Who was Burzig ibn Shahriyar?
A 10th century shipmaster from Siraf, a prosperous and bustling port city on the Persian gulf coast. He sailed frquently to Arabian and Inda and may have ventured to Malaya, the islands of Southeast Asi, China and east Africa
What did Burzig write?
He wrote 136 short stories in Book of Wonders. It had a bunch of tall tales he told of fiant lobster tha tseized a ship's anchor and dragged the essel through the water of mermaids and sea drafons of creatures born form human fathers and fish mothers. Yet, alongside the tall tales, many of Burxigs stories relfecte dthe conditions of the time
How did the Gupta dynasty end?
It came under sever spressure form nomadic invaders. From the mid fourth to the mid fith century , Gupta ruler sresisted the rpressures and preserved order throuhgout muhc of hte Indian subcontinent.
Who invaded india in 451
The white Huns and their invasion led to the end of the Gupta dyanasty.
What was the differen ce for norht and south Inda
they followed different political trajectories afte rthe fall of teh Gupta empire. In the norht, politics becmae turbulent and almost chaotic.
What was it like in the north?
IT was chaotic. Nomadic turkish people from central Asia frquently took advantage of that unselttled state of affairs to crosso the Byber ass and frce sthier way into Inda. They found niches for themselves in teh caste system
606-648 temporarily resptored unified rule in most of norhtern Inda and sough tto revive imperail authority.
Origins of Harsha
He cam e to the throne of his kingdom and sough t to revive imperial authority. Harsha came ot teh thorne at age 16. He was fille diwth energy and ambition and his army thorhgout norhtern Inda
20 thousand cavlry, fifithy thousand infantry and five thousand war elephants and by 612, he had subdued those who refused ot rcognize his authority. He extended his influence to the Himalayas
What was HArsha's reputation
He was kind adn had a reputaion for piety , liberality and even scholarship. He provided the free medical carefor his subjects and buit hospitals .
Why did Harsha's kingdom collapse
because local rulers had establishe dtoo many basis of powers and he had to try to get alliances wiht local rulers who were just kings
Conquest of the Snd
Arab forces entered inda in the seventh century, evne before the establishment of the Umayyad caliphate although thier first expidition were exploratory venturyes rather than campaigns.
They conquered Sind, the indus valley in the norhtewest and incorperatedin the Umayyad empire. Sind stood on the
was on the Islamic world, but it was cool because it also had abunc of Hindu, Budhdist or Parsi people and they ahd many muslim movements
Where did Muslim merchants take thir faiths
Araba and Perisan mariners had visited Indian ports ofr centuiies before Muhamad and their muslim ecendants dominated trade and transport networks between Inda and western lands from the seventh thorugh the fifteenth century.
How idd the Islmic epople gain control in these territories
They married ocal wome an d gradually, there was a new Muslim population
What was a trade city
It was called camby
What was the third route that Islam reached india
Through migrations and invasions of Turkish speaking peop,e from central Asia. During the tenth century, several Turkish gorups had become acquainted wiht ISalam through their deaings and they entered the realm and moved inteo Afghanistan
Mahmud of Ghazani
Was the leader of the Turks in Afghanistan and soon turned his attention to the rich ladn t the south. between 1001-1027, hemounted seventeen raideing expeditins ito Inda and he took andvantaege of local infighting and established several states.
Why did Mahmud come?
He was intersted in plundering imany of the temples. They established Mosques
What was the sultanate fo Dlhi
It was the systematic conqueoring of the north and the Delhi was thecontorling point. It had a strong army, and the sultans reign did not extend far beyond the place. They often conducted raid, and they had no permanent bureaucracy or politcal and military authority
had competitions between states which sometimes resulted in regional wars, but southern conflicts were less frquent, less intense and es dmaging than those that plagued the north
In the deep south which ruled Coromandel coast for more than four centuriesfrom 850-1267. At its high point during the eleventh century, hey Had Ceylon
What was the CHola's kigdom strong point
Its navy which dominated the water from the south china sea the arabian sea
Chola rulers govenrment
Did not build a tightly centralized state, they allowed considerable autonomy for local and village institutions as long as they maintained order and delivered tax revenue on time. Cola ruelrs had es sinterst in buiding a poweful state that in realizing profts that came form their domination of trdae in the Indian ocea
Where di dChola offica sgo?
Native Sinhalese and Ceylon
based in teh norhtern Deccan. The kingdom
ORigin of Vijayanagar?
Two brothers Harihara and Bukka to represent the Sultan. They recognized an opportunity to establish themselves as an independent rulers from the sultans. in1336, they renoune dSlam reture do their origianl Indu faith (City of Vicotry)
Because of the rhythms of the Monsoon ws,
irrigation was essential for the maintenance of a large densely populated agricultural socity
What were the season like
The spring and usmmer, warm, moisture laden winds from the southwaest bourought rainfall. Autumn and winter cool adn dry winds blow
What were the irirgation systems?
