Few Europeans had traveled to South Africa by the mid ninteenth centruy, but what discovery brought lots of them there?
Disovery of diamonds and rich gold deposits brought the people there
What was the background of Cecil John Rhodes,
He was an `18 year old student at Oxford University who in 1871, went to South Africa in search of a climate that would relieve his tuberculosis.
Rhodes did what?
Was persisitent, systematic, and ambitious. He carefully supervised African laboerers who worked his claims in the diamond fields.
1889 What had Cecil John Rhodes done?
He controlled 90 percent of the world's diamond production, With ample financial backing, he bought the rights to other'sclaims when they loked promising
Imperialism is a term that many Europeans began to speak of..what does it mena?
It refers to the domination of European powers and later the United States and Japan asw well. Over subject lands in the larger world.
How did imperial domination come?
It sometimes came in the old fashioned way, by force of arms, but often it arose form trade investment and business activities that enabled imperial powers to profit form subject socieites nad influence their affairs wihtout going to the trouble of exercising direct affairs
Like the building of empires, the establishment of colonies in foregin lands is a practice dating from when
In modern parlance, colonialism refers to not just the sending of colonists to settle into new lands, nbut also the
political, social, economic, and cultural structures that enabled imperial powers to dominated subject lands
European powers established settler colonies populated largely by
migrants from the home societies.
Yet, contemporary scholars also speak of European colonies where?
In India, southeast Asia and even SubSaharan Africa...even though European migrants did not settle there in large numbers
European agents, officials, and business peopl effectively turned those lands into colonies and did what/
profoundly influenced the culture there, an dhte historical development by controlling their domestic and foreign policies, integrating local economies into the network of gobal capitalism. and introducing European stadards and promoting European cuture
During the second half about the of the nineteenth century, many Europeans came tobelieve what about imperial expansion
That imperial expansion and colonial domination were crucial for the surviival of thier states nad societies- and soemtimes for the health of their personal fortnes
European merchants and entrepreneurs sometimes became-...from ventures
became very wealthy from these ventures
After making his fortune mining diamonds nad gold, what did Cecil Rhodes do?>
He worked on behalf of British Expansion
What motives encouraged European people to launch campaigms of conquest and control?
1. Economic interests
2. Overseas colonies could serve as reliable sources of raw materials that were not available in Eure that came into demand
What were some products that were in high demand>
They were rubber, tn, and copper were vital products. and they were crucial to industrialized lands.
Where was Rubber avaliable>
In the Amazon basin, but imperialists established colonial rubber planations in the Congo River and Malaya
What two countries supplied most of the world's petroleum?
Russia and the UNited Sates
People thought that colonies would consume manufactured products and provdie a haven for
migrants in an age of rapidly increasing European products would provde a haven for migrants in an age of development
As European states extended their influence overseas, what arguenet gained prominence?
THe Geopolitical argument-even if colonies were not economically beneficial, it was crucial for political and military reasons to maintain them. Some overseas colonies occupied strategic sites on teh word's sea lanes, others had harbors
How was Imperialism used for domestic plans?
In an age when socialists and communits directly confronted industralists, European politicians nad national leaders ought to defuse social tension and inspire patriotism byb focusing public attention n foreign imperialist ventures
BY the end of the nineteenth centur what had European leaders done>
They had frequently organized colonial exhibitions hwere subject peoples displayed their dress, music and customs
What did people go to new lands to do?>
They went to convert pople
It was a misson and was used as an excuse for expansion
Even the stronest moties would not have enabled Europeans to do what?
Impose thier rule throughout the world iwhtout the powerful tehcnological advantages that industrialization conferred on them. Ever since the introduction of gun powder, Europeans competed furiously for new technologies
What was one of the most imortant innovations in transporatation?
It involved steamships and railroads
Small steam boats plied the waters of theUnited states and western Europe form whe?
the early nineteenth century
During the 1830s, what did British naval engineers adapt?
Steam power to military uses and built large ironclad ships equipped iwht powerful guns.
What did these ships do?
They traveled faster than any sailing vesseland as an additional advantage, they could ignore the winds and travel in
Review: What did the British boat the Nemisis do>
It had an expedition along the Yangzi River
What enahnced the effects of new steam ships?
New canals (The Suez Canal and the Panama Canal) facilitated the building and maintenance empires
What overland technology helped?
European inWhat were the new firearms that helped?
1. Muzzle loading muskets (but it was hard to reload)
2. The Rifled machine gun-Maxin Gun
What were the ways that Europeans communicated?
Through steamship, because it was much easier to travel, and through telegraph
The British empire in south Asia and southeast Asia grew out of the
mercantile activities of the English east India company
After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, and the decline of the Mughal state, what did the East Inda Companydo?
They began campaigns of out right conquest in India and expanded trading posts. They wanted to do this to protect trade.
From their forts at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay what did the merchants do?>
They extended their authority, and won official rights to rule form the Mughal emperors and local authorities. they enforced thier urle with a small British army and a larg number of INdian troops
What were Indian troops called?
They were called sepoys
What was the rebellion led by the sepoys?
Well, the British asked them to open cartriges that were surrounded by animal fat for the guns, and the people refused, citing religious reasons. Then the ykjilled the British officers, and mounted a full scale rebellion
The Kanpur massacre?
Sepoys overcame the Britsh poplation and many of them masacred women adn children, the British came and massacred all of them
To stabilize affairs and forestall future problems, the BRitish government did what?
imposed direct rule on India
In 1858, what actions did Queen Victoria take that signified the British rule over India
Assigned responsibility forIndia and established a secretary of State for India. A viceroy represented the British royal authority in Inai.
What transformation did the British do for India
They cleared trees, put railroads, encouraged tea, coffee, and opum, railroad and telegraph, canals, harbors, and irrigation
What popular thing did the English establish educationwise in Inda
IEnglish medum schools, with an English style education.
Religiouly, what accomplishments did the British have in India?
They could not really promote Chrisitanity, but they supressed Hindu customs
How did the Russians expand
Due to the weakening of Ottoman and Qing empires, they had crossed Tashkent, Bokhara, and Samarkand and the great caravan cities of the silk roads and approached the illdefined norhtern froteir of British India
What unique thing did the Russians and Brithsdo? That had not been done before?
They went out and explorered Central Asia, and they made pacts with local rulers form Afghanistan to the raal sea, all in an effort to prepare for the anticipated war with India
Why did the Russians and British make various alliances, and what happened at the end?
Because they were both preparing for a war over India. but, it never happened because World War I broke out early
Compeition among European powers led to imperialism conflict in Southeast ASia
The Philippines had come under Spanish colonial rule in the sixteenth century, many southeast Asian islands fell under Dutch rule in the seventeenth century.
By the 1880s, what did the Britsh trade with Myanmar?
They traded teak, ivory, rubies, and jade.
who founded the port of Singapore?
in 1824, Thomas Stamford Raffles founded the powrt which soon became really busy
Wht was French Indochina
It was Vietnam, Cambodia and Laois. They encouraged conversion to Christianity
Dr. David Livingston
A scottish inister who traveled through uch of cenral and southern Africa in search of locations for mission ports.