According to the Byzantine historian Procopus, what happened
Two christian monks from Persia set out on a journey about the middle of the sixth century CE
What ws the objective of the monks in Procopius's story?
They introduced high quality silk production to the eastern Mediterranean. Although local crafts workers ha long produced some coarse fabrics from the cocoons of wild silkworms, the fine silks had come to the Mediterranean from China where manufacturers closely guarded their secrets
What did Mediterranean consumers obtain from China
What did the two monks observe?
They observed the techniqes of silk production during the course of a mission to China. They smuggled silk worms outside of China
What were the monks moives?
They maybe resented Sansanid religiouspolicy and sought to aid Christians in the Byzantine Empire. Or, they may have recieved a very good reward for their efforts
Were does the Byzantine Empire get its name?
From Byzantion, latinized as Byzantium a modest market town and fishing village tha toccupied a site of enormous strategic significance
Where was the Byzantine Empire located?
It was on the defensible peninsula known as the Golden Horn.
Byzantion had the potential to control what?
The Bosporus, the strait of water leading from the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara and beyond the Dardanelles, the Aegean Sea, and the Mediterranea.
What did the the Byzantiane Empire have
The potential to control the trade routes and the martime trade
Because of the strategic value, the Roman Emperor Constantine designated it as what
The new capital, which he named Constantinople.
What was Constantine's reason for building Constantinople in the eastern Meditteranean
It was partly because it was the weallthier part of the Medeterranian, but also because he wanted to keep a close watch on persia and the Germanic people who lived along the lower streches of the Danube River.
The imperial capital of Constantinople after 330 CE was what?
It was a very important political and military center. Soon it was the dominate economic and conmmercial center in the mediterranea
When did the name Constantinople change?
in 1453, when the Ottoman Turks renamed it Istabul
The Byzantine Empire originated as the eastern half of the classical Roman Empire which survived the collapse of the western Roman empire in the fifth century
In the early days, what did the byzantine empire embrace?
It embraced Greece, the Balkanregion, Anatoila, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and northeast Africa
What was the land amount like in the Empire?
The Rulers occasionally took other land, and some other people took some of their land
As the western part of the Roman Empire collapsed, how was Byzantine?
It was intact and had roads, communications, and lines of authority and a set of functioning imperial institiution
What were the principal challenges that confronted the late Roman empire
The consolidation of the dynamic Sansaid Dynasty in Persia and the invasions of the migratory peopes from north and east.
The Snasanid empoerors sought to do what?
rebuild the Achaemenid empire of classical Perisa. The goal that brought them into conflict with Roman forces in Mesopostamia and Syrai. By the late thrird century, Roman armies had largely stabilized the boreder
What also menaced he late Roman empire?
The Germanic Invasions, but the Roman authorities did not have the adequate resources to resond strongly to the theat on all fronts. Roman authorities concentrated on maintaining the integrety of the wealthy eastern portion of the empire.
in the 5th century what did rulers build?
They built defensive walls to shield the City from invadors and they invested oter rsrouces in protection for other major series
What was a distinctive tradition of state craft for the Byzantine Empire
It was tightly centralized rule that concentratd power in the hands of a highly exalted emperor.
The distinctive style of the Byzantine Empire was noticealble already in the time of who?
Constantine, who built his new capital to lavish standards. It was filled with libraries, meuseums, and artistic treasures. He constructed magnificent marble alaces, churches, baths, and public builings
How did Constantine set a precedent for himsef?
He hedged his rule wiht an aura of divinity. As protector of the Christian and a baptized Christian himself, he could not claim divine status that some of his predecessors sought,
How did Constantine used divinity?
He intervened in theologial dispites and used his political position ot support his views that he considered orthodox.
What is caesaropapism?
The emperor not only ruled as secular lord, but played an active and promonante rule in ecclesistical affairs
After the 6th century, Byzantine Empire becne absolute rules. According to Roman law, what happened?
