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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (83):

Like the Indus, what was the Yellow River? 

IT is boisterous and unpreduicatable. It rises very high in the plateau of Tibet and courses for 4700 km. 


What is inthe Yello wRIver? 

Losses soil tha tit picks up along its route. It is a very fine powerderlike soil that was deposited on teh plains of northern China as well as servea other places


What was one Neolitihic settleme? 

Yang shoi society which floursihed fomr 5000-3000 BCE. IT is known for the village Banpo


As human populaiton increased, setltements ik that at Banpo

Croped upthrohgout much of chinal around Rivers.


What were the three ancient dynasties? 

The Xia, Shang and the Zhou that arose before the qin and Han dyasties. They were hereditary states


Xia Dynasty

Discovery in the early stages . IT was not the only state in China, t was very vigorous


Who was teh sage king? 

It was Yu, witht eorganizaition of effective flood control projects, thus as in Mesopotamia and egypt, the ened ot roganize large scale piblicowrks projects helped to establish recognize authorities


How was the Zia able to control? 

The leaders of individual villages


According to legend, who was the Las Xia king? 

He was very oppressive and losthis realm to the foundre of the Shang Dynasty. It just gradually gave way to teh Shange Dynasty 


What explains the rise ofthe shang? 

1. Tecnhollgy 

2. Bronze metallurgy went to CHina, along with horses and chariots. 

3. Shang elites monopolized the production of Bronze, and provided weapons to the families

4. Nobles also had ittings for the horse drawn 0had devestating effecs on ther armies


Where did shang rulers extend their rule? 

IT ehnan, they claiemd a lot of agricultre. 


Did Shang rulers havea centralized state? 

No, they had authority that rested on a vast network of walled towns whose rlocal rulers recognized the auhority of the Snhang kings. Apart form local rulersof those owns, otehers who shared the agricultral surplus of China 


Who else tired to helpt the Shang RUlers? 

Advisors, ministers, craftsmn and metlasmiths who helped the shang uers shape policy 


What did Shang Society revolvearound? 

Resveral citys. The capital moved six times - they became places of the arts 



A big wall that consised of pounded etch. 



Had royal palaces archives with written documents and seveal residential places. There wre lage toombs 


Fu Hao

one of 64 wives ofthe Shang king WU Ding. She  had a lot f  things hin her grave


Who were teh Zhou

They ere tough sineyw poeple wao battled Shang forces in teh east and nomadic raiders from the steppes inteh west


Shang and Zhou ambitions collided, how

the las Shng king was a crimila fool who gave himself over 


What is teh Mandate of Heavan? 

Hevely powers grant the right to govern, when you start doing it badly, it means that the mandate has passed over to someone else. 


How was the Zhoul state? 

It was much larger than the shang, it was so extensive that a single central court oculd not rule that the entire land effectively at least not with teht ransportation and communication tehcniologies available 


What type of government was the Zhou

 It was adecentralized administration. They entrusted power, authority and responsibility to subordinates who owed tribute


In return of political rights, what did poeple have to do

visit to show thier loyalty 


Despite thier best efforts, the Zhou kings could not maintain control because 

Subordinates gradually established thier own bases of power, they ruled thie territories not only as allies of the Zhou. They set up regional bureacuracies, armies and tax systems


Technological developments also worked in favor of subordinate rulers..hhow? 

Zhou kings were not able to contorl the production of bronze as closely as their Shang Predecessors had and subordnates built up stockpile sof weapons. During the first milennuim, the technology of iron had sprad


Because iron ores anreboth cheap and more abundant than copper and tin, were they able to monopolize? 


In  771, what did Nomadic poeples do? 

INvade CHina from the west, the came during the rule of a particularly ineffective king who did not engjoy teh repspect of his political allies, when subordinates refused to support, they were overwhelemed


Where did the nomadic people come into ( like what rule? 

During the rule of  aparticularly ineffective king who did not enjoy the rspect of his political allies. When subordinates refused to support, the invadrs overwhelmedthe Zhou capital at Hao. 


