In 1260, which two brothers traveled from Venice to Constantinople
Niccolo and Maffeo Polo
What was the Polo brother's occupation?
They were jEwel Mercahnts and whicle they were in Constantinople, they decided to purusue other opportunites further east
What was the first stop of the Polo borhters
Soldaia near Caffa on the Black sea and then to the trading cities of Sarai and Bulghar on the Volga river
Why did the Polo brothers not return home
There was a war that broke out behind them and prevented them from going back. So, they decided to go further easty
The polo brothers spent three years where?
In the trading city of Bokhara where they recieved an invitation to join the court of Kubhlai Khan
The great Khan recieved the Polo brothers and they talked about what??
Religion, their land and the ruler s
What was khubali khan interestedin
learning more about Roman Catholic christianity. This was because there were many mulitcultural groups in his kingdom.
What did Khubali Khan send the Polo brothers on a misson
To Get authoritative sources of Chrisitian information. this is because he wanted them at his court
The polo Brothers were not able to satisfy the Khans desire for envoys, so what did the Pope dO/
Sent two missionaries to help
WHich famous person went along with the Polos on their mission back?
Marco Polo, NIccolo Polo's son
High middle ages of Chrisitan society are defined as
1000-1300 the times where a more powerful society was built. It was built on the political, economic, and cultural foundations that were laidout during the early middle ages
Beginning in the late tenth century, German Princes did what?>
Formed the Holy Roman Empire, which they viewsd as a revival of th eold one
What was the problem with the Holy Roman empire?
It never extended out of Germany
Where did Independent Monarchies emerge
In France, England, Italy, and Spain
As the Carolingian empire faded during the inth century, counts dukes and other authorities took responsibility for
providing order in their own egions
Gradually, some of the dukes and counts extended their power beyond their own territories. What was one example
Otto of Saxony.
Describe Otto of Saxony's exploits
He had established himself as the king in northern Germany. Campaigned east of the Elbe River in lands that were populated by Slavic people.
Who proclaimed Otto emporer
Pope John XII in 962
The imperial title had a considerable cachet and on several occasions, energetic emporers have almost transformed the Holy Roman Empire into what
A hegenmonic state that might have introduced imperial authority to Europe
What prevented the Holy Roman Empire from becoming really big?
The papacy was a pain. Conflict was very common
What was the relationship between the Pope and the Emporer
Even though the pope usually crowned the emporers, the relationship was really tense because both made large claims to authority in ChristiianEurope.
When did relations become really strained between the pope and the emporer
When the emporer sought some influence the selection of church officials- something that pope's thought should be their right
Although neither the pope, nor the emporer was powerful enough to dominate eachother, what was the pope able to d?
The pope was able to prevent the emperors from building a powerful imperial state that would threaten the papacy
Why did imperial authorities name high church officials
This was because, the chuch officials usually had a lot of political power as well
Pope Gregory VII ended the practice of what?
Lay investiture, the selection and installation of church officials by lay rulers such as the kings
Emporer Henry IV challlenged the Pope's policiy and what happened
The pope excommunicated him and released the king's subjects from him
After Henry was excommunicated, what happened
Germany princes to the opportunity to rebel against him
Was Henry ever forgiven?
Yes, but only after he begged for forgiveness while in the snow
Describe Frederick Barbarossa
He was known as the red beard and was a vigorous and gallant man who reined from 1152-1190
What did Barbarossa sought?
He wanted to absorb the wealthy and increasingly urban region of Lombardy in northern Italy
Integration of Lombardy would have provided Barbarossa with what
The resources to control the German princes and dominate Europe
Because the pope didn't like Baraborossa's plan, what did he do?
Marshalled support from Europe and stopped him
Voltaire, the French writer once said
Neither holy, nor an empire
When the last of the Carolingians died, in 987, the lords of France elected a minor noble named :
Hugh Capet, to serve as king
What type of territory did Capet have?
