Who was Marie Gouze?
She was a french butcher's daughter who educated herself by reading books and marrie a junior army officer
What was Gouze a strong advocate of?
Women's rights. when the French revolution broke out, she applauded people's speeces about equality in the Rights of Man and the Citizen
What did Gouges write pertianing to Women's rights/
She wrote Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female citizen
Throughout history, what have agricultural societies been ruled by?
They have been usually ruled by kings, democratic or republican governments..sometimes aristocratic governmennts
In justifying thier rule, what did kings and emperors say?
They identified themselves with deities, and gave themselves divine powers
During the 17th and eighteenth centuries, phlosophies and other advocates began to
question the long standing notions of soverignty.
When people challenged soverignty, what were they challenging?
They wanted to make the kings responsible for the people that they governmen.
Second Treatise of Civil Government
Published by John Locke, said that the government arose in the remote past when poeple decided to work together, form civil society. It stated that individuals granted political rights to their rulers, ut retianed personal rights to life, liberty,a nd property
Any ruler who violated the rights laid out by the Second Treatise of Civil government was subjected to...
desposition. Rulers derived their authority from the subjects
What did Voltaire resent?
The persecution of religios minorites and government censorship of royal officials who had the power to prevent printers from publishing works that did not meet royal approval.
What did people want in terms of religion and views
To be able to express them freely
Jean Jacques Rousseau
identified with simple wokring people and resented the privileges enjyed by elite classes. in the Social Contract, he argued that members in society were collectively soverreign. In an ideal society, all individuals would participate in the formuation of laws
What was teh global influence of englihtenment values?
they gave a serious challenged to long establshed notions of political and social order. Revolutionary leaders in Europea and the Americas adapted
In the beginning of the North American colonies, what did citizens regard themselves as?
They regarded themselves as British subjects, tey recognized British law and read books
What dd a partnership with Britain provide for the colonies?
It provided trade and military support ( like in the French and Indian War)
What did the British parliment do, after the seven years war that bothered the colonists, and why did they do it?
They were faced with financial difficulties, so they decided to raise taxes to bring order to a far flung empire .
Imposed taxes on molasses and other things (1764)
What were other acts that were passed/
The townshend act, and the tea act. people resented the strict enforce ment of mavigation laws, that required customs. Also, there was the quartering act
What is a popular slogan that was from the Colnists, and what were some of the protests?
1. No taxation wihtout representation
2. Boston Tea Party
3. Continental Congress
Declatation of independance?
7/4/1776 declatation of independace, all men are equal, it echoad John Locak.
What advantages did the British enjoy over the colonists in the beginning of the American Revolution, what problems were there
A strnger army, navy, and support from a lot of colonists. But they also had to travel accross the Atlantic ocean to get naything
WHen did the british surrender, and what treaty said that...ya know
1. In October of 1781
2. Traty of Paris (Peace of Paris)
The Conistitution of the United States emphasized what?
The rights of individuals, MAerican leaders based the federal governmen t on popular soverignty, and agreed to have freedom of speech, press and other htings
How were the American and French Revolutions different?
Americans would retain a lot of thier own law, but in the French revolution, they took away old order, an dreplaced it with new structures
What was teh Estates General?
An assembly that represented the entire French population through groups known as estates
the estates include
1. 100,000 Roman Catholic clergy
3. Reset of population including laborers, artisians, and shop keepers
What was the national assmebly
On 17th June 1789, the third estate met, and decisded to be te national estate, and seceded from the Estates General. They wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen which the National Assembly started in August 1798
What were the goals of th National Assmbly and what did it abolish?
liberty, fraterity and equality. They worked to abolish the first estate, and murdered the king
What did the french noblity cause in terms of military?
They caused the Assmbly to declare war n Austraia, Prussia, Spain , Britain and NEtherlands.
What was the Convention?
It was essentially the new legislative body elected by universal manhood suffeage which abolished the monarchy and proclaimed France a reublic. The Convention rallied the French population by instituting the mass levy- draft
Robesspiere and the radical_ praty domiated the Convention, they did what
Jacobin, Robespierre had emerged as a ruthlessleader. THey wanted to eliminate the influence of Christianity in Frnech society by closing churches and forcing priests to take wives. Cult of reason was
What was the cult of reason and what other changes did the Jacobians want to make?
An alternitive to Chrisitanity, thye wanted priests to take wives, and replaced seven day weeks with 10 units. Also, they started the new historical year Year ! which began with the First republic. HTey also granted more rights to women (divorce)
They were more pragmatic, but unable to resolve the economic and nilitary problems tha tplagued the revolutionary france.
Background of Napoleon
1. born to a minor family in Corsica- mediterranean island
2. Studied at a Frnech military school, became an officer, and a general at 24
3. He established French precence in nothern Italy, Egypt
4. Joined the Direcotry, and then overthre w it and he had unchecked pwoer
What was Napoleon's frace like?
1. brought politcal stablity
2. Made peace with the pope in the Concordat0 Frnch state would retain church lands but the states would pay clerics saleies and recognize the other religons
3. Civil Code: Affirmed the politcal and legal euality and established a merit based society in which individuals had to qualify for a standing. Protected private property
What was limited in Napoleon's Society?
Freedom of speech was limited as well as censorship of newspapers and other publications. He established a secret police force that relied heavily on spies
Napoeleon also wanted to extend his empire, what did it encompass?
It came to encompass the Iberian, Italian and Netherlands. H
Fall of Napoelon
1. He wanted to invade Russia. He captured Moscow, and it was set ablaze (by Russians)
2. Then, Napoelon had to abdicate his throne, and vicotres sent him to Elba
Where did the only successsfull slave revolt in history take place?
In saint Domingue, the place where sugar, coffee and cotton were produced
What was Saint Domingue society like?