Emperors stood aboeve the law, theoreticallt rhey wielded absolute authority in political, military judicial, financial and religious matricacy,
Suggests unnecessary comlexity and convolution In combinationm lwa and bureaucracy produced an exceptionally centralized state
What did the emporer wear
They wore rich ark purple. Which was a color reserved for imperial use and strictly forbiddden to those who were not associated with the ruling house
What did High officials present themselves to the emporers as?
Slaves, not subjects. When approaching him, they prostrated themselves three times and then cermemoniously kissed the emporers hands and feet before taking up matters of business
WHo was the most important of the early Byzantine emperors?
When did Justinian Rule?
Who was Justinian known as
energetic and tireess...the sleepless empoeror
Who was Justinian's wife?
Where did the imperial couple come from?
Justinian was born into a Macedonian peasant family. Theodora was the daughter fo a bear keeper in the circus and worked as a striptease artist
Why did both emporer and empress come up?
THey came up because they were both intelligant, strong willed and siciplined. Justinina reieved an excellent education and found a position in the imperial bureaucracy
Like Constantine, what did Justininan do?
He lavished resources on the imperial capital. During the early years of his rule, riots against high taxes had destroyd much ofConstantinople
After Theodora persuaded him to deploy forces to crush rebellions,what did Justinian do?
He embarked on an ambitious construction programt that thoroughly remade the city
What was the most notable building that was constucted during that time? (Of Rebuilding_
The Hagia Sophoa, which was a magnificant domed structure that later became a mosque and a musueum. It is ranked as one of the words most important examplesof Christian architecture
What was Justinian's most significant political contribution?
It was his codification of Roman law.
Where do the origins of Roman law go back to?
It goes back to the times of thekings of Rome. Justinian ordered a systematic review of Roman law.
Based on his work off of Roman Law, what did Justinian issue?
He issued the Corpus iris civilis ( Body of Civl Law) emperors updated Roman Law by adding new provisions, but Justinians code was the continued source of impirated
What was Justinians\'s most ambitious venture?
His effort to rconquer the western Roman empire from Germanic people and reestablish Roman authority throught the region
Who was Justinian's general?
Belisarius on the military campaigns that eturned ITaly, Sccily, and Norhtwestern Africa. and southern Spain to imperial rule
By the end of his reign in 565, what had Justinian accomplished?
He had gotten back a good portion of the classical roman Empire
WHy didn't Justinan's accomlishments survive his role?
Because, byzantium did not have the resources to sustain the conquests. Re
Reconsitution of the Roman Empire would reqire what?
It would require lon erm occupation of reconquuered. This, would be very costly
What was the Byzantine headquarters?
Ravenna on Italy Adriatic coast .
Today, what does Ravenna have?
Wonderful Byzantine Architecture.
What did Justinains efforts show?
It showed. That the Roman Empire was beyond recovery.
What threatened the Byzantines?
The sansanids from the east and the Slavic people that approached from the norht. Even though Belisarius's reconquest of the western Roman Empire was good, it was hard
Inspired by faith, what happend to the Sansanid Empire?
It was overrun by Arabs who were Muslims
By the mid 7th century, what lands were under Muslim rule?
Byzantine, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and norht Africa
When did ISlamic forces threaten th heart of the empire
When they subjected Constantinople to a siege (674-678 and 717-718)
How did the Byzantine's resist this invasion by the Muslims?
They used a weaon known as Greek fire- a devestating military technology that would burn. It was a compound of sulphur, lime and petroleum which they launched at both the fleets. Burned even on water, so it vas very very scary
Though it was much reduced by the Islamic conqust, Byzantine was what
very compact and manageable. I
What was the theme system?
The most imortant innovation was the reograization of the Byzantine society under the theme system which Byzaine rulers had tentively experimented
What was the organization of the theme system
IT placed a theme (an imperial province) under the jurisdiction of a general who assumed responsibility for both its miltary defense and civil administration
Where did Generals get thier appointments>
From the imperial government which closely superivsed their activities to prevent decentralizeation of power and auhtority
Where did Generals get their armies?
They recruited armies form the ranks of free peasants who recieved allotments of land in exchange for serivce
The armies did what?
It streghtned the whole class of peasants which solidified the agricultural economy
What did the Theme system enable the Byzantine forces to do?
mobilize forces very quickly
During the reign of Basil II who was known as what?