A small territory around Paris
How did Capetian Kings expand?
They gradually added to their resources. They relied on relationships between Lords and their retainers
How were the founders of modern English society?
It was the Normans, descendants of the Vikings who carved out a state on the penninsula of Normandy
Although they were subject to outside rule, how did Normandy become prominent?
The dukes built a tightly centraied state in which all the authority stemmed from the dukes themselves
What was the relationship between dukes and land in normandy
The dukes retained title to al land in Normandy in an effort to forestall the conflicts of interests, they limited the right of the retainers to grant land to others
Military in Normandy
They had a good one
How did Norman influence come into England?
1066, William, the Duke of Normandy went into England
William the Conquorer institued what type of policies
Norman principles of government and land tenure to England. However, they did have a more tightly centralized government ...and they also had som Angelo Saxon princples
What did both the Capetians and the Normans face
challenges from retainers seeking to pursue independent policis or enlarge their powers at the expense of the monarchs
How was the governemnt in Italy
No regime was able to control the entire penninsula,.. so a series of city states and principalities controled the whole regions
What was the Papal State?
The place tha the popes ruled i ncentral itally
How did the pope have influence in northern Italy?
The church influenced the political affairs because bishops of themajore cities took much of the initative in organizing public life
What were some examples of Italian city states?
Bologna, Genoa, Milan, Venice dominated their own urban districts but the surrounding hinterlands
Norman adventureres first intervened in Italian affairs in
999, when a group of Norman pilgrims aided teh people of Salerno when they fought off Muslim attacks., Then they helped the city of Bari from the Byzantine empire. Then, they were like HEY. I can be here!
What was the Norman kingdom?
From the 8 to the 11 century, who invaded the Iberian Peninsula
Where did small Christian States survive
In northern Spain
Starting in the mid 11th century, Christian adventurers from the states began
to enlarge their own domains by attacking Muslim Territories
Because the Chrisitan adventurers from the states began to attack the other territories, what happened,
The Chrisitan kingdoms of Castile, Aragon,and Portugal popped up.
What was the only Muslim territory left?
The economic revival colosely resembled the processes that hapened in
India, China, and the Islamic World
The increased agricultural production, urbanization, manufaturing, and trade transformed Europ einto a powerful society and
Drew it into relationship swith other lads
Beginning in the alte 10th century, what did the local lords do?
They pacified territories and put an end to invasions.
What was the population likein Europe?
It began to experience alot of population pressure
In response to the population pressures, what did the serfs and monks do?
The cleared forests, drained swamps, and increased the amount of land devoted to griculture
At first, when some lords opposed this change, what was their reson?
They said that this was bad because it reduced game preserves
What did the lords realize?
That this change was good because expanding agricultural production would yield higher taxes and increase their own wealth
What were the new agricultural techniques?
New crops, and crop roations. Increased cultivaiton of beans which provided fertilization, enriched land. Kept more domestic animals and fish
What language were instruction books written in?
During the high middle ages, what did European people expand their use of?
Water mills and heavy pows which appeared early
What were two items that appeared
Horseshoes to prevent split of softened hooves. Also, the horse collars tha tplaced the burden of a heavy load on an animals chest instead of the neck
During the arly middle ages, what did the European diet consit of?
Enitrely grains and grain products such as gruel and bread
During 1000-1300 what was the type of diet
Meat, dairy produts, fish, vegetabls, and legumes
What lands benefitted from widespread cultivation
Spain, Italy an dother mediterranean lands. Islamic crops came
What was the population in 800
What was the population in 1000,
By 1100, what was the population
What severely reduced the population
An epidemic plague
WIth abundant supplies of food, what was European society able to support?
Large numbers of urban residents such as peasants, and serfs
What cities became thriving centers
Paris, London, and Toledo , Venice and Bergen also merged
The growth of towns and cities also brought what?
