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Flashcards in Chapter 24 Transformation of Europe Deck (74):
1

What did Martin Luther (1483-1546) benefit from? 

He benefitted from others who resented the Roman Catholic Church. he lso had good works with the printing press, 95 thesis's appeared everywhere

2

What did Lutehr attack? 

He ataced the Roman chuch for a wide range of abuses, and called for a reform. He attacked: 

1. The sale of indulgences

2. The monasteries (advocated the closure of them)

3. Translation of the Bible inot vernacular languages

3

What did Martin Luther proclaim as the only source of Christian authority? 

The Bible

4

Where did Luther's works gain popular support? 

In Germany and they fueled a movement to reform Chirsitinaity on luther's reforms

5

By mid 16th century, what did the German popluation adopt? 

Luthernism, and reformers had launched Protestant movemnts everywhere

6

WHere were some protestant movements? 

In Switzerland, n the cities of Zurich,Basel and Geneva

7

In England, a Reformaiton took palce because

Henry VIII did not want to stay married to Cathrine of Aragon....ANglican Church

8

Who was John Calvin? 

He was a  reformer, a French lawyer who in the 1530s converted to Protestant Christianity, beca

9

When calvin slipped accross the boarder to Switzerland, what did he wite> 

He wrote the Institutes of Chrisitan Religion, that woked to impose a strict code of mortality and discipline

10

Calvin's Geneva was not only a model PRotestant community, but a missionary center, calvinist missionaries were most active where? 

In France , they were active, and also went to Germany and Scotland

11

The Calvinists 

Establishe dchurches in all these lands and worked for reform along Protestant  lines..

12

In response to the Protestant Reformation, what did the Roman Catholic Church do? 

The authorites undertook an enormous reform effort within thier own Church 

13

What did the Roman Catholics sought to do? 

Define thier won points of doctirne so as to clarify differences between the two religons, and deepen spirituality 

14

What were two things that were formed in part of the RC reformation? 

Council of Trent, and Society of JEasus

15

What was the Council of Trent? 

It was an assemnly of bishops, cardinals, adnother high churhc officals who ment between 1545-1563 to address matters of docrine and reform 

16

The councild rew on works from

scholastic Theologin St. Thomas Aquainas, and the council defined the eemnts of Roman Catholoc theology in detail, demanded that Church observe strict things on morality 

17

What was the Society of JEasus? 

It was the spreading thing. St. Igantius Loyola founded it. It was a society of Jesuits, who completed a rigorous and advanced education. They recieved instruction on theology and that of preparation 

18

What religious practice shows the patriarchal nature of the society

Wich hunting, because all of them were women 

19

What was witch hunting explained by? 

Failure of a crop, unexpected death, outbreak of a deat, disease, concieve of a child

20

WHat was a famous witch trial

Salem witch trials

21

What were some religious wars

1. Ones in France, for 36 years (1562-1598) 

2. Philip II of PSain and England, the Spanish Armada got invoved, and tried to convert Queen Elizabeth 

3. King of Spain, and NEtherlands, Phillip wanted to tighten his holdings there and it escalated there

22

What was teh 30 years war? 

When the Holy Roman emperor attempted to force his Bohemian subjects to return to the Roman Catholic Church. The battle ground was Germany, but other states entered

23

What motives did the states have for entering the war

religious,economic, political

24

After 1438, the Habsburg Family had extensive dynastic holdings in Austria, dominated the Holy Roman Empire, how did htye accumulate rights and titles

through marriages, Charlex V inherited a lot of land, including the duchy of BUrgundy 

25

When he became emperor, he acquired authority over(Charles V)

Burgundy, Spain, Italy, And Americas, Bohemia, and othe rparts

26

What was Charles V very concerned about? 

He was concerned about keeping the Luthern movment down..so that there was not a huge revoution 

27

What were Charles V's foreign challenges? 

France teamed up with the Ottoman Turks over the Empire. The Ottomans did not want to see a powerful Chirsitian emperor threaten their holdings in eastern Europe and their position in the mediterranena basin 

28

WHo were some of the new monarchs 

Henry VII, and Islabell of Spain 

29

ow did the new monarchs increase their finance? 

Fench kings levied direct taxes on sales households and salte trade. Henry severed ties with the Roamn Catholic Churhc

30

What did new monarchs maintian 

They maintained, texes, and armies, so that they could beat the nobles. 

31

What was the Spanish Inquisition? 

It was essentially when the spnish went and rooted out whoever was not Roman Catholic, 

32

Who ran Constitutional states? 

England adn Dutch. THey both had consitutional governments that claimed limited powers, and other limited things 

33

What was teh English civil war? 