Basil the bulgar slayer (976-1025)
What happened during the reign of Basil?
they byzantine armies turned west and crushed the enighboring Bulgars who had built a large and expansive kingdom in the Blakans. After hi svictory at the battle of
After his victory at Kleidion, what did Basil do
1014. Basil reportedly commanded his forces to blind 14 thousand bulgaian surviar. Whow.
Why were there tensions between the two churches?
Because Church leaders considered the other not learned or somethe other...They didn't really respect eachother. The Constantinople Church conducted thier affairs in Greek while Rome conducted its affairs in Latin
How did Political relations between Byzantium and western Europe get worse?
During the 5th and 6th centuries, Germanic poples established successor states to the western Roman empire: Visigoths, Vnadals,Franks, and others imposed thier rule. When emporer Charlemagne, recieved the crown of emporer, it directly challenged the Byzantine Empire
How did Otto of Saxony irritate the Byantines?
He basically got the crown of emperor, and then he attacked the lands south of italy
Who was Liuudprand of Cremona?
An ambassador tha Otto sent on a diplomatic mission to Constantinple in 968.
How did Liudprand describe the Byzantine Empioer?
A monstrosity of a man, a dwarf, fat headed with tiny mole eyes. He didn't like teh BYzantine food, drink, dhress, and shelter which he enounced
What was a amjor source of grain for Byzantuim
After the ARabs, where was the principal source of grain?
It was in Anatoilaa dn the lower Danube region which was the imperial breadbsket. All of these lands could
The production of wheat in the lower region was enough to do what?
Support a large population. Especially in cities such as Constantinople, Thessaloniki, Antioch, Trbizond and ohter major cities
When was the Byzantine economy and society the strongest?
When the emire supported a large class of fee peasants who owned small plots of land
CUltivated their land intensively in hope of imporoving thier families fortunes. Wealthy individuals and families sought to accumulate land. Especiall
What did early peope do?
They ran estates and superivesed the peasants as dependent class.
What was the status of the peasants?
They were not bound or not entirely free. They worked under sharecoropping arrangements whereby landlords contracte d landless peasants to cultivate thier lands in exchange for a large portion of the yield
In the 5th and 6th century, what happened to the big sharecropping arrangements?
The invsions broke up many large estates and smade small holdings
How did the themse system help the peasantry
It made land avaliable to those who performed miliaty service/ The imperial government also made periodic efforts to support free peasnats and previous weathy landwoners from gaining control
Large estates did what to the impoerail tax coffers?
It didn't contribute to the rate like the peasants
The decline of the freepeasantry did what?
It diminished the rate of small peasants holding since wealthy landowners had the influence to obtain the concession and expentions. Also, it diminished the pool of recruits avaliable for minlitary
In spite of social and economic problems, what did Byzantium remain?
A wealthy land.
Where did BYzanitine prosperity derive from?
The empires productive capacity adn the importance of Cosntantinple as a center of trade
Constantinoplr was already what a maor site of crafts and industry, and what other things did it do as the capital of the Byzantine empire?
The city was home ot many artisians, craft workers not to mention thougsands of imperial offficers and bureaucrats. Byzantine crafts workers enjoyed a reputation especially for their glassware, linen and woolen textiles. Theere were also gens, ewelry, and fine work.
By the late sixth century, the arriva of silkworks did what
added some things to the list
Why was silk an important industry to BYzantium>
Because it was the principal supplier of the fashionable fabric to the lands of the Mediterranean basin. The silk industry was so important to the BYzantine emonmy, that it was closely monitered
What did regulations in teh Byzantine Empire alow individuals to do?
Participatein only one activitey to prevent creation of monopoly
Where did trade routes arise?
They arose going east andest as well as north and south, onstantile served as the main clearning house of trade in teh western prat of Eurasia.
Who did the merchants of constantinple maintin contact with?
They maintinaed contact with
Byzantine people maintained contacts and they
dealt regularly with thier Musim counterparts in Persia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt
What was the Byzantine gold coimm?
Where did Byzantium draw enormous welath form?