It included 40K settlers (gens de couleur-free pepoples) and black slaves
2. Gens de Couleur had small plots of land
3. Colony's slaves had brutla conditiosn, mortality was ery hgh
4. large communities of marrons,
Slave Revolt in Sat. Dom
Voudiu Boukman organized it. 1791 12K slaves beganning killing white setlters, burnign thier homes dn destorying plantations. Slaves were also able to igth and gens de couleur and whites fought as well.
Toussaint (real name) learned to read and write form a Roman Catholic priest and he rose to the position of livestock oversser on the pantiona
What did Toussaint do?
He was a good organizer and he was able to play people against eachother. In 1801, he made a constitution. Yellow feaver was able to kill off all of the French
What did Creoles resent?
They didn't like adminsitrative control and economic regulations. They drew inspiration, and wanted to displace the peninsulares
When did the South American struggle for independance begin?
In wake of Napoleon's invasion of Spain and Portugal in 1807. Revolts broke out in Argentina, Venezuela,a nd Mexico (Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla) rallied indigenosus poeples nad mesitozs against colonial rule
Augustine de Iturbe, delcared independence of MExico from Spain, and then declared himself Emperor...he was a bad adminsitrator
1. He laed the movement for independence
2. Born near Venezuela,he was a good Enlightenment
3. Crushed Spanish Army in 1819
3. Campaigned in Venezuela, Ecuador,a nd Perua
Which other leaders did Bolivar team up with?
Jose de San Martin, and Bernardo O'Higgins in Chile..his goal was to weld the former Spanish colonies of South America into a great state
1. Napoelon invades Brazil
2. King establishes a government in Rio De Janeiro, Pedro is in charge
3. Declares independence
4. New Caudillos which are strongmen in the society
What is an ideology?
A coherant vision of human nature, human society, and the larger wold that prospers some particular form of polical and social organization
What is conservatism??
They view socieyt as an organism that changed slowly over the generations. Edmund Burke says that the society was a compact between ancesotrs and the prescence
What is liberalims
They take change and welocme it. The task of poltcal and social theory was not to change, but to manage it in thebest interest of socity, want equality..mroality. Republican, Constitution. John Sutart Mill promotes individual freedoms
As millrecognized, the age of revolution in the Atlantic wold illustrated a sense of suffracge, in establishing a peoples and a nation sense of democraic legitimacy and political sovernigty...who championed equaltu
American and French, but there were a lot fo weird things- male citizens...it was defined soon as citizenship, class, age, gender, and race
A priment English philanthropist attackd slavery ona moral and religous grounds. He attracted alot of supporters. Britian pressued US, France and Netherlands and Spain to ban slavery
What did Britian do to make sure that there were no illegitaminte slaves?
HTey patroled the west coast of Africa
Abolition of Slavery.
What did the Enlightenment call for? But what did limit
The restructuiring of government and society, but limited women's rights. Rousseau- girls should become devoted wives.
Mary Astell was one of the women reformers, suggesting that absolute sovereignty was no more appropriate ina family thnin a state..who was another reformer?
Mary Wollstonecraft. She had little schooling, but rea books and gained a self education by herself . She wrote Vindication of the Rights of Women
In the vindication, what did Wolstonecraft argue?
That women possessed al lthe rights that locke had granted to men. She insisted on the ight of women to educate,
How did Women play a rol inthe revolutions
They would sew uniforms, rolling badnges or manage farms and toerh things. In 1789 Parisian women marched to Versailles. Under the National assmbly th eowmen got more rights, suhc as free public education
One of the most influential concepts of modern political thought is the idea of a nation which refers to
A type of ocmmunity that become especially prominent in the 19th century. Intese feelings of national identity fuelded ideologies of nationalism ..leaders say that the citizens had a common desity.
What did early natonalist thought sought to do?
Deepen appreciation of the historical experienes of the national community and foster pride of the accomplishments (Gottffried von Heder-Volk people for Germans)
What did Heder focus the world to, inreaction to scientiic wanting..thingy
Individual communities and releshed thier uniqueness. They emphasized historical scholarship which owuld illuminate thier stuff. Volgeist- helepd the reason
What did nationalism soon become?
More politcal, advocates demanded loyalty and solidarity form members of the national grou. Guisseppe MAzini formed a group called Yooung Italy promoted independence fro Austrain and Spanish authorites
Natioanlism and Antisematism
1. Zionism, a political movement ht atholds the jewish people constitutea nation adn have the right to their own homeland
2. Suspeicon of JEws fuels anit sematism in many parts of Europ
What did Herzel say about the Jewish Community?
He had witnessed Dreyfus's trial,and he decided that he would publish Judenstaat which argued that the only defense against an antisematism lay in the mas migration of JEws form all over hte world. He formed teh world Zionest Congress, and the Organization of Zionism
What was the Congress of Vienna
It was a coalition of political leaders that wanted to keep European stability. it included the poewrs that had defeated Napoleon-Britian, Austria, prussia and Russia
With the help of Kelmens von Metternich, the Congress of Vienna did what?
Dismantled Napoleon's empire, returned soverinty to Europe's royal families.
There were many form the 1820s-1840s Such as
1. When The Greek Poeple wnated independence from the ottoman Turk
2. liberalism, in France Spain and Portugal
3. Natioanl States..independence form the Netherands
Unification of Italy
1. Political leaders uch as Camilo di Cavour prime minister to Emmanuel of Sardina combined forces with national advocates of independence.
2. Expelled Austrians
3. Giuseppe Garibaldi led unification mvement, swept trhough sicilu
Otto Von Bismark
1. Wilhlm Prussia wanted him as the primeminister
2. Reformed and expanded the Prussian Army
3. between 1864 and 1870 he intentionally provoked three wars