In the early 7th century, what did the Emperor of Chian do
Issued an order forbidding his subjects to travel beyond Chinese boreders
Xuanxang went to indian to study Buddhism. He noticed that the Chinese writings contained many contradictory texts,
What were some difficutlties that Xuanzang faced?
He lost a lot of supplies. Turpan was the citiy that he wet to to get som eguidenca and was given some letters of introdction. He got to indian in 630 and collected many things for him. During the centureis following the Han dynasty, what happened?
Who fomed the Sui dyansty
Yang Jian an ambitious ruler in northern chian twhio embarked on a series of military campiaignes that brought all of China onece again under centralized imperal rule
How did Yang Jian impose rule
He had really tight political disciline on his state and then extended it to the rest of CHina
Whendid Jian impose rule?
Turkish ruler appointed him as the duke of Sui. In 58- his patron died, and he used the Mnadate of Heven
What did the Sui dynasty place demands on?
Their subjects in th course ofbuilding a strong centralized government. The Sui emperors ordered the consturction of palaceds and granaries and carried out extensive repairs on defensive walls, dipatched military foces to Central Asia an ddemanded cumpulsory labor services
What was the most importance project that was undertaken during the Sui
The grand canal which was one of the worlds larges water projects
Who was the second empror
Sui yangid (604-618) completed the canal to facilitared trade between the two parts of Chian.
What did was the Grand Canal really?
it was as eries of artificial waterways that ultimately reached form Hangzhou in the south to the Imperial capital of Chang'an in th west to a termunous in Beijuing
How was the Grand Canal paid for?
it was 2000 km and was paid by the stuff that it gave. It was useful until the railroads. IT still functions today
Why did the Sui dynasty fall?
Because of the labor, military reverses in Korea prompted isconted subjects to revolt against Sui Rule. Rebellions broke out
What was the origin of the Tang DynastY?
A rebel leader seized Chang'an and proclaimed hiself mperor of a new dynasty that he named tang after his hereditary rule
Much of Tang's success was due to what?
The energy, ability and politicy of the dynasties second emporer Tang Taizong
He was ambitious. Mudered both of his brothers once he was one the throne, he displayed a hgh sence of duty and strove to conscientiously to provide effective stable government. Hise built a plendid capital at Chang'an
What happened durign Taizong's rule?
Price of rice remained low and that taxes levied on peasants amounted only to 1/40 of the anual harves t. Banditry ended
What politices halped to explain the succes of the early Tang Dynasty
Maintenance of a well articulated transportation and communications network, distribution of land according to the principles of the equal field system and a relieance on a bureaucracy based on merit.
What was teh tang communications netork?
ocnsisted of roads, horses and sometimes runners. They maintained inns, postal staions and stables which provided rest and refreshment for poeple
What wasthe Equal field ssytem?
Governed the allocation of agricultural and. Its purpse awas to ensure an equitable distribution of land a dnto avoid the concentration of landd property that had causedsocial problems earlier.
How did the equal system work?
The adminstaratiors were able to accord land accordingto the fertility. 1/5 of the land became hereditary possession of the recipients and the rest remained availiable for administration
What was a problem with the equal field system?
What did the Tang dynasty rely on?>
A bureaucracy based on merit as relfected on performance on imperial civil serivce exams.
What was the education systme?
The confuctian education system that had mastered a curriculum concentrating on he classic works of Chinese literature and philosophy. The Confuctian education system and the related civil service servd Chinese government so wekk, that with modifi
What did the Tang Dynasty expand into?
It went to machiria and the Silla Kingdom to acknowledge the Tang empoeror. They got Vietnam.
Inan efofrt to fashion a stable diplomatic order, what did the Tang emporers do?
Pratice of maintinging tributary relationsihips wiht neighboring kingdoms. Middle Kingdom, a powerfulr ealm wiht the responsibiltiy. To bring other lands...
What was China
It was the middle kingodom
What was teh kowtow
It was prostration
What was the best thing about the tributary relationship?
It was extremly important thoruhgout east Asia and central Asia because it instituitonaized reations between Chian adn neighboring lands
The emperor neglected affairs in favor of some music which caused very wide discontent.
mounted a rebellion adncaptured the capital at Chang'an as well ast eh secondary capital at Luoyang. His revolt was very short lived, but it really hurt the Tang
Uighurs helped them, but wanted what
To asck Chang'an after the expulsion. The Turkish people came, and they were devestated
Uprising fueld popular discontent and he routinely pillaged the wealthy and distribted a portion of his plunder among the poor
When did the Song dynasty come?
