lights, but the profits form the mexican enterprises did not support more industrial development
What did Latin America export?
Copper and silver, bananas and coffee, rubber and coffee, beef and wheat