What did Martin Luther (1483-1546) benefit from?
He benefitted from others who resented the Roman Catholic Church. he lso had good works with the printing press, 95 thesis's appeared everywhere
What did Lutehr attack?
He ataced the Roman chuch for a wide range of abuses, and called for a reform. He attacked:
1. The sale of indulgences
2. The monasteries (advocated the closure of them)
3. Translation of the Bible inot vernacular languages
What did Martin Luther proclaim as the only source of Christian authority?
Where did Luther's works gain popular support?
In Germany and they fueled a movement to reform Chirsitinaity on luther's reforms
By mid 16th century, what did the German popluation adopt?
Luthernism, and reformers had launched Protestant movemnts everywhere
WHere were some protestant movements?
In Switzerland, n the cities of Zurich,Basel and Geneva
In England, a Reformaiton took palce because
Henry VIII did not want to stay married to Cathrine of Aragon....ANglican Church
Who was John Calvin?
He was a reformer, a French lawyer who in the 1530s converted to Protestant Christianity, beca
When calvin slipped accross the boarder to Switzerland, what did he wite>
He wrote the Institutes of Chrisitan Religion, that woked to impose a strict code of mortality and discipline
Calvin's Geneva was not only a model PRotestant community, but a missionary center, calvinist missionaries were most active where?
In France , they were active, and also went to Germany and Scotland
Establishe dchurches in all these lands and worked for reform along Protestant lines..
In response to the Protestant Reformation, what did the Roman Catholic Church do?
The authorites undertook an enormous reform effort within thier own Church
What did the Roman Catholics sought to do?
Define thier won points of doctirne so as to clarify differences between the two religons, and deepen spirituality
What were two things that were formed in part of the RC reformation?
Council of Trent, and Society of JEasus
What was the Council of Trent?
It was an assemnly of bishops, cardinals, adnother high churhc officals who ment between 1545-1563 to address matters of docrine and reform
The councild rew on works from
scholastic Theologin St. Thomas Aquainas, and the council defined the eemnts of Roman Catholoc theology in detail, demanded that Church observe strict things on morality
What was the Society of JEasus?
It was the spreading thing. St. Igantius Loyola founded it. It was a society of Jesuits, who completed a rigorous and advanced education. They recieved instruction on theology and that of preparation
What religious practice shows the patriarchal nature of the society
Wich hunting, because all of them were women
What was witch hunting explained by?
Failure of a crop, unexpected death, outbreak of a deat, disease, concieve of a child
WHat was a famous witch trial
Salem witch trials
What were some religious wars
1. Ones in France, for 36 years (1562-1598)
2. Philip II of PSain and England, the Spanish Armada got invoved, and tried to convert Queen Elizabeth
3. King of Spain, and NEtherlands, Phillip wanted to tighten his holdings there and it escalated there
What was teh 30 years war?
When the Holy Roman emperor attempted to force his Bohemian subjects to return to the Roman Catholic Church. The battle ground was Germany, but other states entered
What motives did the states have for entering the war
After 1438, the Habsburg Family had extensive dynastic holdings in Austria, dominated the Holy Roman Empire, how did htye accumulate rights and titles
through marriages, Charlex V inherited a lot of land, including the duchy of BUrgundy
When he became emperor, he acquired authority over(Charles V)
Burgundy, Spain, Italy, And Americas, Bohemia, and othe rparts
What was Charles V very concerned about?
He was concerned about keeping the Luthern movment down..so that there was not a huge revoution
What were Charles V's foreign challenges?
France teamed up with the Ottoman Turks over the Empire. The Ottomans did not want to see a powerful Chirsitian emperor threaten their holdings in eastern Europe and their position in the mediterranena basin
WHo were some of the new monarchs
Henry VII, and Islabell of Spain
ow did the new monarchs increase their finance?
Fench kings levied direct taxes on sales households and salte trade. Henry severed ties with the Roamn Catholic Churhc
What did new monarchs maintian
They maintained, texes, and armies, so that they could beat the nobles.
What was the Spanish Inquisition?
It was essentially when the spnish went and rooted out whoever was not Roman Catholic,
Who ran Constitutional states?