Control of trade and the leaving of customs duties on Merchants
What was Byzantium
It was the western anchor the a Eurasian trading network that revived the trade from classicla times
What items flowedinto Byzantine?
SIlk and Porcelain from China, Carpets from Persia and woolen textiles from elsewhere
Whathelped the trade
banks and business partnerships
advanced loans to individuals seeking to launch busisness aloans and made trade possible.
The less privileged class of Constantinple did what?
Occupied less slpendid dwelling government. Officials lived in multistory appartment buildings. Workers and the poor occupied dangerous and ruckety tenements
What were the attractions of Constantinple
City of baths, taverns,a nd restaurants that offeredsettings for social gatherings.
What was hippodrome?
A Large stadiumthat featured athletic matches, contests betwene animals, and the circuses feathuring clowns, jugglers, acrobats and dwrafs
What was the most popular of the ciites pasttimes?
It was chariot races: the teams ran high and until the seventh century, they often contributed to public disturbances/.
Who were two of the ciite s teams?
The Greens and Blues that pursued their rivalry well beyond hte HIppodrome. On one occasion, they mounted an uprising
BYzantien Chrisitanity developed similary
To Greek Orthodox.
Although local inhabitants spoke Greek, what hwas the official anguage of early Constantinople
Where was the connection between BYzantine and rome?
The body of law
What was the education like?
It was necesary because ofthe large bureaucracy that administered hte empire. It called for large numbers of literate and intelligent individuals
How were Children educated?
They were educaed by many tutors. They read, wrote, and did grammer, They also had studies of classical Greek Literature
What did most people ahave in Bzantine?
No formal education, basicl literacy, was widespread in BYzantine society. Nerchants, manufacturersm clergy, and other shad a standar education
Instruction in what?
Law, medicine,and phoilosophy.
Relfected the cultureal legacy in classical Greece. Byzantine scholars concentrated on the humanities, lierature, his tory and philosophy. They had commentaries on Homr, Plato, and Aristotle.
The Byzantines considered themselves what?
Direct heirs of classical greeks
What did many Byzantines worship?
They honored the pagan gods through at least the 6th century.
In the year 528, what did Justinian do?
He launched a campaign that forced all remaining pagans to undergo Chrisitan baptis. AtT
HOw was the BYzantine Church different?
It was very close with the imperial government which carefully superised the developmen tof Church teachings and politices intersts of a community that would provide. Cultural support.
What did Constantien organie?
The council of Nicae which brought together bishops, spokesman and leaders form all the important Chrisitan churches to onsider the views of the Arians,
What did the Arians teach?
That Jesus had been a mortl human being and tha the was a creation of God, rather than being a coeternal with God.
What did CHristian theologians hold?
That in a unique and musterious way. Jesus was both a mortal human being and a manisfestation of God himself. That Jess simutanious possesd fully human and fully divine
What view did Constantine support ?
The theologianview and he had the Council of Nicaea support it.
What ddi the church oappoint indiividuals to seerve as?
Patriarch of Constantinope: the highest ecclesiastical offical in the bYzantine churhc-counterpart of the pope in Rome: they insructed partriarches, bishops and preists to deliever sermost tha tsupport imperial politicay
What was the policy of Leo II
Breaking of icons, he destroyed the religious images and prohibited thier use inplaces
What did the policy of iconoclasm spark?
Protests and riots throughout the empire ince iocons were ery popular.
When did icons come back
What did Byzantine CHrisitanity refelct?
The continuing influence of classical Greek philosophy. Chirisitanity had orignally emerged form Jewish sources aand it was harmonized with other cultural traditions
TThe influence of Greek philosophy was very oronouncedwhater?
In Greek Speaking Byzantium. Theologians invested agreat deal of time and intellectual energy in the examination of religious questions form a philosophical point of view
Where did BYzantine monasticism grow out of?
The efforts of the devout indiividuals to lead especially holy lives. Drawing inspirtation from Early Chrisitan ascetics in Egypt, MEsopotamia and Persia, these individuals observed regimes of exreme ascetism and self denial
How did people observe ascetism?