In Northern inda, the fixtures since Harappan times hwen cultivators tapped the waters of teh Indus river. leater,t he Armyasns migrated tinto the GangesRiver valley and they found plentiul surface water.
Southern Water sytems
It became more densely populated, irrigation systems became curicial and a great deal of energy and efoort went into the costruciton of waterworks. Dams, reservoirs, canals, wells and tunnels appeared.
during the 11th century gcovered some 650 km. Projects of that size requried enormous investments of Human energy
What were the population growths
The demographic surge encouraged what?
The concentration of people in tcities. During eh 14century, the capital city had a bunch of poeple
What were some cities?
Cambay, Surat, Caicut, Quilon, and Masulipatam
As population grew, what opportunities became avaliable
Opportunities for specializaion in Labor
What were the staple crops
Rice, Wheat, Barley, and Millet.
Where did Specialized Crops Grow?
Iron from Begal, Salt from coastla region, pepper from the south.
Who benefitted from trad the most
Southern Idna and CEylon benefited especially handsomely form the trade. Southern Experienced rapid growth and development
What did the Chola Rulers allowe consdiderable autonmy for their subjects
Towns and villiages largely organized thier own affiars. Public life revovleved arond Hindu temples
Served as economic and social centers. Southern Indans organized agricultural activites, coordinated work on irrigation systems and maintained reserves of surplus that provided basic schooling for boys adn insturciton as well. The temples often hasd large tracts of agricultural land and they sometimes employed hundreds of people. Temples were aslo bankers, ade loans and invested in commerical and business ventures.
Indian prospertiy sprang from where?
The productiveity of In but it depended on teh vast wealth that circulated int eh commerical world of the indain ocean.
Dhows adn Junks
Dhows were fabored by Indian, Persian and Arab sailors and averaged 100 tons the Junks sailed fomr China . As these complex ships, came, mariners usually entrusted thier cargo tot he Monsoon season.
BEcause iNdian stood int eh middle of the Indan OCean basin, what was it
It was a natural site for emporia and warehouses. Merchants coming form east africa or persia exchanged thier goods at a trading ite. Mariners form Chian or southeast Asia called at Indain ort san dtraded their cargos for goods to shp east with summer monsoon
What was emporia outside of Inda
Siraf, many people lived in these places
Particularly after the establishment of the Ymayyad and Abbasid dyansties, trade
Surged, Indian merchatns and mariners sometimes traveled to Distant lands in search of marketable goods but the carryig trade between Inda adn points west into Arab and Perisan hadns.
As the volue fo tradein the Indian Ocean basin increased, what happened
Lnads around the ocean began to engage in specialized roduction of commodities for the commerical market.
What were some tfo the things that INdain Artisiams made?
They made cototn textiels and specific agriculteal prodcuts came into population such as cotton (because the textiles were very popular). Sgar refining, leather taning, stone carving and carpet weaving. Iron and seel
What were the Indian people known for?
Production of high carbon steel which held a lethal cutting edge an dconsequently came into use. China produced silk, pocelain adn lacquerware, southeaste lands provided fine spices, incesnse,horses, and slaves
Kingdom of Axum
Well illutrates the potential of trade to support political as well as economic develpment. I
What were the origins of the kingdom of Axum
It was originated in highlands of northern Ethiopia about the first cenry CEN. It was a small kingdom whose mechants traded from the port of Adulis on the Red Sea. Axum soon displaced Kush as the link. IT even destoryed the capital of Meroe. During the 4-5 century, Adpted Chiristianity and hung out with arabs
What came into Afriaca
The sgold, ivory adn slaves out
New popel did what to the caste system?
Individuals and gorups have just adapted to it. IT made a more complex case system
The caste sytem relfecte what?
Changes in indan society. It adapted to the arrival of Migrants for example and helped to integrate them into indan soiety. As Turkish peoples of Muslim Merchants pursurd opportunities iniInda, they gained recognition as a distict group
What did Individuals most closely identify with
Their Jati or subjcast which oftentooj the form of a workers guilds. As merchants and manufacturers became increasuingly important in the larger econmy, the organized poewful guilds to represent thier interstes
Merchants guilds in particular
wireld d political and economic influcen wince their emebers enjoyed acces to consdierable wealth adn contirbute d in large measue to the economic health of thier states. They had group identities
Where did the castessystem go?
It went to south india as well/. Th emergence of merchant and craft gilds in southern regions stengthened the caste ssytems
Where does Budhdism flourish in
In east asia and central asia as well as parts of southeast asia
What did Hinduism and Islam promise
Slavation to devout individuals and they gradually atracted BUddhists to their own communitties.
Invasions to Inda did what?
Hastened the decline of Buddhism because the invaders looted and destroyed the stupas. 1196. Nalanda was overran
What was a reason for the popularity fo Hindusim
The growht of devotional cults, particularly those dedicated ot Vishnu and Shiva. Two of the most important deities inHidnu Pantheon
Who was Vishnua?