What did the songs place a lot of empahsis on?
Administraiton, industry, education adn the arts than on military affairs
Began his career as a junior mlitary officerserving one of the most powerul warlords in norht chian. He had a repuation for Honsety
What did Song Taizu do?
He consolitdated Rule in Chia and then ersuaded is generals retire honorable to seeka life of leusrure so tha t they wouldnot dispace him
Song Taizu placed miliatry
Under tight superrvisiion
Regarded all state oficuals even in minor functionaries in distant provinces as servents of the imperial government. In exchange for their loaylty , song rulers did whaAwarded the officials andsomly
What were the problems that the Song had?
Financial: A big Bureaucracy devoured surplis prodcutionThe eimperial trasury came under tremendous pressre. Efforts to raise taxesa aggrivated lower classes. Scholar Bureacrats had little talents of military affairs, yet they led the amies. The nomadic people lourished
seminomadic poeple from manchuria ruled a svast empire and they demanded that they recieve payments of silk. The Nomadic Jurchan conqured
Overran Khitan adn norht hina and captred the Song capital at Kaifeng and prclaied the Jin emire. So, it went o Hangzhou and survived for sometime
What did the Chinese get that really heleped them>?
Fast ripening rice from Vietnam. They could harvest two crops per year
What were new agricultural techniques?
Increased use of heay iron plowes and harnessed oxen and water buffaloes in the south to elp to prepare land for the cultivaion. They also used manure and ocomposeted organix matter and had extensive irrigation systems.
mdade ito possible to farm in difficult terrain
What were the populaiton growths?
45 in 600 CE in 800 it was 60 millian and in Jurchen, it passed 100 million and went to 115
INcreased supplies resulted in ehat?
The growth of the Chang'an and other cities such as Hangzhou
What did Cities support?
Hundreds of restauraunts, noodle shops, taverns, teahouses, brothels, music halls, theaters, clubhouses
It had a population of 1000 or more.
wrote light, pleasing verse celebrating life, friendship and especiallyt wine/
What was another result of increased food production?
Commercial agricultural economy because fast ripening rice yielded bountiful harvests many cultivators could purchase inexpensive rice and raise vegetables andfruits for sale on the commerical market.
Wat crops did Cultivators specialie in
Those that grew well in their regions. By the twelfth century , many lychees, organse and sugar canes came
Why did the patriarchal society's start to tighten?
BEcause when family fortunes became bigger, they needed to make it harder for feamle to get to other men
What was the veneration of family
Instead of simplu remebering ancestors and invoking thier aid in rituals ferformed at home, descendents ought the graves of the early ancestores
You wrapped young girls feet with cloth that made them malform and made it hard o walk and do things like that.
What did the Tang times discovr
high quality prcelain which was lighter , thinner, and adaptable to more uses than earlier ottery. When fired with glazes and porcelan could becoming an asthetically utensil or a work of art
Became very popular -chinaware
What did Song and Tang crafts man also improve during this time?
Metallurgcal techonologies. Produciton of iron and stele surged during this era because of techniques tha treeulted in more useful metals
What were the metal methods
you could use coke instrad of coal in their furnaces and produce superior grandes of metal between the earl nith and early twelfth centuries, iron produciton increased a lot
Where did the iron go?
To the ilitary and agricultrual tools. Imperail armanments manufactures produce 16.5 million arrowheads per year, iron and steel also went to constuction projects invovling large structiuressuch as bridges
What did Daoist alchemists discover?
hOw to amek gunpoweder during the Tang dynasty.
What was the effective of early gun poweder?
It did not have much military effectiveness, and in some sense, it limited how much you could do but caused most disruptions
What were the earliest printing techniques?
The block printing techniques where they carved a reverse image of an entire page into a wooden blok inke d the block and then pressed a sheet of paper on toop
By the mid 11th century, printers had begun to xperiment with reusable what
movable type instead of carving image sinto blocks, they fashioned dies in the shape ofideogrpas and arranged them in a frame
Printing made what prossible
Printing many forms of propoganda
Chinease inventiveness extended to what?
During the Tang Dynasty,
CHinese consumers deveoped a taste for the spices and exotic prodcts of southeast Asian islands and Chinese mariners increasing visited those ladns inthose ships
By the time of the Song dynasty
Chinease seafarers sailed ship sfastened with iron nails, water proofed with oils, furnishe dwith watertight bulkheads driven by canvas and bambook. Larger ships sometimes even had small ockets
What were the stable foods in Chian?