INcrease specialization of labor. Which resulted in a dramatic expansion of manufacturing and trade
What did manufacturing and trade concentrate on?
The cities of _ and _ became what?
Italy and Flanders became lively centers for spinning, weaving and dyeing of wool
BY the 12th century what happened in Europe>
France sponsored fairs that operated almost year round and that served as vast marketplaces
The revival of urban society was most pronounced where?
During the 10th century, the cities of what and what served as ports
Amalifi and VEnice
What did the network of trade routes expand to include
Pisa, Genoa, andNaples
As trade expanded, what did Italian merchants do?
Establish colonies in major parts of the Seas
Where were large communities
Constantinople,, Alexandria, Cairo, Damascus,a nd Black sea ports of Tana, Caffa and Trebizond
Whhat sites wer epopular in teh north
Baltic Sea and norht sea
The north trade network was called
Hanseatic League or Hansa
Where did the Hansa trade network stretch from
Novgorod, Germany and Scandinavia. Dominated trade in grain, fihs, furs, timber and pitch from northern Europe
What was the result of good trading networks?
Increased volme of trade encouraged better forms of credit, banking and new forms of business organization
Medival social ocommentators frequently said tha tEUrope embraced what
Those who pray, work and fight
What was thos ewho prayed
They were clergy men, constituting a spiritual estate owing loyalty to the crch
Those who fought
Mostly came from nobes, inherited their positions in society and concentrated on horse and military a
Those who worked
cultivated land as peasants dependent for protection on their lords,
What does the formula of dividing society do?
Relfects a society marked by political, osocial, and economic inequality. Those who prayed didn't enjoy life,
What was emphasized in chivalry
The courtly behavior and high ethical standards. Cultivated leaders of society. Appropriate for noles. Church officials organized a code for Chivalric behavior
Ow did aristocratic women promote the chivalric code?
They promoted refined behavior and tender respectful relatons between sexes.
Reflections of the aristocratic womens stuff is found in
poetry and songs
What were troubadours
class of traveling poets, minstrels,a dn entertainers
Who did eleanor of Aquitaine support?
Lierally supported romantic poets and entertainers.
Eleanor was who
The most celebrated women of her day. She used her influence to encourage the cultivation of good manners, romantic love,a
By the 12th century, what did the ranks of those who lived include
It inclueded merchants, artisians, crafts workers, an dprofessionals such as physicians and lawyers
The expansion of the working populations promoted what
the develpment of towns and cities
Because of their power, what could lords do?
They could dominate the towns, Soon urban popualtions wer eincreasingly able to resist nobles and guide
BY the late 11th century, inhabitants of prosperous towns were demanding tha tlocallords grant them charters
of incorporation that exempted them from political reguilation ad allowed them to manage their own affairs.
Just like India, what did many of the working classes organize
They orgnizd guilds. By the 13th century, the guilds had come to control of much of the urban economy of medival euorpe
hat did the Guilds establish
s tandards of quality, required specific techniques of prodction.
Guilds had social significalnce
They reguilarly socialized with on eanother and built arge halls where members held stuf
What did women perform
household chores, weaving and care domestic animals
What did women work along side in
butchers, brewers, bakers, candle makers, dishmongers, shoemakers
Did guilds admitt women
What did the artwork, literature,and music draw influence from
Chrisitan doctorines and theories
During the early middle ages, European society was not stable enough to maintain what?>
institutions of advanced education. Many schools provided basic elementaty education
In the absence of a curriculum, what was inspiration drawn from?
What was the reasons that more advanced educational institutions developed?
Next >>It was because there was an economic increase that allowed for the usage of these. Also, an inceasingly complex society demanded that the educational system was developed
Begining in the early 11th century, who organized the first schools?
Bishops, archbishops in France and northern italy. They invited well known scholors to serve as teachers
What was the official language of the cathedral schools?