When subordinates refused to support the king, the invaders overwhelmed the Zhou Capita at Hao


In face, the political initiative had passed from the Zhou kings  to their 

suboridantes and the royal court never regained its authority. By the fifth cetury, territorial princes ignored the central government and used their resources to build strength and expand thier states


What were the last centuries of the Zhou dynasty known as? 

the Period of Warring States, in 256 BCE the Zhou dynasty ended when the last king abdicated his throne


In China, as in the other parts of the ancient world he introuction of agriculture enabled individuals to do what

accumulate wealth and preserve it whith thier families Social distinctions began to appear during neolithic times and after the establishment of the Xia, Shang, and Zhou


During the Xia dynasty, and the Shang and Zhou, where did the royal family and allied noble families occupy on the social statues 

The most honorable positions. The resided in large palatial compounds made of poumded earth, and they ived on the agriultural surplus and taxes delivered by thier subjects 


What was one metal that the wealthy could have? 

Bronze implements. Ruling elites possessed much of the bronze weaponry apart from the less priveged class and political hegemony and through their subordinates that ensured 


What were some bronze utensils? 

They were dishes, mirrors, bells, drums, vessesl used in ritual ceremonies which were beyond the means of less privilatged people


What did Chinese People eat? 

They had seamed rice and meat


What did teh poor people use for cooking untensils? 

They had clay pots and had like veggies nad porriges


What type of aristocrats were there? 



What did aristcrats posses? 

extensiveland oldings and they worked at administrative and military tasks. BY Zhou times, many of them lived in cities where they obtained at least an elementary education 


What did a small class of people do? 

They use d their trades in teh cities of ancient China. Some worked almost exclusively for the privileged classes, enjoed reasonabl comfortable existence. DUring the Shang dynasty, bronzesmiths oten lived ni hoses built of pounded earth 


What is there little information about in China

Merhcants and trade in Ancient Chian until the latter part of the Zhou Dynasty, but Arhcaeological discoveries show trade routes


What were things in tombs and other things that indicated trade? 

Jade in Shang tombs came form CEntral ASia and military technology involving horse drawn chariots came through central asia from mesopotamia. Shang Bronzesmiths worked iwth tin that came form the Malay peninsula in Southeast Asia 


What do accounts credit king Yu with inregards to the martime trade? 

He was the inventor of the sails. There is no archaeological indication of Chinese sails before abotu 500 BCE, but there is abundant evidence hat Chinese mariners used large oar propelled vessesl befofre 200 BCE


What type of people populated the Chinese countryside? 

They were the semiservile peasants, that populatd the Chinse countryside They owned no land,but provided agricultural, miliatry nad labor services for their lords in exchange for security and a plot to cultivate


What did peasant women's duties include? 

THey included mostly indoor activities such as wine making, weaving, and cultivation of silkworks whearas men sspent most of their time outside working in the fields, hunitin gna dfishing 


As few effective tools were not avaliable tilll late in the Zhou dynasty, what did people rely on? 

They relied on wooden diging sticks and spade swith bone of stone tips  whcih were strong enough to cultivate the poudery loesses soil of northern Chian


There was a sizable class of what?



 What was the princpal institution in Chinese Society? 

Family, fo rthe socialization of children and the preservation of cultural traditions 


What was one practice in Chinese society

Veneration of ancestors, a practice with roots in neolithic times. In those arly days, agricultural peoples in China tended to the graves and memories of the departed. They gave everything to the dead (tools..etc


A Family could be expected to prospor if what? 

If both the dead and living worked together


Inthe absence of organized religion or offical priesthood in ancient China, who presdied over the family? 

It was a patriarchal head. He was the mediator between the alive and the dead


Chinese society vested authority principally in elderly males who headed the households, it took on a storn 

patriarcahl character, one that intensified with the emrgence of large states. Sueign neolithic time,s Chinese men wielded public authorty, but they won thier rites to it by v


What line did descnet rundown?

The female line. Even if itt did not vest powr and uauhtority in women, it provided reason to honro woem 


Were women honored 

Yes? They did occasionally play promient roles in Public life during Shange times. Fu Hao the consor tof King Wu Ding, ventured beyond the corridors of the shang palce


During the Shang and Zhou dynasties, how were women treated? 

THey came to live under the shadow of men. Large staes brought the military and political contirbutions of emne into sharp focus. The ruling classes performed elaborate ceremonies hooring the departed males


What did the Chinese thinkers often sepak of? 