England adn Dutch. THey both had consitutional governments that claimed limited powers, and other limited things
What was teh English civil war?
It the English kings had tried to insittute new taxes without any approval, there was a Puratin Revolution, and Oliver Cromwell
The Glorius Revlution?
Mary and Dutch husband william of Orange assumed the throne
What was teh Dutch place like?
They formed an alliance against King Phillip of Spain, and rvoked a large rebellion. The Dutch republic was an experiment
Who was teh popular absolutism monarch?
Lous XIII, where his cardinal Richelie served to undermine the power of thenoblity and enhance the auhtority of the king. there was a huge bureaucracy
What was Louis big palace/
It was Versailes, many noble lived there so that he could keep an eye on him. Ther was alots of luxyr
What was teh Russian Ruler?
Czar, and hewas an Absoutim, for the Romanov dynasty, it was tightly centralized
What statedid the Romanoves inherit?
A state that had expanded its boundaries since the mid fourteenth century
Who was Peter I
He was the Great, and worked to model Russia after the Western states. He offered better pay for hte army, and ordered aristocrates to study ,mmath,
She improved governmental efficiency by dividng her vast empire into 50 administrative provinces....she worked to improve the conditions of Russias opresssed peasantry. Rugachev mounted a rebellion
What was teh PEace of Westpahlia?
The European states regarded one another as soverin and equal. Thy muually recognized their rights toorganize their own affairs.
Dud the PEace of W bring an end to war?
NO, but it defined terms very clearly,
The shifting alliancesillustrate the European diplomacy which said
No ruler wanted to see aother dominate all the others, so if a paticular state became strong, there were coalitions against it!.
What did European leaders compete for?
Military power: they had cannons, of increasing size, range, power and accuracy
The Columbian exchange gave European diets, by introducing new food crops to the European fields..like
Potatoes, Maize, and Cormeal
What were old diseae that continued to haunt the Europeans/
Plague, Influeza, Tubeculosis, and Typhus
Did the population grow?
What happened as a result of population growth?
IT drove rapid urbanization, in cities
population gwoth and urbaization helped spur a round of remarkable economic development. THis had to do with the emergence of what?
What is capitaism?>
It is system in which private parties make htier goods and serivces avaliable ona free market and seek to take advantageo market conditions ot rofit form their own ctivities
During the modern times, EUropean merhcants, transformed the society in a way
that had not been done before
What appeared everywhere?
Banks Banks and more banks!
What are Joint Stock Companies?
They were very imporant institutions in early capitalist society. Large rading ocmpanies ushc as teh the English East India Company and VOC, spread teh risk
What states really recognized the Capitalst benefit?
Englisha dn Dtuch states, so it is not surprising that htey recognized individuals rights to prosses private properties. THey had joint stock companies explore
What did Capitalism disocurage?
THe formation of guidl
Peasants acquired more
cabinets, funishings, and table ware.
The Romanov tsars restircted the freedom of most peasants and made them
THey did what with the serfs
tightened it...so that they would win the nobility
Capitalism posed what moral challenges?
Medivaltheologins had regarded profit making activity as morally dangerous....it was very hard to move
What is the nuclear family
The rincipal unit of socieyt, bu soon they were more love..
What is the Ptolemaic universe?
Claudies Ptolemy, composed a work called Almagest, tat sytnthesized how hte earth was surrounded by the nine planets
What does the word Planet mean?
On the Revolutions of HEavenly Spheres, what did Cpernicas say
That it was aheleocentric universe, and they had elliptcal movement
showed that the heavens were not perfect, saw through the telescope , and learned many new things about the universe
Had Principia, and talked about gravitation, with precise mathmatics
ENlightenment thinkers wanted what?
THey wanted to have lnatural laws that governed human socieyt
The English philosopher John Jocke worked
To discover natural laws ofpolitcs, attacked divine right theories, and wanted consitution
Adam smith turned his attention to where?
To economic affairs, and Charles Louis de Secondat watned to establish the science of politics
advocated the cause of reason
he had bitter iron y, championed individual freeodm, and waged a long literacy battle with the Roman Catholic churhc
What is Deists?
HTey had that a powerful god set the universe in motion and established natural loaws that govern it.
Most Philosphies were