It the English kings had tried to insittute new taxes without any approval, there was a Puratin Revolution, and Oliver Cromwell

34

The Glorius Revlution? 

Mary and Dutch husband william of Orange assumed the throne

35

What was teh Dutch place like? 

They formed an alliance against King Phillip of Spain, and rvoked a large rebellion. The Dutch republic was an experiment 

36

Who was teh popular absolutism monarch? 

Lous XIII, where his cardinal Richelie served to undermine the power of thenoblity and enhance the auhtority of the king. there was a huge bureaucracy 

37

What was Louis big palace/ 

It was Versailes, many noble lived there so that he could keep an eye on him. Ther was alots of luxyr

38

What was teh Russian Ruler? 

Czar, and hewas an Absoutim, for the Romanov dynasty, it was tightly centralized 

39

What statedid the Romanoves inherit? 

A state that had expanded its boundaries since the mid fourteenth century

40

Who was Peter I 

He was the Great, and worked to model Russia after the Western states. He offered better pay for hte army, and ordered aristocrates to study ,mmath, 

41

Catherine II 

She improved governmental efficiency by dividng her vast empire into 50 administrative provinces....she worked to improve the conditions of Russias opresssed peasantry. Rugachev mounted a rebellion 

42

What was teh PEace of Westpahlia? 

The European states regarded one another as soverin and equal. Thy muually recognized their rights toorganize their own affairs. 

43

Dud the PEace of W bring an end to war? 

NO, but it defined terms very clearly, 

44

The shifting alliancesillustrate the European diplomacy which said

No ruler wanted to see aother dominate all the others, so if a paticular state became strong, there were coalitions against it!. 

45

What did European leaders compete for? 

Military power: they had cannons, of increasing size, range, power and accuracy 

46

The Columbian exchange gave European diets, by introducing new food crops to the European fields..like

Potatoes, Maize, and Cormeal

47

What were old diseae that continued to haunt the Europeans/ 

Plague, Influeza, Tubeculosis, and Typhus

48

Did the population grow? 

YEs!

49

What happened as a result of population growth? 

IT drove rapid urbanization, in cities 

50

population gwoth and urbaization helped spur a round of remarkable economic development. THis had to do with the emergence of what? 

Capitalism

51

What is capitaism?> 

It is  system in which private parties make htier goods and serivces avaliable ona free market and seek to take advantageo market conditions ot rofit form their own ctivities

52

During the modern times, EUropean merhcants, transformed the society in a way

that had not been done before

53

What appeared everywhere? 

Banks Banks and more banks!

54

What are Joint Stock Companies? 

They were very imporant institutions in early capitalist society. Large rading ocmpanies ushc as teh the English East India Company and VOC, spread teh risk

55

What states really recognized the Capitalst benefit? 

Englisha dn Dtuch states, so it is not surprising that htey recognized individuals rights to prosses private properties. THey had joint stock companies explore

56

What did Capitalism disocurage? 

THe formation of guidl

57

Peasants acquired more

cabinets, funishings, and table ware. 

58

The Romanov tsars restircted the freedom of most peasants and made them 

Serfs

59

THey did what with the serfs

tightened it...so that they would win the nobility 

60

Capitalism posed what moral challenges? 

Medivaltheologins had regarded profit making activity as morally dangerous....it was very hard to move 

61

What is the nuclear family

The rincipal unit of socieyt, bu soon they were more love..

62

What is the Ptolemaic universe? 

Claudies Ptolemy, composed a work called Almagest, tat sytnthesized how hte earth was surrounded by the nine planets

63

What does the word Planet mean? 

Wanterer

64

On the Revolutions of HEavenly Spheres, what did Cpernicas say 

That  it was aheleocentric universe, and they had elliptcal movement

65

Galileo...

showed that the heavens were not perfect, saw through the telescope , and learned many new things about the universe

66

Issac NEwton 

Had Principia, and talked about gravitation, with precise mathmatics

67

ENlightenment thinkers wanted what? 

THey wanted to have lnatural laws that governed human socieyt 

68

The English philosopher John Jocke worked

To discover natural laws ofpolitcs, attacked divine right theories, and wanted consitution 

69

Adam smith turned his attention to where? 

To economic affairs, and Charles Louis de Secondat watned to establish the science of politics

70

Philisophis

advocated the cause of reason 

71

Voltaire

he had bitter iron y, championed individual freeodm, and waged a long literacy battle with the Roman Catholic churhc

72

What is Deists? 

HTey had that a powerful god set the universe in motion and established natural loaws that govern it. 

73

Most Philosphies were

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