Instruction in teh schools cencentrated on what?
liberal arts, literature, and pholosophy
About the mid 12th centuy, students and teachers organized
academic guilds and persuaded political authorities to grant charters guarenteeeing them right s
Faculty guilds wanted what
the right to vest teachers..they could give acadmid cdegrews whcihch let them serve in other universities
The first universities were in
Bologna, Paris, Salerno noted for instruction in law, theology and medicine
During the high middle ages, how were Aristotle's works translated?
The Byzantine Orthodox and Roman catholic did that for them
What was scholastic theology?
It sought to synthesize the beliefs and values of Christianity with the logical rigor of Greek philosophy.
Wh was the most famous of the theologines
St. Thomas Aquinas. He had Chrisitan Convoctions, bubelieved tha t Aristotle ahd understood everything
St. Thomas saw none of what?
He saw no contradiction between Aristotle and Christian revaltion but rather viewed them as complementary authorrities
What was Thomas's belief in Gold
God did not dpend exclusively on a n idividual's faith.
The Scholastic people addressed whom
For the schollastic people's purposes, what was Christianity
It was the set of beliefs and rituals that gave meaning to individal lives and that bound them together into coherent communites.
What are Sacraments
Holy rituals tha tbring spiritual blessing on the observance. The chuch recognized seven scarament s
What did the 7 scaraments incude
Matrimony, baptism, penance, and Eucharist
a ritual meal commemerating the last supper
What did the Eucharist's believe
Prepared individuals for Slavation and symbolized their membership in a holy community, also believd that the sacrament would protect the individuals from sudden death
Popular religion also took the form of?
Devotion to the saints.
According to the church, who were the saits
human beings who had led such exemplary lives that God held them in special esteem. They enjoyed influnce in heavenly authorities
Whow asthe mostpopular saint
Virgin Mary, mother of JEsus who personified the Christian deal of womanhood, love and sympathy she lavished aid on her devotees
How did Europeans express their adoration of other saints
They had relics of her, and physical remains which wee believed to have spiritual powers, like thier holders
Where did many pilgrims visite
Rome in Italy and Compostele in Spain
Why did these places have a special place for the pilgrims?
Rome was the plae of Christian church and there was the St. Peter and Paul Churches. In spain, the cathedral was there....
Because Pilgrims were very popular, what happened?
An industry developed to serve them
St. Dominc and St. Francis did what
founded the order sof mendicants and they were known as teh Dominican and Francisan friars.
The DF Friars had what
Nothing. they had to beg and they were very popular in towns
The Waldensians were popular in what
South France and norhtern Italy .
Why was it such a big deal that these new religions were organized
Because of the increased materialims of the European people
The Wladensians criticized what of their chuch
The unwillignness to let others perform Sanctions. They also criticized on the basis of biblical teachings.
Who were the Cathars, or Albigensians
They participated in long distance trade networks and they encountered ideas popular int he Byzantine Empire and elsewhre.
What teachings did the Cathars develop?
They adopted taching sof heretical groups in eastern Europe such as the Bogomils wo viewed the world as a sie of unrelenting cosmic struggle between forces of good and evil. They considered the material world a world of evil
In the Cathar beliefs. what did those who sough tgood do?
They adopted a strict vegetarian Diet
The teachigs of the Cathars grew so rapidly that
Pope nnocent II called for a military campaign to destroy the Cathars.
Beginning in teh mid 11th centiy, what did Europeans embark on?
expansive ventures on the Atlantic, Baltic and MEditeranean places
What was conquored/colonized?
Scandinavians conquored the Atlantic. Baltic region, Europeans conquored and introducd Christianity to Prussia, livonia, ithuania, and Finland. In the Mediterranean, Spain was recaptured
What did the Crusades signify
The fact that Europe was READY to play a very important role in the world
Where did Scandinavian seafarers turn their attenton to?
IN the islands of North Atlanti c ocea. They occupied Iceland beginning int helate nith and at the end of the 10th century
When was Iceland discovered?