He was the preserver of the wrold, a god who oberved the universe form the heavens and who occcasionally wentered theworld in human form to resist evil or communicate his teachings
Siva was who
was both the god of fertilityand destructive deity. HE brough and took away life but. Hindus had many gods associated with Vishnua and shiva
Why did hindus embrace the new cults?
Because they prmised slaation. They became very popular in south india wher efamilies went to great lenghts to honor their deity
Often, what did people do
They identified Vishnu and Shiva with a local spiirit or deity associated with a particular region or a prominent geographic feature
Famous cult of Shiva
Lord fo dancers, wher the shivalingam was venerated locally in South INda. In teh cholad kindom, thekings tookteh dancing Shiva sn their family god and sread the cults opularity,
What did Hindus hoep
To achieve a mystical union
A south indian devottee of Shiva who was active during the early 9th century. He held tha tthe physical world was the illusion and a figment of the imagination and tha tultimate reality lay beyond the physical sense. He mistrusted emptional services and thought tha tlogical reaosning was the best
Was a devotee of Vishnu who was active duign the elevent . Also, a brahmin philosopher form southern , His htought relfected the deep influence of cults. Intellectual understanding of ultimate reality was less imprtant thatn personal union.
The Islamic faith did not attract much
Immediate interst among INdians when it arrived in the subcontinent. It won graudal acceptance in the merchant communities where foreign MUslim traders took local souses and found a place in indian society
How much were Indain Muslimes 1500
25 million because they wanted to get out of discrimination. Infact, they hoped to imporove thier socieal standing by converison.
Who were th emost effective agents of conversion
Suf mystics. This is because thy encouraged a person, emotional, and devotional approach.They didn't insist on fine points of doctrine and they sometimes even permitted thier followers to observe rituals orvenerate siprits not recognized by the faith.
A clt of love and deevotion tha tultimately sought to erase the distintion between Hindusim and IS,am. The bhakti movement emerged in southern India during the `12th century, tit encouraged a traditional piety and devotion to Hindu values. The movement spread to the noth, and htey encountered to MUslims and spread to the norht, and manythinsg came
Was a blind weaver who was one of the most famous bhakti teachers went so as far as to teach that Shiva, Vishnu and Allah were al manisfestations of a single universal deity.
Th eprincipal source of many othe rpolitical sturciures and religions to local needs and intersts. Although Indan armed forces rarely ventured into South east, merchants intorducted things to them
Indian merchatns visted the islamds in Southeast asia from
An early date, perhaps as wearly as 500BCE. By the early centuries, they wee familier figurs and their prescens brought opportunities for the rnative ruling class of elites
What did the SOutheast and merchants trade
Textiels, beads, gold silver, metal goods and objectives used in politcal or religious rituals. South Asian eople incorperated India into their government
What was the southeastern model?
They adopteded Kingship as the principal form of political authoriyt. Regional kings in southeast Asia surrounded themselves wiht courts featuring administrators and rituals similar to those in inda
What did rulers of Southeastern Societies sponser
Hinduism or Budhdism . They had the epics in the court and treatises that explained the buddhist views on teh world. They did not show much enthusiasn for the Indain caste ssytem but ocntinued to acknoqwlesge thier own dietie
Dominated the lwoer reachos of MEkong River. Between the first and then sixth cenuries. The ruler sof Funan consolitdated their grip on MEkong valley and built a capital city at the port of Oc Eo
Why was Funan wealth?
Because the the isthmus of kra, because merchants transported goods between Chian adn Inda. The short portage enabled htem to avoid a long voyage around the Malya Peninsula. They controleld trade
What was the Funan term for king
Raja, Indian political, cultural and religious. The ruers claimed divine sanciton in the manner of Hinndu. They setablisshed position of administratoros and bureaucrats such as those found at indain cours. They had =Indina ceremonies.
Who took over Funan
Based on the islamd of Sumara. They built a powerful navy and controlled commerce in southeast Asian waters they compelled port citie sin southeat Asia to recogniezed thier authority
How did Srivijaya maintian order?
It was strong had had trade
What were the kingdoms that were landbased
Funan and Angkor
What were islnd based
Singo sari and Majapahit
Which ones wer e Hidnu
Funan and Majaput
Whoi was budhdist
Srivijaya and Angjor. Native southeast Sian fashined a cultural blend of all fo them
Khemers begame to buld a capital city Angkor Thom. Wiht thea id fo brahmin advisors fro m india, they built a temple representing Mount Meru. They added Buddhism to the comlplex/
When did the Khemers abandon Angkor
Islam in Southeast Asia
Small communities of foreign merhcants observed thier faith in the port cities of the region. but attracte ilitte interst on the part of th enative inhabitants. Ruling elites became intersted in the FAith
How did Islam work in teh society
They kept some of their cultural traditions
During the Fifteenth century, what happened
The spread of Islam gaimed comentunm in Southeast Aisa, leagely because the powerufl state of MElaka, sponsered the faith throguhotu the Sumatra. It took adavanage fo its strategic location in the stragiht. I twas more fo a lair o fpirates than a kingdom. IT started as a Hindu state, and soon became islamic