They were rice, wheat, millit and other dynamic. The authorities watched over military sensitive enterprises such as the iron indursry.
What were the currency
What were the tihings that were used as an alternative
letters of credit, They were known as fling cash that enabled merchants to deposit goods.
What were the fling checks
USed note swhich pledge d payment fo a given sum of money at a later adate and check s
What was paper money's origins
They were quirte obscure, but because of shortage of cash
What were soem bad thngs about paper money ?
It sometimes didn't work because peopel were not able to onro it
hat owas one thing that happened
Pagerism and so the Sihuan province started to issue Chinese paper mone y
What were the problems with printed paper money
causesd serious problems for seeveral centures after its appearance. COounterfeit notes, government authorites frequently printed currencydidn't work until the Quind dyansty
Trade and urbanization did what to Chinese society?
Transformed it into a porsperous cosmopolitan coety. tarade came to Chiane both by land and by sea. Muslim mercahtns from the Abbasid emipire helped to revive the raods.
Chinese consumers developed what?
A taste for exotic goods alike spices and feathers and tortoise and incense .T ehy became prat of an elegant lifesty
Buddhist mercatn s traveled the ancietn silk rads visited China as early was what
the 2nd century. During the Hna dynasty, there wa slittle interste, but slowly it became very popular
During the unsetlttled centuries following the fall of the Han, what happened
Srveral religiouns established foothold there. Nestorian Chirstinas, manichaeans and Zoroastrians fleeing islam came.
What were the foreing communities
The Nestorian christians established ommunities and they were soon allowed to owen monasteries in Chang'an and other places. Muhamma buit a smallr ed bmosque in Guangzhou there
What were the religons that were popular there?
Religons of salvation
Mahayan Buddhism gradually found a popular what
following in Tang and song china.Buddhism cam to china over the silk roads and rsidents of oasis towns had converted.
Where did a buddhist community emerge
Dunhuang in western Chian. They buit hundreds of caves and teples in teh vicinity and many Buddha and the boddisatvas
Why did Buddhism attract Chinse people
Because of its high stadnards o morality, its intelectual sophistican nad its promise of salvation. Buddhists established monastic communities in Chian and accumulated szable estates donated by weaty converts
Buddism had implications
For every day life. Chiars wre introduced refined sugar. It also pose challenge to Chinese cultural and social tradtions. Byuddhism posed a challenge to Chinese cultural and csocial traditions. Buddhist theolgians typically took written texts as points of departure for elaborate speculative investigations
How ddi Buddhism rival new chinese philosophy
Buddhists followed a celibate monastic lifestylebut China was family relationships
How did Buddhists make thier fatih more interesteing?
Hey explained Buddhist concepts in vocabulary that was familier to Chinese people such as dao and wuwei ( noncompetiion) They also recognized the validity of family life and offered bUddhism as a religion that would beenfit from the extended Chinese family
What was the Buddhist schols of buddhism
Chan buddhists had what
littel interst in written texts but empahsived intuton and sudden flashes of insight in thier search for spiritual enlighttenment. They resempled daoists
DUring the Tang and Song dynasty how did Chan buddhism bcome
it was very popualr, Monasteries appeared in many major cities and Xuanzag was in India. Many pilgrims deepend their understanding
Buddhims met what?
They met resistance from teh Daoists and the Confucians. Daoists resented the popular following tha tBuddhiss attracted which reslted in dimished reources avaliable for thier tradition
During the tang dyansty, how did Daoist and COnfuctian critcs
840, the Tang emporers ordered the closure of all the Buddhist monestries. Motivated by the large desire to seirze property form other religions. Tang dpolicy did not eradicate it
The Song Emporers
Did not persecut Buddhists, bu t they actively support the native Chinese cultural tradiotns in hope f Limiting the Influence of foreing religons. They contributed particularly to the Confuctian traditions
How did the Confucian traidtion of the SOng dynasty differ
It had concentrated earlier on political tradions. They found much to admire in Bddhisn thoougt which offfered a schoo of logical thrught adn argumentation but also dealth with issues of the soul
Who wasthe most important Neo Confucianis
A philopher Zhu Xi
What did Zhu Xi do?
He mainteained a deep committment to this writings and empahsizing a proper person al behaviro and social harmony
What was teh treaties that Zhu Xi wrote
Family rituals tha tprovded detailed instructions for weddings, funderals and vernation.