The heavenly power called tian, the agent responsble  for placign and removing the madate of heaven on rulers. 


Did China recognize a personal or supreme deity who intervened in human affairs or took special interest in human behavior? 

nO. Nor id dancient China support  a large class of preists. There wer some for veneration, but rally not a lot 


In mesopotamia and India, merchants wused what? 



When was the earliest use of writing in China? 

Goes back to the Sang Royal court. Kept written accounts of important events on strips of bamboo or pieces of silk. UNfortunately, almost all have disappeared


What are the principal instruments used by fortune tellers? 

Oracle bones- in other early societies, specializests forecast the future by exmaining the entrails of animals. In China, diviners sd the specially prepared broad bones0 shouder blades of sheep or turtle shels


How could you know the fortune from an oracle boen? 

They put a question on it, then heated it a logt. The fortune teller then studied the patters and determined the answer to the question. It was then recorded on the bone


Where did a lot of oracle bones go? 

They were ground into a specially potent a lot went away 


What types of messages did the oracle bones contain? 

MEssages of real concern-like if there would be a good harvest 


What was even more than the oracle bones do? 

Offer the earliest glimpse into the tradition of Chinese writing. The earliest form of CHinese writing-like SUmerian and Egyptian writing was the picotgraph


How do you represent complex notions in Chinese writing? 

You combine pictographs 


The characters used in contemporary CHinese writing are diect descenants of those used in

Shang times. Scholars have identified more than two thousand characters inscribed on oracle bones, most of which have a mdern counterpart


A few oracle bones survive from Zhou tiemes, along with a large number of insciptions on bronze ceremonial utensisl that the ruling classes used, what did the Zhou also produce? 

books of poetry and history manuals of divination and ritual and essays dealing with moral, relgious and philosophical and political themes


What are the bes tknonw works of the ZHou

the ones of Confucias. And other late Zhou thinkers which served as teh intellecual foundationof clasical chinese society, but many oteher less famous wokrs show that Zhou writers mostly anomyous were keen to obsrve the world of affairs


Several writings of the Zhou dynasty won recogniztion as works of High authory, what were some examples? 

The book of Changes0 manual nstructing diviners in the art of fretelling, Book of history, a collection of documuents that justified the Zhou state and call for subjects to bey thier overlords


What was the notable of the classic works? 

The Book of songs, alos known as the book of Potery and the Book of ODes0 a colelction of verses on themes both light and serious. Many of the 311 poems in the collection date from a much earlier period and relfect oncidtions of the early Zhou


Some of the poems had what? 

political implications adn they recorde dtheillustrias deeds of the heroic figures and ancient sage kigns 


How did the Zhou writings perish? 

THey were either on bamboo strips and silkfabrics, or some of them were given to enemies 


What prevented Chinese interaction with others 



Where did CHinese Agricultura spread?

To the north and wst of the Yellow River


As they expanded to the norht and west, Chinese cutivators encountered who? 

nomadic people who had built astoral societies in the grassy steppe lands of central Asia. These lands were to arid ato sustain a large soceity. After Indo-European peoples were ale to ride horses, they could herd other animals


What was Nomadic society like? 

THey did little famiing since the arid steppe did not reward efforts at cultivation. Instrad, the nomads concentrated on herding thier naimlas driving them tregions where they could find food and water. The herds provided meat and milk as well as skin and bones form which the nomads fashioned clothes and tools


What ddi the Nomads serve as? 

Trade networks. They were bringning knowledge of metallurgy and other tings. D 


What was the relationship between the Chinese nad nomadic peoples/ 

HTey had tense relations. They often engaged in bitter wars since the relateivey poor nmades  ame upon the rich agricultural society at their doorstep to serize its wealth. 


What did the Chang Jiang do? 

It carried enormous volumes of water from mits headwatersinthe loftly Qinghai mountians of Tibet to its mout near the mdoern Chiense cities of Nanjing and Shanghai where it empties intot he East China Sea


Did the Yangzi river bring flods? 

Yes, but intese cultivation of rice depended on an irrigation sysstem 


What happened with Nomads and Chinese people

They became integrated into Chinese Scoeties


What was teh state of Chu

IT was centered on the central region of the Yangzi, govered its affairs autonomously and challenged the Zhou for supremacy