They dedicated htemselves to celibacy, fasting, and prayer, During the fifth century, a few men and t least two women demosntrated their commitnments by perching on to of pillars.
Because of the extreme dedication of hermits and ascetics, what did disciples often do?
Gathered arond htem and established ocmmunities of men and women determined to follwo their exaple. these communities becaue the earliest monasteries
The monasteries had few rules, but who came up with some?
St. Basicl of Caesarea (329-379) the partirarch of Constantinople urged them to adapt reforms that enhanced their effectiveness. In Basilian monasteries, monks and nuns gave up thier personal possessions and lived communally. They obeyed the rule of elected superiors an dall the community memebrs devoted themselves to work and prayer.
What did MOnasteries not do like western Europe?
Did not become centers of education. But they had a reputiaon for piety. And devotion that endeared them to the bYzantine Laity.
What did Basilian Monks do?
THey went to greakt lengths to get a mystical union with God through meditation and prayer. Som eemloyed special techniques like controlled breath other retiered to remote destinations to lead a strict existance.
What was the most famous of the monasteries?
Mt. Athos. It was off limis for females. Monk an dnuns also provided social services to their communities. They provided spiritual counsel to the local laity and they organized trelief efforts by bring food an dmedical attenton to people
During Constantines reign, what places acccepted Christianity?
Jerusalem, Alexandria, and Antioch.
What did tensions between the two churches mirror
The political tensions
In later CHrcenturies, Chrisitan churches based in Constantinople and orme did what?
Diaagred on many other points. Some ritual and doctrinal differnces concerned forms of workship and the precise wording of theological teachings.
How did the patriarches differ?
THey didn't know what their duties were. Patirarches argued for the autonomy of all major CHirsitan jurisdicitons including that of Constantinople
When did both excommunicate eachother?
What did the Byzantine Empire call themselves?
Romaioi or romans
When Basil II the bBUlgar Slayer died in 1025, what was the Byzantine Empire?
It was a political, military and economic dynamo. Wihtin 50 years, the empire was suffering from serious internal waknesses
Where did domestic problems come from?
THey arose form the success of the themse systems. That was because there were some natural alliances between lords who often intermarried with the local aristocracies creating a eite
What were some challenges from teh west?
A dynamical expanding western Europe.
Who were some irituating west europeans
Whne the normans went on the crusades, waht did they do?
They started to carve out states in the Byzantine Empire
What were the challenges from the eat?
The saljuqs sent waves of invaders into Anatoila
Why was the loss of Anatoila so devestating for the byzantine Empire?
Because it was the principal source of Grain, weath and military forces. It sealed the fate of the Byzantine Empire. A territorially truncated Byzantium survived until the mid fifteenth century
When did the Empire come to an end?
When Justinan deployed Byzantium's resources to the western Mediterrranean, what peoples took advatage
Slave, Serbs and Croats moved into the Balkan peninusla and the Bulagers established a powerful kingdom.
What was the relationsip between Byzantim and Bulgaria?
It was especiallyt tense and by the end of the eight century, Byzantium ha dbegun to influence Bulgarian politics and society.
The Byzantines sent missions over to other lands to convert them to what religion
Caints Cyril and Mothodius
They went to Bulgaria and Moravia awhich was the modern Czech slovakian and hungarian territories. They developed the cyrillic alphabet nad it was the basis of the slavic language
What did the creatin of Slavic]]]]]] alphabet help?
The creation of a political structure, and conversion to orthodox Christianity
Situated on the dniee River on the main trading route and it dominated many affairs
Prince Valdimir of Kiev converted to Orthodox Chrisitanity and his followers did so as wel.
After the conversion of Vlad, what happened
Byzantine influences came to Russia. The art, and architecture dominated the whole thing. The stye encourged pooular piety and religious images became a principal form of Russian artistic expressian
The princes of Kieve did what
established firm, caesaropapist control over the Russian Orthoxox Chirch to distinguish it from the other Church
Yes, they also drew inspiration form teh Byzantine legal tradition and comiled it a written law code for their lands. BY controlling trade within Byzantium and other lands, they gained financial resources to build a flourishing society
What was Moscow
The worlds 3rd Rome