What was ZHu Xi fascinated with the Philosphical adn speculative features of Buddhist thought. He argued that Good Confucians did what?
Emphasized the good marticals and be believed taht acadamica and philosphical investigations were important
What was the rlationship between NC and Budhdi
They rejected it
Chinese society did what
Influenced the deelopement of nieghboring lands
What were some of theplaces tha tChinese merchants influenced
Korea and Vietnam as well as Japan
When did Chinese armies go to KOrea?
During the Qni and Han dynasties as the Han dynasty weakened however local aristocrats ousted them
During the 7th century , Tang armies conqueredmuch of Korea before the
Sila dynasty rallied to prevent CHinese domination of the peninsula
What was teh agreement between the Chinese annad the Silla
KOrea was a vassal state. The kingdom entered into a tributary relationship with Cina. envoys of the Kila kings regularly delivered gifts to Chinese emoerorsand performed the Kowtow
What was teh Chinese political and cultural influences on korea?
Embassies delievered tribute to China including Korea who oserved the workings of the Chinese court. The silla kings built a capital t Bumson that modeld Changan. Confucian tradition adn Buddhisn came
How did Chian and korea differ?
The aristocrats and royal houses domiated Korean society much more in China. Korea never established a bureaucracy based on Merit, politial initiagtive was in tehr uling class
What was China's reationship with Vietnam>
The Tang armies venture dinto the land that was called Nam Viet. They wer emet with rsistence
What did the Viets adopt?
They adopted chinese argricultruatl methods and irrigation systems as well as Chinese schols and adminstrative techniuqes. hThey studied hte Confuctial texts and took examinations based on it, but they didn't really adaot to much.
What wasthe religious status of Vietman?
They mintained their indigenous religions in preference to Chinese cutural traidions. Women played a much more prominent role in vientamese society .
The earliest inhabitants of Japanwere
nomadic poeple from northeast Asia who migrate to Japan 35 thousand years ago
Where did the cultrual,language and religon of Japan derive rom where?
They derive from the society in Northeast Asia
The establisheemnt of the powerful Sui and Tang dynastiesin
China had reprocussions in Japan where they sugested the value of central imperial government. One of the aristocratic clans in Japn insisted on its recedence over the others, although in fact it never hweielded effective authority outisde its territory
What did this Japanse clain do?
HTey claimed imperial auhtority and introduced a series of reformes designed to centralized Japanese politics. The impeoral house estabilished a court modeled on that of the tang, institued a chinese style bureaucracy, implemented an equal field system and provided official support for Confucianism and Buddhism
What was teh fist capital
Nara, it did
How was Japan unique?
It idd not looseits distinctive characteristcs or become simply a smaller model fo Chinese society, while adopting them Japense continued to iberve the rite sof Shinto and othe religions
What were the periods
Heian, Kamajra and Muromachi.
During the Heinan
Local rulers on the island of Honshu mostley recognized the emperors as Japans's politcal adn social auhtority. The power lay in the lands of the Fujiwara fmaily, an aristocratic clan that cntroleld affairs form behind the throne, throhg its influence over the imperial house and manipulation of its memebrs. Sin
Since the 9th century, what has Japanese politcal order, h
has almost ontinously featured a split between the rule nad the RUle.
Cinese traditions in Japan?
Most literature imiated Chinese models and was in Chinese boys and men lerned Chinese. officials kept records in Chinese adnnd Japanese writings imicked Chinese scholars
The Tale of GEnki
Composed by Nurasaki Shukibu
Tale of Genji ffers
a meditation n the passing of time and the osrrows that ime bring to the sensitive human beings. As Gengiand jis frines age, they relfet on past joys adn reltinships that are no long recoverable. Thier thought ssuffuse the taile with a sense of melancholy
Chanegs in Japanese coutnryside?
The equal field system gradually flell into disuse in japan as it ahd in cian. Taira and Minamoto overed shadowed and establishe dKamakura
What was the Japanese Medival Period?
Middle Era falling betwen the age of Chinese infleunce and ocurt documentation of poltical life in Japan
What were the goverment styles f the Kamakura and the Muromachi
THey were decentalized win which provincial lords weirlded effective power and auhtority in local regions whee htey controlled land and economuic affairs. As these lrods and their class vied for power adn authory, rusethey stull used he dicilin e
Who were the Samurai
They were professon al warriors who were specailist sin the used of force. They served the lords of Japan who relied on the Samurai to enforce thier duty. Int rturn fo those police nad military services, the lords supported the samurai from teh agricultral surplises