It was discovered in the 10th centryy by Eric the Red.
Eric the RED discovered Greenland and in about 1000 CE, his son
Leif Ericson led another exploratry party south and west of Greenland arriving in Newfoundland in Canada
Why was Newfoundland Called Vinland?
It was called Vinland, because there were a lot of wild grapes growing in the region
Since he 1960s, archaeologists in newfoundland have discovered what?
Scandinavian tools and building foundations that date to the early 11th century
Why did the Greenlanders leave Vinland?
Because they did not have enough resources to survive there
The Kings of Denmark and Norway converted to Christianity in the 20th century and when they did
conversian of their subjects came graducally and with considerable resistance.. since many held tightly to their inherited traditions
But because of Royal support of Christianity, what happened?
It was assured that it would have a place in Finland, Iceland
How did Chrisitanity arrive in the Baltic lands
By military conquests. Zealous conquests formed a series of hybrid, military religious orders.
What was the most prominent military order
The Templar, Hospitallers and Teutonic KNights who not only took religous voews but also pledged to devot the lives in struggles against Muslims and pagans
When was the Roman Catholic Church established in Baltic lands
The boundaries of Christian Europe also expanded in the Mediterranean basin,, there what happend
Muslims whose ancestors had conquored a major part of the Mediterranean and most of the Iberian peninsula
The Normans Cuisards, what did the brothers do?>
Robert carved out a state for himself while Roger undertook the mission of getting Siciy back. By 1090, after 20 years of conflict, Roger had established him in the Island. Missionaries and clergy soon appeared and reintroduced Roman Catholic Christiantity
he Reconquist of Spain took
Much longer than it did for Sicily
When did the process of getting Spain begin?
In the 1060s from those Christian toeholds in Cataloina. In 1085..Christian forces had pushed as far as Toledo.
Describe the Reconquinista
In 1085, Christan forces had pushed as far suth asToledo and by 1150, they had recaptured Lisbon and established their authority on over half of the peninsula. Then, they went and got all of the otherplaces except Grenada
What helped to plan the reconquests of Sicily and Spain
The Christian Europe. The religious concerns helped to plan the reconquest.
Who was especially active in the reestablishment? Spain conquest
What does the term crusade mean?
It means holy war, deriving from the latin word meaning Cross , the device on which Roman authorites excecuted Jeus.
The wars that Christuans fought against pagans in the Baltic and Mulims were
wasrs of religion
In popular context, what does the term crusades usally refer to?
HUge expeditions that Roman Catolic christians mounted in an effort to recapture Palesine
Popue Urban II launched crusades when
In 1095, while meetin with bishps a the counsile of Clermont, he called for Christian knights to take up arms and serize the holy and promising salvation for those who fell during the capaign
Who was Peter the Hermit
A dude who traveled throughout France, Germany and the LoW Countries whipping up support among popular auddiences. Within a year of Pope rban's call, the Hermit had organized a huge army of poor people
What was the campaign
It was adisaster beause they did not have the proper things and many of them fought the wrong people
French and Norman nobles organized a more respectable ilitary expedition into the holy land.
In late 1096, the crusading armies began the logn rek to Palestine.In 1097, and 1098, the captured Edessa, anAntioch and other pplaces. Jerusalem fell
How did the Crusaders victory come?
Because of division and disarry in the ranks of the muslims foes. But, many MUslims banded together
By the mid 13th century, what did the Europeans do?
They had organized 5 crusades and succeeded in reestablishing a Christian presence in Palestine. The fourgh Crusade was bad...but VEnetian people agreed to provide stuff for the people.
The fourth crusade ended when?>
When they conquored constantinople and subjected the city to a ruthless sack and instilled Roman Catholic values
The Crusades allowed what?
communication adn exchange of ideas, technologies and trade goods that profoundly influuenced European development. They became aquainted with many new thing s
During the crusades, what increased
demand for foreign products